fish otolith microstructure and chemistry

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    PRESENTATION: CREDIT SEMINAR

    ZOOMING IN TO FISH OTOLITHRAJAN KUMAR; FRM MA2 -01

    Major AdvisorDr. A. K. JaiswarSenior Scientist FRHPHM Division CIFE Mumbai

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    Introduction

    Set of 3 pairs of calcified structure namelySagitta, Lapillus and Asteriscus Encapsulated in otic vesicles

    One on each side of skull

    Align in 3 spatial dimensions

    Assists in balance, orientation & auditoryreception

    Not formed by cellular activity but throughprecipitation in endolymph

    Immune to replacement or cellular resorption

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    Otolith in fisheries management

    Management largely depends on informationrelated to life history, stock structure andmigration of resources

    Biggest challenge: Source that give information about past and

    present

    A large amount of physiological and historicalinformation is recorded within physical andchemical makeup of these structures

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    Levels of information

    Information from otolith can be retrieved at

    following 3 levels:

    Gross structure level

    Micro-structure level

    Micro-chemistry level

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    Gross structures

    Morphology: Taxonomy, Paleontology (Linear

    measurements, Outline analysis).

    Weight/length-age relationship

    Age determination: without magnification or

    at lower magnification

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    Otolith formation

    Composed of Calcium carbonate: Aragonite

    CaCO3 ppt. in organic matrix comprising of

    protein (0.1-10% of wt.)

    Protein has 2 component

    WSP: calcium binding

    WSP (Otolin-I) : structural & shape control

    Microcrystal formed as radial prism

    Primary increment: L+D zone

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    protein Directed to sensory maculae

    non

    Formation offirst check

    Non Ca ppt

    Onion model

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    Micro-structure: Information stored

    Continuity in structure: Age determination

    Periodicity need to be standardized

    Discontinuity: Leads to checks or irregularities

    in structure

    Metamorphosis/settlement

    Reproduction & maturity

    Stress

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    Metamorphosis/Settlement

    Impart great physiological and environmental

    stress

    Leave a recordable signature on otolith

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    Reproduction & maturity

    Energy diverted towards gonad development

    Spawning check

    First spawning

    Spawning interval

    Number of spawning

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    Stress

    Different fishes undergo different type of

    stress over its life history

    Migration stress

    Feeding stress

    Environmental stress

    All these significant stress leave a physical

    mark on microscopic level can be traced.

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    Micro-chemistry: Information stored

    Roots in Smith et al. 1979 works when heattempted to reconstruct SST during Holocene

    at several location using Sr/Ca ratio of fossil

    coral skeleton.

    Augmented by development of instruments like

    Laser ablation coupled ICP-MS

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    Factors affecting chemical composition Ambient physical environment

    Salinity & Temp : strong relationship with Sr/ca

    Ambient chemical environment

    Bioavailability, uptake & transport of ions

    Watermajor source of ions-ion channel in gills

    Ions in organic food-via intestinal surface Elemental discrimination during transport from

    blood plasma to endolymph

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    Contd

    Process acting at crystal surface

    Direct incorporation in Ca lattice

    Adsorption to crystal surface

    Trapping in fluid matrix

    Unresolved factors

    Diet-Bio-accumulating elements

    Influence of ontogeny

    Genetic effects

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    Application

    Stock discrimination

    Presence of Diadromy

    Presence of philopatry Tracing larval dispersal trajectories

    Identification of juvenile nursery areas

    As environmental proxies

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    Stock discrimination

    Chemistry varies with environment,

    physiology & individual genetics

    Whole otolith analysis & in-situ analysis

    Spatial scale and environmental type

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    Presence of diadromy

    F/W & S/W differ dramatically in elemental

    composition

    Presence, frequency & direction of migration

    can be traced

    Use Sr/ca ratio (higher in S/W)

    Ba/Ca is used when Sr/Ca is comparable in

    F/W

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    Presence of Philopatry

    Different natal sites have distinct elementalsignatures

    Thorrold et al. (2001) recorded the elemental

    signatures of core area of juvenile ofCynoscion regalis

    2 yrs later also recorded the elemental

    signature of core area of spawning populationand found that most of fish returns to theirnatal ground

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    Identification of larval dispersal

    trajectories Many fish have bipartite life cycle

    Pelagic larval stage and demersal adult stage

    Pelagic larval stage: weeks to month

    Decoupling of reproduction and recruitment

    Whole larval otolith, otolith cores fromrecruits and post settlement otolith from

    recruits and old age fish

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    Identification of juvenile nursery area

    Fish population: several nursery area Relative importance can be identified

    Core of juveniles from nursery and recruits are

    used

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    As environmental proxies

    Sr/ca for temp and salinity

    Pollution

    Heavy metals

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    Otolith as tags

    Can be manipulated as used as tags

    Fluorescent labeling

    Thermal manipulation

    Otolith elemental composition

    Backscatter SEM image showing Sr mark

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    References

    Campana, S.E., Casselman, J.M.1993.Stock discrimination using otolith shape analysis. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.,50:10621083

    Campana, S.E., Chouinard, G.A., Hanson, J.M., Frechet, A., Brattey, J.2000.Otolith elemental fingerprints asbiological tracers of fish stocks. Fish. Res.,46:343357

    Campana, S.E., Neilson, J.D.1985. Microstructure of fish otoliths. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.,42:10141032 Campana, S.E.1999.Chemistry and composition of fish otoliths: pathways, mechanisms and applications. Mar.

    Ecol. Prog. Ser.,188:263297 Chittaro, P.M., Fryer, B.J., Sale, P.F.2004. Discrimination of French grunts (Haemulon flavolineatum Desmarest,

    1823) from mangrove and coral reef habitats using otolith microchemistry. J. Exp. Mar. Biol Ecol.,308:169183

    Ferreira, B.P., Russ. G.R. 1994.Age validation and estimation of growth rate of the coral trout, Plectropomusleopardus, (Lacepede 1802) from Lizard Island, Northern Great Barrier Reef. Fish Bull.,92:4657

    Kalish, J.M.1990.Use of otolith microchemistry to distinguish the progeny of sympatric anadromous andnonanadromous salmonids. Fish. Bull. (Wash DC), 88:657666

    Mulligan, T.J., Martin, F.D., Smucker, R.A., Wright, D.A.1987.A method of stock identification based on theelemental composition of striped bass Morone saxatilis (Walbaum) otoliths. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol,114:241248

    Panfili, J., TomS, J., Morales-Nin, B. 2009. Otolith microstructure in tropical fish. In Tropical fish otoliths:information for assessment, management and ecology.Springer Netherlands.

    Patterson, H.M., Swearer, S.E.2007.Long-distance dispersal and local retention of larvae as mechanisms ofrecruitment in an island population of a coral reef fish.Austra. Ecol.,32:122130

    Payan, P., Edeyer, A., de Pontual, H., Borelli, G., Boeuf, G., Mayer-Gostan, N. 1999. Chemical composition ofsaccular endolymph and otolith in fish inner ear: lack of spatial uniformity. Am. J. Physiol .,277:R123

    R131

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    Radtke,R.L.1985.Recruitment parameters resolved from structural and chemical components ofjuvenile Dascyllus albisella otoliths. Proc. 6th Int. Coral Reef Cong. 5:397401.

    Radtke,R.L.1989.Strontium-calcium concentration ratios in fish otoliths as environmentalindicators. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.,92:198194.

    Smith, M.K.1992.Regional differences in otolith morph