Filling the gap - University of Iowa Public Policy Center FILLING THE GAP Addressing Vacant Parcels

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Transcript of Filling the gap - University of Iowa Public Policy Center FILLING THE GAP Addressing Vacant Parcels

  • FILLING THE GAP Addressing Vacant Parcels and Missing Housing in Fairfield, Iowa

    May 2016

    The University of Iowa, School of Urban and Regional Planning

    Authors: Emily Seiple, Jerry Anthony, Kevin Garza, Scott Roberts, Samuel

    Odeyemi and Holly McKee. With Contributions from: Will Mackaman,

    Neil Menjares, Carter Bell, Lauren Freeman and Trenton Seubert

  • 1

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................................... 5

    OVERVIEW .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY ..................................................................................................................................... 5

    MAJOR FINDINGS .................................................................................................................................................. 6

    RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................................................................................................... 7

    PART I: INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................ 8

    FAIRFIELD: A COMMUNITY REINVENTS ITSELF ........................................................................................... 8

    VACANT LAND AND PROPERTIES: A CHALLENGE TO COMMUNITIES AND DEVELOPMENT............ 9

    METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING VACANT PARCELS OF LAND ......................................................... 10

    Vacant Parcels as Identified by the Jefferson County Assessor’s Office and FEDA ................................... 10

    Ideal Vacant Parcels for Development ............................................................................................................. 12

    PART II: ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT CONDITIONS .................................................................................... 13

    HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS .................................................................................................................... 13

    Population Data ................................................................................................................................................. 13

    Occupancy Status .............................................................................................................................................. 14

    Tenure ................................................................................................................................................................. 14

    Household Age and Size .................................................................................................................................... 15

    HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................................................................... 16

    Diversity of Housing Type ................................................................................................................................. 16

    Age and Quality ................................................................................................................................................. 17

    Housing Values .................................................................................................................................................. 18

    Rental Rates ....................................................................................................................................................... 20

    HOUSING IMPLICATIONS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH ................................................................................. 20

    Housing and Economic Development .............................................................................................................. 20

    2014 FEDA Survey Results on Affordability and Commuter Housing Demand ......................................... 21

    Analysis of Who Can Afford Housing in Fairfield.......................................................................................... 23

    PART III: SURVEY OF DEVELOPERS................................................................................................................ 29

    RESPONSES FROM ONLINE SURVEY AND INTERVIEWS ........................................................................... 29

    Incentive Awareness and Effectiveness ............................................................................................................ 29

    Zoning ................................................................................................................................................................. 30

    Quality Standards .............................................................................................................................................. 30

  • 2

    Other Needs ........................................................................................................................................................ 31

    PART IV: ANALYSIS OF BARRIERS .................................................................................................................. 32

    ZONING .................................................................................................................................................................. 32

    COST OF DEVELOPMENT .................................................................................................................................. 34

    APPROACHES TO ADDRESS VACANT LAND AND DEVELOPMENT BARRIERS .................................... 35

    The City of Fairfield .......................................................................................................................................... 35

    Other Approaches to Infill Development: Case Studies ................................................................................. 40

    PART V: RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................................................................... 43

    RECOMMENDATION #1: LAND AND PARTIAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBSIDY ....................................... 44

    Land Subsidy with Zoning Changes ................................................................................................................ 45

    Comparison to Other Subsidies and Tax-Based Incentives ........................................................................... 46

    Other Considerations: Depressed Housing Values and Mixed Uses ............................................................. 47

    Increasing Homeownership .............................................................................................................................. 47

    RECOMMENDATION #2: ZONING CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................................. 48

    Minimum Lot Size Reductions ......................................................................................................................... 49

    Density Bonuses ................................................................................................................................................. 49

    By Right Uses: Multifamily, Mixed Uses, and Accessory Dwelling Units ..................................................... 49

    Rezoning ............................................................................................................................................................. 52

    RECOMMENDATION #3: STRENGTHEN AND ESTABLISH MECHANISMS THAT PRESERVE

    PROPERTY VALUES ............................................................................................................................................ 54

    RECOMMENDATION #4: IMPLEMENTATION OF LAND BANK .................................................................. 56

    Overview of Land Banking ............................................................................................................................... 57

    Case Studies........................................................................................................................................................ 58

    RECOMMENDATION #5: SUPPLEMENTARY CONSIDERATIONS .............................................................. 59

    Continued Outreach and Expanded Partnerships .......................................................................................... 59

    Ongoing Needs Assessments ............................................................................................................................. 60

    PART VI: FUNDING MECHANISMS ................................................................................................................... 61

    OPPORTUNITY #1: GENERAL OBLIGATION BONDS AND DEBT CAPACITY .......................................... 61

    OPPORTUNITY #2: LOST (LOCAL OPTION SALES TAX) AND TIF ............................................................. 62

    OPPORTUNITY #3: GRANTS AND INCENTIVES ............................................................................................. 63

    AHEAD Regional Housing Trust Fund ........................................................................................................... 63