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2. 1.SHOTGUN CARTRIDGE 2.RIFLE CARTRIDGE 3. SHOTGUN CARTRIDGE BASE IT CONSISTS OF A METAL CYLINDER (brass) WHICH IS CONTINUOUS WITH A CARDBOARD OR PLASTIC CYLINDER THE CASE IS RIMMED WHICH KEEPS THE CARTRIGE CORRECTLY IN THE CHAMBER AND FACILITATES EXTRACTION. 4. FILLING OF CARTRIDGE FROM BASE ARE :- 1. PERCUSSION CAP 2. GUN POWDER 3. FELT WAD WITH CARDBOARD DISC 4. THE SHOT 5. RETAINING CARDBOARD DISC 5. TYPES GLAZED BOARD STRAW BOARD PLASTIC CORK FELT ETC WADS 6. SHAPE DISC SHAPED CUP SHAPED BIZZARE SHAPED WADS 7. THE DIAMETER OF WADDING USED IN THE CARTRIDGE IS GREATER THAN THAT OF THE BORE OF THE GUN. WAD ACTS AS THE PISTON AND SEALS THE BORE COMPLETELY THUS PREVENTING THE EXPANDING GASES FROM ESCAPING AND DISTURBING THE SHOT CHARGE. WADS 8. THE WAD CONTAINS GREASE WHICH LUBRICATES THE BORE AFTER FIRING OF EACH ROUND THE GUN POWDER IS PROTECTED FROM GREASE BY THIN GREASE PROOF CARD WAD WADS 9. THE SHOT CONSISTS OF SEVERAL HUNDRED SMALL LEAD SHOTS . NUMBER DEPENDS ON :- THE SIZE OF THE LOAD SIZE OF THE INDIVIDUAL PELLET SHOT 10. RIFLE CARTRIDGE 11. IT HAS A METAL CYLINDER WITH A FLAT BASE WHICH PROJECTS AS A RIM 12. RIMLESS CARTRIDGE HAS AN EXTRACTOR GROOVE NEAR THE BASE. 13. PRIMER CUP IS FITTED IN THE CENTER OF THE BASE 14. THE CARTRIDGE CASE IS ELONGATED AND ITS DISTAL END TIGHTLY GRIPS THE BASE OF THE BULLET 15. GUN POWDER BLACK POWDER SMOKELESS POWDER 16. BLACK POWDER POTASSIUM NITRATE 75% SULPHUR 10% CHARCOAL 15% 17. BLACK POWDER IT IS DESIGNATED AS FG,FFG,FFFG THE MORE NUMBER OF Fs , THE FINER ARE THE GRAINS AND THE FASTER THEY BURN IT BURNS WITH PRODUCTION OF HEAT ,FLAME AND SMOKE 1 GRAM OF POWDER PRODUCES 3000 TO 4500 CC OF GAS 18. SMOKELESS POWDER THEY PRODUCE MUCH LESS SMOKE AND FLAME AND ARE MORE COMPLETELY BURNT THAN BLACK POWDER 1 GRAM PRODUCES 12000 TO 13000 CC OF GASES THE COLOUR VARIES FROM BRIGHT ORANGE TO BLUISH BLACK 19. BULLETS THE TRADITIONAL BULLET IS MADE OF SOFT METAL AND HAS A ROUNDED NOSE . THE METAL USED IS LEAD THE MISSILE IS THE COMMON BULLET USED IN PISTOLS AND RIFLES. IN PISTOL THE BULLET IS SHORT AND THE POINT IS ROUNDED IN RIFLES THE BULLET IS ELONGATED AND POINTED 20. BULLETS JACKETED BULLETS ARE OF TWO TYPES : 1. FULL METAL JACKET BULLET 2. THE SEMI-JACKETED BULLET 21. FULL METAL JACKET BULLET COVERING IS MADE WITH TOUGH AND HEAVY JACKET COVERS BASE HAS SOFT METAL INTERIOR THE TOUGH METAL MAY BE MADE OF STEEL,ZINC,COPPER,NICKEL 22. SEMI-JACKETED BULLET IT HAS A TOUGH JACKET BUT THINNER COMPARED TO FULL METAL JACKET BULLET THE NOSE IS FULLY OR PARTLY EXPOSED 23. A DUMDUM BULLET IS ONE WHICH FRAGMENTS EXTENSIVELY UPON STRIKING 24. Missile (projectile) Non rifled 25. Sporting gun Greener gun Schneider 26. MECHANISM OF DISCHARGE OF PROJECTILE TRIGGER IS PULLED FIRING PIN STRIKES THE PRIMER CAP THE PRIMING EXPLODES SENDS FLASH TO THE POWDER FILLED CASE POWDER CHARGE BURNS LARGE AMT OF GAS PRODUCED INCREASES PRESSURE 27. CHARACTERS OF FIREARM INJURIES (WOUND) 28. 1- Loss of substance This loss depends on the size of missile, velocity and distance of firing. 2- Presence of two wounds inlet and exit (grazing of the bullet) 3- Possible presence of associated of projectile (Powder marks) 4- Beveling occurs in flat bones . 29. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INLET & EXIT exitinlet LargeSmall Size LessMore Loss of substance NO++++ Powder marks EvertedInverted Edge EternalInternal Beveling 30. Factor affecting the shape of the FA wound 1- The type of the weapon 2- Distance of firing 3- Direction of firing. 4- Site of the wound 5- Type and amount of the powder 31. Estimation of the distance of firing: 1- In cases of short distance (near firing): Powder marks II- In cases of long distance (far firing): The estimation of distance is based on the extent of dispersion of shots In cases of bullets it is estimated by the amount of penetration 32. point blank firing (0-15) The inlet is cross shaped Everted Burnt (flam). Blackening (smoke) Tattooing (unburned particles). 33. In contact firing Burning take the shape of the muzzle, Minimal blackening and tattooing. Why 34. Medico legal importance of powder marks: 1- Diagnosis of fire arm injuries 2- Differentiation between inlet and exit 3- Identification the type of powder used 4- Estimation the distance of firing 5- Determination the direction of firing 35. Identification of the weapon used Finger prints Smell of burnt powder Type and bore compared with projectile extracted form the victim Experimental examination of the suspected weapon Empty cartridge at the scene of the crime 36. Suicide , homicide or accidental 1. Circumstantial evidence 2. Scene of the crime 3. Examination of the victim Sex - Victims clothes - Cadaveric spasm Blackening of the victim's fingers Signs of resistance 37. 4- Examination of the wound Site of the wound Number of wounds Distance of firing 5 -Examination of the weapon presence of the weapon Type of weapon Short long 6- Examination of the suspected assailant 38. Entrance Wounds 1. Shotguns: - The mass of shot leaves the weapon initially as a solid mass, which progressively diverges from the weapon. Contact Wounds (touching the skin) - When a weapon is fired, the bullet, hot gases from exploding gun powder & metal fragments from the bullet & the gun barrel are propelled out of the muzzle at the same time. - The hot gases & metal fragments are blasted into the body at the same time as bullet. 39. Contact Wounds cont. - Round or oval central defect with an abrasion collar (where the bullet has abraded the skin surface as it passes through it). The size of the defect is comparable to the size of the muzzle opening or bore of the weapon. - Pink/red staining of the skin (due to carbon monoxide laden gases producing carboxyhaemoglobin) - Gun powder blackening of the wound edges & surrounding skin (from soot & unburned propellant gases). -Circular bruise over the skin due to muzzle impact. 40. Contact Wounds cont. Summery -Wounds are circular -There may be muzzle mark -There may be a slight local burning to the skin & hair -Redness from CO gases 41. Contact Wounds cont. Muzzle imprint Burning from the powder 42. Near Discharge - Within few cm of surface -Large central defect with stippling or tattooing ( small, dry, reddish abrasions caused by unburned powder & small metal fragments striking the skin) - Smoke soiling - Lack of muzzle mark tattooing Intermediate Range 43. Intermediate Range -Within 20 cm to 1 m. - Diminishing of the smoke soiling but powder tattooing persist - Burning will be present - The rim of the wound is irregular forming what is called rat-hole. 44. Intermediate Range 45. Long Range (2-3m) -Satellite pellet holes will be seen around the central wound, which diminishes in size as the range increases. - the spread of shot in centimeters equal two to three times the range in meters. e.g. if the wound pattern is 20 cm across the discharge was roughly 7 10 m so couldnt be a suicide. 46. Long Range ( 20 30 m) -Abrasion collar -No smoke soiling, burning or powder tattooing. -Tissue displacement. -Rarely fatal. 47. Differences between shotgun & rifles in entrance wound Rifled weapons: - show increased amount of tissue destruction due to the high velocities involved. -Usually have an entrance and exit wound unless bullet has struck a bony area such as the skull. -Estimation of firing range is more difficult than with shotgun weapons, but in general , contact wounds show similar features of powder stippling, blackening, burning, tissue disruption, & carboxyhaemoglobin formation. 48. Exit wound -Shotguns: Rarely produce exit wound because they traverse the body, but if happened it may cause a huge ragged aperture wound. -Rifled weapons: --Exit wound is usually everted with split flaps. --No burning, smoke or powder soiling. --if the bullet flattened or has destruct some bone internally, exit wound may be more irregular and sometimes very large in size. 49. Exit wound Entrance Wound Exit Wound with split flaps 50. Exit wound 51. Accident, Suicide, or Murder -Suicides must show wounds which range within the arms reach unless some devices is present to reach the trigger. -Suicides shoot themselves in sites of election which include the mouth, the front of the neck, the forehead, or the front of the chest. -Discharge into the entrance wound are usually on the side of the dominant hand, but this is not absolute. -People almost never shot themselves in the eye or abdomen & naturally not in inaccessible sites such as the back. -Women rarely commit suicide with guns & rarely involved in firearm accidents. 52. Accident, Suicide, or Murder -A shot woman is a murdered woman until proved otherwise. -Multiple firearm wounds suggest homicide, but this is by no means inevitable. -Its unwise to state that a gunshot wound must have been immediately fatal, unless destruction of brain stem or heart or transection of the aorta has occurred. -There are many instances of gross brain damage, especially in the cerebrum, bring followed by prolonged purposeful activity. -In suicide weapon must be present, though it may be at a distance from the body. 53. Doctors duty in firearm injuries & deaths -Any missile, foreign body such as wads and any skin removed from the margin of a repaired firearm wound should be carefully preserved for the police. -The skin in post-mortem examination around the entrance wound should be removed & kept without formalin, but refrigerated if necessary, for forensic tests for powder residue. -In many countries firearm injuries must be reported to the police even if not fatal. 54. 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