Flowers - A Golden Nature Guide

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GOLDEN NATURE GUIDES

Birds Flowers

Trees

Inseets Stars Reptiles and Amphibians Mammals Seashores

Fishes

Weather Roeks and Minerals

GOLDEN REGIONAL GUIDESThe Ameriean Southwest The Ameriean Sou thea stIN PREPARATION:

The Ameriean NorthwestThese books available in two editions: limp Bound $1.00 De luxe Cloth $2.50

100100

FLOWERS

A GOLD E N NAT U R E

GU I D E

;y r

134 PAINTINGS IN FULL COLOR

LOWERSA GUIDE

TO

FAMILIAR AMERICAN

WILDFLOWERS

byHERBERT S. ZIM,

Ph.D.

andALEXANDER

C. MARTIN, Ph.D.

Senior Biologist, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service

ILLUSTRATED

BY

RUDOLF FREUND

Sponsored by The Wildlife Management Institute

A

GOL DEN NATURE

GUIDE

GOLDEN PRESS

NEW YORK

JFOREWORDT h i s book is a g u ide to the m ost c o m m o n g ro u ps of American w ildfl owers: the Violets, Conefl owers, M i l k weeds, Asters, a n d the l i ke. To hel p the b e g i n n e r identify these fl ower g ro u ps a n d common kinds of wild fl owers, the book i n c l u des

134

paintings i n full color. Som e

200

kinds

of fl owers are shown i n the color p l ates, a n d these a re ty pical of the major g r o u ps of Am erican fl owering p lants. Eve n if the actu a l flower you fin d is not illustrated , the c o l o r p l ates may help you identify it as, for exa m ple, a k i n d of Loosestrife, Orchi d , or Lupine. There are more kinds of wildflowers than there are words i n th is book. Our selection i n c l u des the m ost com m o n a n d widely distr ibuted pla nts. It stresses those with showy fl owers a n those which the a mate u r is l i kely to see. This diffic ult selection was aided by expert advice and assistan ce. We a re g rateful for the fine co-o peration of Neil Hotc hk iss, Fra ncis Uh ler, and A. L. Ne lson, all of the U.S. Fish and Wi l d l ife Service. P. L. Ricker of the Wild Flower Preservation Society gave sugg estions and made available the excllent photog raphs i n his collec tion. The staff of the New York Bota n i c a l Ga rden, espe cially Fra n k C. McKeever, Ca rol H. Woodward, Elizabeth Ha l l, a n d Eliza beth McCo n n e l l, were m ost helpf u l .H . S.Z.

A.C. M.

Copyright 1950 by Golden Press, Inc. All Rights Re1erved, Including the Right of Reproduction in Whole or in Port in Any Form. Designed and Produced by Artists and Writers Preu, Inc. Printed in the U.S.A. by i in e u a 2 t ;sr" rJ:1"17>e"f,5_ 'lf.'l- r200f2f-vil ' {J8, 0f. .. 31 74'1:: ! :- - r4s55b:1v/e6,: Pnnting and lithographing Compory. Publuhed by Golden Press, Inc., Rockefelfer enter, New York 20.

HOW TO U SE TH I S BOOK

You can use this book better if you know the u n i q u e features i n i t . I n t h e fi rst place, t h e flowers are arranged in four grou ps, accord i n g to color, a s shown on the color c h a rt below.

pages 55-87 Orange ta yellow Cream to whitepages

89-123

pages

125-151

Many w i l dfl owers, such as the Asters, C o l u m bin es, a n d Morn ing-g lories, occ u r in several colors. These h ave been put with the color that is most common, t h o u g h severa l shades may be i l l ustrated on the sa me pl ate. At the end of each color section are l isted w i l dfl owers which have not been i n c l u ded, even though some are of that color. Th ese will be found u n der their predo m i nating color in a n other section . To h e l p beg i n ners know w i l dflowers, the p l a nts are pre se nted m a i n l y in groups (or genera), rather than by kinds (or species). You may thus see a group of Gentia ns, Asters, Violets, or Sunflowers at a g l ance. N ote the sim i l arities within each group a s we l l as the d iversities i n color a n d form. These poi nts e n a b l e y o u t o recog nize fl owers that

8are n ot i l l ustrated. By sel ecti n g i m porta nt genera this book i s a b l e to present many types of flowers w h ich g row wide ly over o u r cou ntry. However, some species which a re very c o m m o n , very i m portant, or have n o c l ose rel atives have been treated separately. The c o l o r of a flower is your key. But keep i n mind that sha des of color vary a m o n g different species of the same gen us, a n d even a m ong pla nts of t h e s a m e species. A fl ower you have found may be of a d ifferent color from the one i l l ustrated. But the form of the fl ower and the genera l fiel d a ppearance of the plant shou l d he l p you. When you start to identify a n u n k n ow n p l a nt, l ook at the range m a ps first. They w i l l i n d icate whether the fl owers i l l ustrated on that page occ u r where you have f o u n d yo u r specimen. The deeper the pink, the g reater the n u m ber of plants. Even within the broad l i m its of their k n ow n ranges pla n ts vary. Some are restricted to wood l a n ds, m e a d ows, swa m ps, roadsi des, .or w h ere favora b l e c o n d itions preva i l . Thu m b through this book a t o d d m o m ents a n d you w i l l soon b e fa m i l ia r e n o u g h with fl owers to recognize some at s ight. You may even b e a b l e to identify the pla nts by their g enera l form, habit of g rowth, or s h a p e of the leaves before the fl owers have opened. In your r a m b les you may fin d rare p lants that are not i n the book at a l l . You may then want to use m ore a dva nced books o r per h a ps seek the aid of a n expert. To remember the names of the plants you h a ve found a n d identified, kee p a record of th ose you see. Note the date a n d place where yo u r specimen was found. Yo u r record w i l l be a quick reference for yo u to use a g a i n and again..

9 SEEING FLOWERS

W H E R E TO LOOK Wildflowers grow a l m ost every where. You' l l fi n d them i n deserts, swa m ps, a n d fi e l d s, on mountai ns, roadsi des, a n d c ity l ots-in a l l pa rts of our country. From the win dow of a n express trai n tea r i n g t h r o u g h New York suburbs on a J u l y morning, 27 k i n d s were s e e n i n a h a lf- hour. On a short country wa l k you can see twice a s m a ny. And if that wa l k takes you a long a mea dow, past a m a rsh, thro u g h woods, a n d by a bea c h , m o r e kinds o f p l a nts wi l l be s e e n than on any single type of land, no m a tter how pictu resq ue. F l owers a re i n bloom every month of the yea r in some part of this cou ntry. Only a few are found during the winter, when m ost pla nts are resting, but spring is barely under way before fl owers are out. Some push u p through snow. Many b l oom before their leaves are out. A general rush of b l oom i n g comes later i n the spring, fol l owed by a slackening in early s u m mer a n d a fi n a l s p l urge i n late summer and early fa l l . This pattern va ries from place to p l a ce. Mou nta in and desert w i l dflowers have s h orter, more bri l l ia n t seasons. Field a n d wayside p l a nts a re more conspicuous i n the fa l l . In this book the sea son of b l o o m i n g is g iven f o r every p l a nt.

F l owers a re far more i n tri g u i n g than many peo ple suspect. A fl ower is more than a splash of color and a design. Each part of a flower usua l l y h a s a task to perform, a n d the whole fl ower has the essentia l job of reprod u c i n g the p l a nt. S o the deta i l e d fl ora l pa rts may prove fasc i nating once you get to know them. F l owersWHAT TO S E E

10

TRILLIUM (page 19) A monocot plant. leaves with paral lel veins. Flower ports usually in threes or multiples of three. BUTTER-AND-EGGS (page 120) on irregular flower A dicot plant. leaves with neHed veins. Flower parts usually in fours or fives. FIELD DAISY (page 143)

THE PARTS OF A FlOWER

11have but one goa l - producing seed- but they do n ot a l l g o about i t the same way. Some spread their po l len by wind. Others attract a n d even tra p i n sects to perform this essenti a l f u n ction. The spec i a l fl ora l structures deve l o ped in d ifferent p l a n t groups h ave made fl owers a s varied a n d a s d isti nctive ly beautif u l as they are. look c l osely. These str uctures are worth seeing . F l owers h ave m u c h in common despite d ifferences i n a p peara nce. T h e essentia l pa rts o f every flower a re t h e pisti l s (fe m a l e pa rts) a n d t h e sta mens ( m a l e parts). T h e stamens prod uce p o l l e n g ra i n s which, through ferti l iza tion, enable the ovu l es i n the pisti l to deve l o p i nto seeds. Around these basic organs, fl owers usua l l y h ave a r i n g o f showy peta ls, the attractive p a r t o f the fl ower we see fi rst. The sepals are a ring of s m a l ler, genera l ly g reen bra cts below the peta ls. The pattern of these pa rts varies. Sometimes the peta ls are fused i nto a tube; sometimes the sepa ls are c o l ored. Variations in the n u m ber and arrange ment of pisti l s a n d sta mens, p l u s the color a n d s h a pe of the peta l s and sepa ls, help us identify the different fl owers.

F LOWERS AND WEEDS A fl ower is, of cou rse, o n l y one p a r t o f a pla nt. But we a lso u s e the w o r d loosely t o m e a n a fl ower i n g p l a nt. Ma ny fl owering p l a n ts are im por tant to us, providing materia l s for food, c lothing, a n d s h e l ter. Other k i n d s fl o u rish w h e r e we don't want them, com peti ng with c u ltivated p l a nts. We ca l l these "weeds." Most weeds are a ctive, h a rdy fl owering p l a nts that thrive i n poor s o i l a n d u n der adverse conditions. S o m e weeds h ave sma l l , inconspicuous fl owers and may produce m a n y seeds. Weeds are worth knowing. S o m e are g o o d to eat. Even if they a re n ot very attra ctive, they a re l i kely to be im porta n t p l a nts.

12. W I L D F L OW E R C O N