FOH Mixing Consoles, Microphone Selection, Racks, and Wiring FOH Mixing Consoles, Microphone...

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  • FOH Mixing Consoles, Microphone Selection, Racks,

    and Wiring

    D. G. Meyer School of Electrical & Computer

    Engineering

  • Outline – Mixing Consoles • FOH Console Criteria • Representative FOH Console • Sample Analog Consoles • Sample Digital Consoles • Choosing Analog or Digital

  • FOH Console Criteria • Inputs (number/type/phantom power) • Channel inserts • Number of mix buses and groups • Number of masters (L/C/R) • Number of aux sends/aux returns• Number of aux sends/aux returns • Meter bridge • Channel input gain/attenuation • Channel EQ (parametric/shelving) • Monitoring (PFL/AFL) • Matrix output mixer • Automation (programmable scenes)

  • Representative FOH Console

    Yamaha IM8

  • Typical Channel Strip

  • Typical Channel Strip

  • Signal Flow Diagram

  • Group/Aux Bus

  • Master Section

  • Matrix Section

  • Control Section

  • Sample Consoles • Allen&Heath • Mackie • Midas • Soundcraft • Yamaha• Yamaha

  • Choosing Analog or Digital • Analog consoles

    – generally more “intuitive” – generally less expensive – limited “scene setting” capability – With VCA, increased automation capability– With VCA, increased automation capability – physically large for large number of channels

    • Digital consoles – generally less intuitive (but more “foolproof”) – generally more expensive – extensive “scene setting” capability – generally more compact (multi-function faders)

  • Outline – Microphone Selection • Microphone Characteristics • Pickup Patterns • Directional Characteristics • Balanced Lines • Musical Instruments• Musical Instruments • Effects and Rules • Wireless Systems • Frequency Bands and Intermodulation

    Effects • Diversity Principle • Antenna Types

  • Microphone Characteristics • Dynamic

    – employs diaphragm/voice coil/magnet assembly

    – rugged, relatively inexpensive – can handle large SPL– can handle large SPL – generally unaffected by heat/humidity

  • Microphone Characteristics • Condenser

    – based on an electrically-charged diaphragm/backplate assembly that forms a “sound-sensitive capacitor”

    – electric field between diaphragm and backplate is proportional to spacing backplate is proportional to spacing between them

    • Maintaining charge – electret: permanent

    charge (special material) – non-electret: need

    polarizing voltage

  • Microphone Characteristics • Condenser

    – all types require additional active circuitry to create an electrical signal compatible with standard microphone inputs

    – requires batteries or phantom power (48 v)

  • Microphone Characteristics • Transient response

    – ability to respond to rapidly changing sound wave (“it’s all about physics”)

    – diaphragm assembly of a dynamic microphone may weigh up to 1000x that of a condenser microphonea condenser microphone

  • Microphone Characteristics • Frequency response

    – smoothness of frequency response curve – may be “flat” (“extended”) or “shaped”

  • Pickup Patterns • Omnidirectional

  • Pickup Patterns • Cardioid (“heart shaped”)

  • Pickup Patterns • Supercardioid

  • Pickup Patterns • Maximizing rear rejection

  • Directional Characteristics • ambient sound rejection (better with directional

    microphones than non-directional) • distance factor (directional microphones have

    greater “reach”) • off-axis coloration (less with non-directional

    microphones) • proximity effect (bass boost on directional • proximity effect (bass boost on directional

    microphones with decreasing distance) • susceptibility to “popping” (inherent in all directional

    microphones)

  • Balanced Lines • electrical output of microphones is only a

    few millivolts • to reduce noise susceptibility, use shielded,

    balanced lines ONLY • braided shield is generally better at EMI

    rejection than foil shieldrejection than foil shield

  • Musical Instruments • need to be aware of frequency range

    (including harmonics) and directional output

  • Effects and Rules • multi-mic comb filtering

  • Effects and Rules • reflection comb filtering

  • Effects and Rules • 3-to-1 rule (“the distance between

    microphones should be at least 3x the distance from each microphone to its intended sound source”)

  • Effects and Rules • General

    – microphone technique boils down to personal taste (“whatever sounds right is right”)

    – there is no one ideal microphone to use on any particular instrument (but there are any particular instrument (but there are “good choices” and “bad choices”)

    – use as few microphones as are necessary to get a good sound (remember that every time the number of open microphones doubles, the potential acoustic gain decreases by 3 dB)

  • Live Microphone Techniques

  • Live Microphone Techniques

  • Live Microphone Techniques

  • Live Microphone Techniques

  • Live Microphone Techniques

  • Live Microphone Techniques

  • Live Microphone Techniques

  • Live Microphone Techniques

  • Let’s Play…What’s the Difference?

  • FM Wireless Systems • Basically a low-power transmitter and radio

    receiver combination • Can be VHF/UHF, fixed-frequency or

    frequency agile (tunable)

  • Wireless Frequency Bands

  • FM Intermodulation Effects

    Two Transmitters Three Transmitters

  • FM Wireless Systems • Desirable characteristics

    – UHF less prone to interference than VHF – diversity (dual antenna) receivers less

    prone to signal dropout due to interference effects

    – frequency synthesis provides tuning – frequency synthesis provides tuning flexibility

    – squelch provides protection against noise bursts if signal drops out – “tone-key” preferable

    – compatibility groups provide interference- free operation of multiple transmitters/receivers in same venue

  • FM Diversity Principle

  • FM Antenna Types

    Transmitter

    Receiver

  • Let’s Play…What’s the Difference?

  • Spread Spectrum Wireless

  • Outline – Racks and Wiring • Equipment Racks • Rack Issues • Rack Design Software • Sample Rack Layout and Equipment List • Wiring Issues• Wiring Issues

  • Equipment Racks http://www.middleatlantic.com/

    http://www.racktools.com/

  • Rack Issues

    • Access (installation and maintenance) • Mechanical support and stability • Ventilation • Cable routing and dressing• Cable routing and dressing

  • http://www.racktools.com/

  • Active Crossover (AC22)

    Video RF Modulator

    Reference Monitor GRQ (M7 & M8)

    D-Zone 2 & 3 EQ (ME30)

    Main Distribution Amp (DA-2)

    D-Zone Delay (ART PD3)

    Choir & Balc Fill GRQ (Aux 5 & DA 3)

    Hot Spot Monitor GRQ (Aux Send 1,2)

    Floor Monitor GRQ (Aux Send 3,4)

    Sanctuary & Chapel GRQ (DA 1 & 2)

    D-Zone & Hear Ast Comp/Lim (dbx-C/L)

    D-Zone 1 & Chapel Fill EQ (ME15B)

    70V Distrib Amp (P912)

    System Power Sequencer

    Active Crossover (AC22)

    Video RF Modulator

    Reference Monitor GRQ (M7 & M8)

    D-Zone 2 & 3 EQ (ME30)

    Main Distribution Amp (DA-2)

    D-Zone Delay (ART PD3)

    Choir & Balc Fill GRQ (Aux 5 & DA 3)

    Hot Spot Monitor GRQ (Aux Send 1,2)

    Floor Monitor GRQ (Aux Send 3,4)

    Sanctuary & Chapel GRQ (DA 1 & 2)

    D-Zone & Hear Ast Comp/Lim (dbx-C/L)

    D-Zone 1 & Chapel Fill EQ (ME15B)

    70V Distrib Amp (P912)

    System Power Sequencer CD Recorder (CDW-33)

    CD Player / Cassette Player Combo

    System Power Control

    CD Recorder (CDW-33)

    CD Player / Cassette Player Combo

    System Power Control

    37U System Rack

    24U Console Rack

    Protected by locking plexiglass 16 U security door

    Sample Rack Layout

    Sanctuary HF/LF Amp (MT1200)

    Chapel HF/LF Amp (MT600)

    Floor Mon 1/2 Amp (MT600)

    Hot Spot 1/2 Amp (MT600)

    D-Zone 2/3 Amp (MT600)

    D-Zone 1/Choir Amp (CT400)

    Balcony Fill/Chapel Fill (JBL)

    Amp Status Monitor

    Sanctuary HF/LF Amp (MT1200)

    Chapel HF/LF Amp (MT600)

    Floor Mon 1/2 Amp (MT600)

    Hot Spot 1/2 Amp (MT600)

    D-Zone 2/3 Amp (MT600)

    D-Zone 1/Choir Amp (CT400)

    Balcony Fill/Chapel Fill (JBL)

    Amp Status Monitor

    UHF Distribution Amp (UA844)