First Anatomy and Physiology quiz/test on MONDAY!!! 1- systems and functions 2- science you should...

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First Anatomy and Physiology quiz/test on MONDAY!!! 1- systems and functions 2- science you should already know and why you need to know it Slide 2 Overview of the Systems of the Body _________________: blood circulations with heart and blood vessels _________________: blood circulations with heart and blood vessels Slide 3 _________________: processing food with mouth, stomach and intestines _________________: processing food with mouth, stomach and intestines Slide 4 __________________: communicating within the body using hormones __________________: communicating within the body using hormones Slide 5 ___________________: defending against disease-causing agents ___________________: defending against disease-causing agents Slide 6 ____________________: skin, hair and nails ____________________: skin, hair and nails Slide 7 _____________________: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream _____________________: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream Slide 8 _______________________: moving the body _______________________: moving the body Slide 9 ___________________: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain and nerves ___________________: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain and nerves Slide 10 _________________: the sex organs _________________: the sex organs Slide 11 _________________: the organs used for breathing, the lungs _________________: the organs used for breathing, the lungs Slide 12 _________________________: structural support and protection through bones _________________________: structural support and protection through bones Slide 13 __________________________: the kidneys and associated structures involved in the production and excretion of urine __________________________: the kidneys and associated structures involved in the production and excretion of urine Slide 14 Science you should already know and why you need to review it. Four macromolecules: Four macromolecules:**** Slide 15 Why are carbs important? Glucose is taken in by cells of the body and broken down to obtain its energy Glucose is taken in by cells of the body and broken down to obtain its energy Too much glucose gets stored in liver Too much glucose gets stored in liver Not enough glucose, liver releases it Not enough glucose, liver releases it Diabetics need to regulate carb. Intake Diabetics need to regulate carb. Intake Low carbs diet craze good or bad? Low carbs diet craze good or bad? Slide 16 Why are proteins important? Main component of muscles (skeletal, cardiac and smooth) Main component of muscles (skeletal, cardiac and smooth) Enzymes are proteins (ex lactase) Enzymes are proteins (ex lactase) Proteins in nerve cells allow for nervous impulse to transmit Proteins in nerve cells allow for nervous impulse to transmit Slide 17 Why are lipids important? Main component of all cell membranes Main component of all cell membranes Many vitamins are fat soluble Many vitamins are fat soluble Cushioning and protection Cushioning and protection Too much or too little causes health problems Too much or too little causes health problems Slide 18 Why are nucleic acids important? DNA is the nucleic acid that dictates all of you traits DNA is the nucleic acid that dictates all of you traits Genetic disorders are due to problems with DNA sequences Genetic disorders are due to problems with DNA sequences RNA helps to build proteins for the body RNA helps to build proteins for the body Slide 19 QUIZ time 1 Carbs 1 Carbs 2 Proteins 2 Proteins 3 Lipids 3 Lipids 4 Nucleic acids 4 Nucleic acids Slide 20 Enzymes work by? Lowering activation energy to break down or put together molecules Lowering activation energy to break down or put together molecules Why Important? Why Important? Almost all chemical processes in the body are driven by enzymes. If enzyme is not working = illness Ex. lactose intolerance Ex. lactose intolerance Slide 21 Slide 22 ATP is important because? It is the key energy molecule that cells use for driving chemical reactions It is the key energy molecule that cells use for driving chemical reactions Glucose is converted into many ATPs Glucose is converted into many ATPs ATP does work for all cells ATP does work for all cells Ex. ATP is needed everytime a muscle contracts or a nerve cell fires Slide 23 Slide 24 We eat and breathe because? Slide 25 We eat mainly to obtain glucose so we can eventually energy for our cells (ATP) We eat mainly to obtain glucose so we can eventually energy for our cells (ATP) We breathe because oxygen is needed to fully break down glucose into ATPs We breathe because oxygen is needed to fully break down glucose into ATPs Food and oxygen is required for the process of cellular respiration Food and oxygen is required for the process of cellular respiration Slide 26 Chemical equation for eating and breathing Chemical equation for cellular respiration is Chemical equation for cellular respiration is 6C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy(ATP) Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATP Slide 27 Exercising requires Video Slide 28 How do we heal? Slide 29 Mitosis is important because? When cells are damaged or destroyed mitosis is the process that replaces the cells with new ones that are identical to the old ones When cells are damaged or destroyed mitosis is the process that replaces the cells with new ones that are identical to the old ones When an organism grows, mitosis is the process that makes new cells When an organism grows, mitosis is the process that makes new cells Slide 30 Draw and label a typical animal cell below Slide 31 An ion is? Cation = positively charged ion due to a loss of electrons Cation = positively charged ion due to a loss of electrons Ex. Ca+ needed for a muscle to contract, Na+ and K+ needed for a nerve impulse Anion = negatively charged ion due to gain of electrons Anion = negatively charged ion due to gain of electrons Ex. HCO 3 maintains blood pH Slide 32 An isomer is? Molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. Molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. Ex glucose and fructose are both C 6 H 12 O 6 but they are different your cells use glucose directly but must convert fructose to use it Slide 33 Slide 34 Difference between structural and molecular formula is? Structural formula is a graphical picture of how a molecule is arranged Structural formula is a graphical picture of how a molecule is arranged Molecular formula is an expression of the types and numbers of atoms in a molecule Molecular formula is an expression of the types and numbers of atoms in a molecule Glucose and fructose again as examples Slide 35 Ionic bonds are? An ionic bond is an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms An ionic bond is an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms Na+ and Cl- attract to become NaCl or salt Na+ and Cl- attract to become NaCl or salt Important because these chemicals disassociate easily in water and can then be used to form ion gradients Important because these chemicals disassociate easily in water and can then be used to form ion gradients Slide 36 Slide 37 Covalent bonds are? Bonds formed between elements due to sharing of electrons Bonds formed between elements due to sharing of electrons Very strong bonds Very strong bonds Important because Important because Carbon chains are covalent, cellular structures and macromolecules are carbon based molecules When a covalent bond is broken lots of energy is released that can be used by the cells of the body (ex glucose broken down) Slide 38 Slide 39 Polar and non-polar molecules differ because? Polar molecules like water, they dissolve in water (ex salts, water soluble vitamins, ions) Polar molecules like water, they dissolve in water (ex salts, water soluble vitamins, ions) Non-polar fear water and dont dissolve in water (ex, lipids, hydrocarbon chains) Non-polar fear water and dont dissolve in water (ex, lipids, hydrocarbon chains) Why important? Basis for cells even existing, cell membrane is formed using polar and non-polar molecules Why important? Basis for cells even existing, cell membrane is formed using polar and non-polar molecules Slide 40 Slide 41 Valence electrons are important because? The electrons in the outermost shell of atoms determine type of bonds to be formed The electrons in the outermost shell of atoms determine type of bonds to be formed Also these electrons have potential energy for our cells to use Also these electrons have potential energy for our cells to use When hydrogen loses its one valence electron it becomes nothing more than a proton = H+ Proton pumps keep cells working Slide 42 Slide 43 Carbon is especially important to life because? Living organisms are carbon-based life forms. Living organisms are carbon-based life forms. The molecules that make up our cells (carbs, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids) are ALL made out of carbon chains Slide 44