Field Research Election: October 21 · 10/5/2019  · And the haters gonna hate, hate, hate, hate,...

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Thinking about rituals and power: how is the meaning of the “hakuna matata” ritual affected by changes in both individual and social contexts? How might the meaning of a text be affected by who is reading it? How might the meaning of a text be affected by who the author is? 1 2 Contract due October 11 Find 1 or 2 partners! Pick a place to visit! Can change your minds later! 3 Field Research Election: October 21 4
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Transcript of Field Research Election: October 21 · 10/5/2019  · And the haters gonna hate, hate, hate, hate,...

  • • Thinking about rituals and power: how is the meaning of the “hakuna matata” ritual affected by changes in both individual and social contexts?

    • How might the meaning of a text be affected by who is reading it?

    • How might the meaning of a text be affected by who the author is?

    1 2

    • Contract due October 11➡ Find 1 or 2 partners!

    ➡ Pick a place to visit!

    ➡ Can change your minds later!

    3

    Field Research

    Election: October 21

    4

  • Next week:
Reading Week!

    5

    5. Ritual + “Texts”

    6

    Today

    • Finish: Ritual!➡ Power + rites of passage

    • Film Analysis• “Texts”:

    1. Theories of texts2. What do texts mean? 3. Which texts do we study?4. Why study texts?

    7

    Ritual

    8

  • 9

    1. What is ritual?

    2. Ritual studies

    3. Theories of ritual

    What is Ritual?

    • Ritual = stuff people DO (i.e., actions)➡ But which stuff??

    ➡ Many definitions!

    • Ritual as meaningful action➡ Meaning is relational➡ Meaning depends on the people and the

    context

    10

    Ritual Studies1. Ritual studies showed that actions were

    important in religion

    ➡ Religion was not only about belief

    2. Shift in focus within ritual studies

    ➡ From “Is this action a ritual?” to “What does this action mean?” 


    11

    Ritual Theories

    • Many theories focus on the FUNCTION of ritual (not “content”)

    ➡ Not about (symbolic) meaning 
(e.g., bread = body of Christ)

    ➡ About the effect of the action(s) on participants 
(e.g., rituals help create relationships)

    12

  • Ritual Theories

    • Emile Durkheim (society)• Sigmund Freud (neurosis)• Harvey Whitehouse (memory)• Malory Nye (power)• Arnold van Gennep (rites of passage)

    13

    Harvey Whitehouse

    • Rituals and memory (p. 143-4)1. “Imagistic” mode: high intensity 


    (dramatic and/or traumatic)

    ❖ E.g., wedding, funeral, assault

    2. “Doctrinal” mode: mundane repetition (routine)

    ❖ E.g., daily prayer, national anthem

    14

    15

    Imagistic

    16

    Doctrinal

  • Harvey Whitehouse

    • Rituals and memory (p. 143-4)1. “Imagistic” mode: high intensity 


    (dramatic and/or traumatic)

    2. “Doctrinal” mode: mundane repetition (routine)

    • What about rituals such as:➡ Ramadan; Christmas; Rosh Hashanah;

    Diwali; attending weddings?

    17

    Power

    • Rituals involve power relations (p. 149)➡ Can express power or 


    challenge power

    ➡ (Note: this is not Nye’s theory)

    18

    19

    Power

    20

    Power

  • 21

    Power Power

    • The same ritual can mean different things• Need to know contexts➡ Bloch: social/historical contexts (p. 149)

    ❖ E.g., royal wedding

    ➡ Bell: individual contexts (p. 150)

    ❖ E.g., attending lecture

    22

    Hakuna Matata

    23

    Power• The same ritual can mean different things• Hakuna Matata?➡ Bloch: social/historical contexts (p. 149)

    ❖ E.g., T+P help Simba overthrow Scar once they all learn about Pride Lands

    ➡ Bell: individual contexts (p. 150)

    ❖ E.g., friendship helps T+P in a different way than it helps Simba

    24

  • Ritual Studies: Example

    25 26

    • What is the meaning of this action?

    27

    • What is the meaning of this action?

    Theories:

    • Durkheim?• Freud?• Whitehouse?• Power?

    28

    • What is the meaning of this action?

    Possible meanings:

    • Durkheim: Form relationships• Freud: Avoid difficulties?• Whitehouse: Remember• Power: Express/challenge power

  • • Examples?• Indigenous rites of passage:

    ➡ Pondo healers

    ➡ Anishinaubae vision quest

    ➡ Wiradjuri boys

    29

    Rites of Passage

    • Rituals and transformation➡ Rituals often involve changes of some kind

    ➡ Space, time, social relations, etc.

    ➡ Boundaries

    ➡ Rites of passage

    30

    Arnold van Gennep

    1. Separation➡ Death of old self; leave home

    2. Liminality

    ➡ “Threshold”; anti-structure

    3. Incorporation

    ➡ Birth of new self; go home (new/old); physical change?

    31

    Arnold van GennepRite of passage = literal / symbolic journey

    32

    Pondo Rite of Passage

    (liminal stage)

  • • Limin = “threshold”➡ Doorway, path, tunnel, etc.

    • Liminal stage (from Nye, p. 147):➡ Inversion of “normal” life

    ➡ Different dress/place/behaviour

    ➡ Bizarre, upside-down

    ➡ Anti-structure, opposite of normal

    33

    Rite of Passage

    34

    Rite of Passage

    Time

    InitialStatus

    NewStatus

    35

    Rite of Passage

    Time

    Sepa

    ratio

    n

    InitialStatus

    NewStatus

    Inco

    rpor

    atio

    n

    LIMINALSTAGE

    Threshold

    36

    First Time Voting

    Time

    Sepa

    ratio

    n

    InitialStatus

    NewStatus

    Inco

    rpor

    atio

    n

    LIMINALSTAGE

    Threshold

  • 37

    Time

    Sepa

    ratio

    n

    InitialStatus

    NewStatus

    Inco

    rpor

    atio

    n

    LIMINALSTAGE

    Young + Disenfranchised VOTE!

    Politically Engaged Citizen?

    First Time Voting

    38

    39

    Rite of Passage: Simba

    Time

    Sepa

    ratio

    n

    InitialStatus

    NewStatus

    Inco

    rpor

    atio

    n

    LIMINALSTAGE

    Threshold

    40

    Rite of Passage: Simba

    Time

    M d

    ies,

    S ch

    ased

    aw

    ay

    Cub King

    S re

    turn

    s to

    Pri

    de L

    ands

    Timon + 
Pumbaa

    Irresponsible + Immature

    Hakuna MatataAccepts

    Responsibility

  • Separation

    41 42

    Symbolic Death

    Liminality

    43

    Incorporation

    44

  • 45 46

    47

  • Film Assignments!

    49

    Film Paragraph

    • Grades + assignments will be posted later this week

    • Overall: well done! Yay!• You ≠ your grades• First assignment only worth 5%➡ Chance to learn and improve

    50

    • Key problem: not following instructions➡ Some penalties in quantitative rubric

    • Grading process + appeals➡ Will post announcement

    ➡ Not graded to achieve certain average

    ➡ C = adequate (UofT standard)

    51

    Film Paragraph

    • Learning and improving➡ Education!

    ➡ Please look at feedback from TA

    ➡ Also look at samples posted on Quercus (under Assignments > Film Paragraph)

    ➡ Students who met with me or the TAs improved their work

    52

    Film Paragraph

  • Film Analysis

    • Film Analysis: due Oct. 22• Tiny extension! New deadline is Oct. 23

    • Yes: use theory to interpret film• No: use film to understand theory 


    (or use film to illustrate or prove theory)

    53 54

    Film Analysis

    • Documents on Quercus!➡ Film Analysis Instructions

    ➡ Film Analysis Theories

    ➡ Grading rubric

    55

    Film Analysis

    • Also review Film Paragraph documents!➡ Film Paragraph Advice + Examples

    ➡ Example Film Paragraph with Comments

    56

    Film Analysis

    • Use theory to interpret film➡ Avoid the obvious!

    ➡ Look for interesting questions

    ➡ Start with what you don’t understand

    ➡ E.g., why are Scar and Mufasa so different? 
Why do Timon and Pumbaa help Simba fight against Scar?

  • • 4 paragraphs in total:1. Belief (revised!)

    2. Ritual

    3. Text

    4. Reflection

    Film Analysis

    57

    Oct. 21 tutorial homework (bring 2 copies)

    • Ask for help!➡ Me / your TA 


    (office hours Oct. 21–23)

    ➡ RG Academic Skills Centre

    ➡ Accessibility Resource Centre

    ➡ Health + Counselling Centre

    58

    Film Analysis

    u Walk-in Clinic on campus u Davis Building 1st floor

    u Open to all UofT students u Doctors

    u Nurses u Counselors

    u Nutritionist

    u Flu Shots

    u Medications and Vaccination

    Film Analysis• Ritual paragraph➡ Do not worry about whether an action is a

    “ritual” or not

    ➡ Simply use a theory of ritual to analyze any action(s) that interest you

    ➡ Question: what does the action mean?

    ➡ Using Freud’s theory, it’s possible to see that Simba uses the “hakuna matata” ritual to avoid dealing with problems.

    60

  • Film Analysis

    • Text paragraph• Apply theories to “texts” WITHIN the film➡ “Text” = anything in the film that is spoken,

    sung, written, named, signed, etc.

    ➡ “Author” = character who writes or speaks

    ➡ “Reader” = character who reads or listens

    • E.g.,“Hakuna Matata”: Author? Reader? 61

    • Do NOT do the following:➡ “Text” = screenplay of the film

    ➡ “Author” = writer of the screenplay

    ➡ “Reader” = viewer of the film

    62

    Film Analysis

    “Texts!”

    63

    Author – Text – Reader

    64

  • “Texts”

    65

    1. Theories of texts

    2. What do texts mean?

    3. Which texts do we study?

    4. Why study texts?

    1. Theories of texts

    66

    • Authorship (p. 169–71): 
Michel Foucault + Roland Barthes

    • Readers (p. 176–78):
Wolfgang Iser + Stanley Fish

    • Gender (p. 178): 
Judith Fetterley + Julia Leslie

    • Language + interpretation (p. 158–59): Jacques Derrida

    67

    Authorship

    • Two issues re: meaning of a text: 1. Barthes: “Death” of the author 


    (=author’s intent is NOT important in determining the meaning[s] of a text)

    2. Foucault: author’s identity IS important in determining the meaning(s) of a text 
(status, expertise, gender, etc.)

    68

  • “You know this is your master, eh?

    Do you feel the lash?”

    69

    Author’s Intent Does NOT 
Determine Meaning? (Barthes) Song

    • “Shake It Off” by Taylor Swift (2014)

    70

    “Shake It Off”I stay out too late 


    Got nothing in my brain
That’s what people say, mmm-mmm 
That’s what people say, mmm-mmm

    ‘Cause the players gonna play, play, play, play, play
And the haters gonna hate, hate, hate, hate, hate


    Baby, I'm just gonna shake, shake, shake, shake, shake
I shake it off, I shake it off

    71

    “Shake It Off”I stay out too late


    Got nothing in my brain
That’s what people say, mmm-mmm
That’s what people say, mmm-mmm

    ‘Cause the players gonna play, play, play, play, play
And the haters gonna hate, hate, hate, hate, hate


    Baby, I'm just gonna shake, shake, shake, shake, shake
I shake it off, I shake it off

    72

    author’s identity IS important to meaning (Foucault)

  • Hakuna Matata


    73

    One True King


    74

    What kind of texts are involved in elections?

    75

    “There is absolutely no room in Canada for intolerance, racism, and extremism.”

    76

    Andrew Scheer

    Jagmeet Singh

    Justin Trudeau

  • 77

    Trans Mountain Pipeline

    2015 Election

    Issue: pipeline running through 
Indigenous lands

    APTN Interviewer: “Would no mean no under your government?”

    Trudeau: “Absolutely.”

    78

    September 1: The Two Sides of Canada

    79 80

    “just say the truth.”

  • How does the author’s identity affect the meaning

    of the following texts?

    81 82

    Adolf Hitler

    83 84

  • Readers

    • Iser: meaning produced by relation b/t reader and text (very broad idea)

    • Fish: identity of reader affects how they read a text

    ➡ Science book read by scientist vs. artist

    ➡ Bible read by Christian vs. Hindu

    ➡ Nye’s book for you now vs. last month

    ➡ Scheer quote for Liberal vs. Conservative 85 86

    Adolf Hitler

    Gender

    • Fetterley: “important” texts written by, for, and about men

    ➡ Most often male “voice” is heard

    ➡ Sacred texts?

    ➡ The Lion King?

    • Leslie: gender of reader may impact how a text is read

    ➡ See Iser + Fish 87

    “Wives, be subject to your husbands as you are to the Lord. For the husband is the head of

    the wife just as Christ is the head of the church.” (Ephesians 5:22)

    “Let a woman learn in silence with full submission. I permit no woman to teach or to

    have authority over a man; she is to keep silent.” (I Timothy 2:11-12)

    88

    The New Testament

  • Jacques Derrida• Logocentrism (p. 159)• Belief that words are window to the world

    89

    Logocentrism: The Office S04E04

    I . . . DECARE . . . BANKRUPTCYYYYY!

    Jacques Derrida1. Texts are important

    2. The meanings of texts are variable

    91

    Jacques Derrida1. Texts are important

    ➡ We live in worlds shaped by texts➡ Course syllabi, essay instructions, laws,

    political promises

    ➡ Sacred texts!

    ➡ The Lion King

    92

  • Jacques Derrida2. The meanings of texts are variable

    ➡ Unstable links between words + reality

    ➡ Meaning affected by changes in history, context, author, reader, etc.

    ➡ Meaning of words not fixed

    ➡ Icon

    93 94

    Icon: The Ladder of Divine Ascent

    (12th C)

    95

    “Fuggetaboutit”

    (warning: language)

    agree disagree the greatest

    go to hell forget about it

  • Have a great Reading Week!

    97 98

    99 100