FILM STYLE & TECHNOLOGY TO 1930 TECHNOLOGY, STYLE & STANDARDIZATION.

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FILM STYLE & TECHNOLOGY TO 1930 TECHNOLOGY, STYLE & STANDARDIZATION

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  • FILM STYLE & TECHNOLOGYTO 1930TECHNOLOGY, STYLE & STANDARDIZATION

  • TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE & THE MODE OF PRODUCTIONTechnological change explained by 1 or more of 3 basic causesPRODUCTION EFFICIENCYCut costs, make results predictable, solve particular problemsPRODUCT DIFFERENTIATIONDifferentiate a studios films (within limits)

  • TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE & THE MODE OF PRODUCTIONADHERENCE TO STANDARDS OF QUALITYIncreased the quality of the productFit conception of quality embraced by CHCBetter (clearer) storytellingGreater realism of the mise-en-scneEnhanced spectacle

  • TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE & THE MODE OF PRODUCTIONCould complement & collide with 1 anotherAny change would result in change in other areas also

  • FILM TECHNOLOGY & THE CLASSICAL STYLE4 aspects of changeDIRECTIONTrend or trended changeStylistic change occurs within a set of set of possibilitiesStyle trends toward or away from certain options for many reasons

  • FILM TECHNOLOGY & THE CLASSICAL STYLEFUNCTIONInnovation considered an option if it fulfills the same function as an already-accepted optionMore acceptable if it fulfills additional functions (easier to use, saves money, increases verisimilitude, etc.)

  • FILM TECHNOLOGY & THE CLASSICAL STYLETIMINGTechnology not used until capitalism needs itInnovations may be available, but not used until there is a perceived needCAUSATIONTypically, explanations rely on artist & inventor; artist needs something, inventor invents itMore useful to look at Hwood institutions (companies, trade groups, etc.)

  • FILM TECHNOLOGY & THE CLASSICAL STYLETECHNOLOGY & HWOOD INSTITUTIONSStudios reluctant to devote $ to R &DPreferred to rely on trade organizations: THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMATOGRAPHERSTHE SOCIETY OF MOTION PICTURE ENGINEERSTHE ACADEMY OF MOTION PICTURE ARTS & SCIENCESSpread common ideas about good filmmaking, production problems, acceptable options, etc.Suppliers looked to them for ideas about what was needed, what solutions were acceptable, etc.

  • INITIAL STANDARDIZATION OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGYSTANDARDIZING CAMERASCRITERIA FOR ADOPTING CAMERA TECHNOLOGYQUALITY: ability to create a clear, steady image; controllabilityEFFICIENCY: durability, ease of handlingNOVELTY: versatility (special effects, etc.)Development slow due to patent control by the Trust

  • INITIAL STANDARDIZATION OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGYAfter legal decision 1912, 4 types of cameras popular in Hollywood:Bell & HowellSteady registrationEasily controllable, esp. in focusingAkeleyUsed in such situations as aerial photographyHeld only 200 feet of film & image not as steady as the B&H

  • Bell & Howell

  • Bell & Howell

  • Akeley

  • INITIAL STANDARDIZATION OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGYMitchellFaster focusing system, & built-in matte holdersInferior registrationEyemoSpring-driven motor, small; could be put in unusual placesHeld only 100 feet of film & could use a limited range of lenses

  • Mitchell

  • INITIAL STANDARDIZATION OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGYSTANDARDIZING LIGHTING EQUIPMENTCRITERIA FOR ADOPTING LIGHTING TECHNOLOGYQUALITY: clear, steady image; controllabilityEFFICIENCY: durability; ease of handling; efficiency (in use of energy)NOVELTY: versatility (special effects, etc.)

  • INITIAL STANDARDIZATION OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGYDIFFUSED SUNLIGHTSunlight was later diffused by muslin to make it more even & controllable

  • INITIAL STANDARDIZATION OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGYDIFFUSED SUNLIGHTSunlight diffused by muslin to make it more even & controllableMERCURY-VAPOR LAMPSMost efficient typeLeast directional, useless for motivated lighting

  • MERCURY-VAPOR LAMP

  • INITIAL STANDARDIZATION OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGYARC LAMPSGood directional lightingDifficult to handleINCANDESCENT LIGHTSEasiest to handleInefficient & low in actinicity (less of the light registered an image on film)All 3 came to be used together simultaneously

  • INITIAL STANDARDIZATION OF THE BASIC TECHNOLOGYEDITINGMost important innovation was the WORKPRINTPositive print used in initial editing, instead of original negativeLABORATORY TECHNOLOGYHand development was replaced by machine developmentMore efficient, but decreased control

  • FILM STYLE & TECHNOLOGYTO 1930TECHNOLOGY, STYLE & STANDARDIZATION

  • ORTHOCHROMATIC TO PANCHROMATIC STOCKORTHOCHROMATIC FILM STOCK (ORTHO)DISADVANTAGESInsensitive to yellow & redBlonde hair looked dark, leading to rim lightingRed make-up showed up as deep blackBlue photographed as whiteClouds did not show upBlue eyes looked whiteDirectors & cinematographers used blue filters or glasses to see mise-en-scne

  • ORTHOCHROMATIC TO PANCHROMATIC STOCKPANCHROMATIC FILM STOCK (PANCHRO)Came in 1913 due to experimentation with color cinematographyDISADVANTAGESMore expensive than orthoSlower (needed more light)Physically unstableADVANTAGESensitive to entire color spectrum

  • ORTHOCHROMATIC TO PANCHROMATIC STOCKIn 1920s, speed of panchro increasedBecame a regular Eastman Kodak product in 1923In 1925, Eastman Kodak:Lowered the cost of panchroIncreased the speedImproved its durabilityActively promoted itStudios then willing to use it instead of chromo because:Easier to use with the mise-en-scneSaved money on lighting (worked better with inkies)By 1928, panchro used in 85% of all shots

  • THE SOFT STYLE OF CINEMATOGRAPHYBy mid-20s, filmmakers adopted soft style of cinematographyExperimentation began in mid-teens in an attempt to imitate still photographySeen as a way to separate character from backgroundAppealed to the aesthetic of pictorial beauty popular among cinematographersMany of them had begun as still photographersThey sought to associate films with art

  • THE SOFT STYLE OF CINEMATOGRAPHYFilms used normal photography with selected close shots in the soft styleBy mid-20s, soft shots for glamour purposes very common; many stars insisted upon itPresented a problem for continuity:Often a clash between hard & soft shotsConsidered a price worth paying for added product differentiation of pictorial beauty, star glamour & promotionLater, efforts made to minimize the clash

  • THE MAZDA TESTS1928, Hwood conducted Mazda testsPromoted use of incandescent lights (Mazdas)Established panchro & inkies for 30+ yearsPromoted soft styleThese tests also:Cemented link between Hwood & manufacturers; professional organizations became formal liaisonsProvided model of cooperation among studios & manufacturers used in diffusion of sound technology

  • MAZDA LAMP

  • MAZDA LAMP