FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES CHARACTERIZATION BY...

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  • FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES

    CHARACTERIZATION BY DIFFERENTIAL

    SCANNING CALORIMETER

    A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

    OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF

    Bachelor of Technology

    in

    Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    By

    SABITRA SUBHADARSAN PANDA

    &

    PRADIPTA KUMAR DAS

    Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    National Institute of Technology

    Rourkela

  • 2007

    FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES

    CHARACTERIZATION BY DIFFERENTIAL

    SCANNING CALORIMETER

    A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

    OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF

    Bachelor of Technology in

    Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    By

    SABITRA SUBHADARSAN PANDA

    &

    PRADIPTA KUMAR DAS

    Under the Guidance of

    Prof. B.C.RAY

    Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    National Institute of Technology

  • Rourkela

    2007

    National Institute of Technology

    Rourkela

    CERTIFICATE

    This is to certify that the thesis entitled, “FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER

    COMPOSITES CHARACTERIZATION BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING

    CALORIMETER” submitted by Sri SABITRA SUBHADARSAN PANDA &

    PRADIPTA KUMAR DAS in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of

    Bachelor of Technology Degree in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at the

    National Institute of Technology, Rourkela (Deemed University) is an authentic work

    carried out by him under my supervision and guidance.

    To the best of my knowledge, the matter embodied in the thesis has not been submitted

    to any other University / Institute for the any Degree or Diploma.

    Date:

    Prof. B.C.RAY

    Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    National Institute of Technology

    Rourkela-769008

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    We record our sincere gratitude to Prof. B.C.RAY, Dept. of

    Metallurgical and Materials Engineering for assigning us the project “To study the effect

    of size of iron ore pellets on its reduction kinetics”. It is not possible to acknowledge

    sufficiently his important contribution of talent and time given unselfishly in proceeding

    with this work. His overall constructive criticism has helped us to present our work in the

    present form.

    We wish to record our gratitude to our project coordinators Prof.

    K.N.Singh and Prof. A.K.Panda for helping us at each and every step in bringing out this

    report.

    We are also thankful to Prof. U.K.Mohanty, Dept. of Metallurgical and

    Materials Engineering for permitting us to access the SEM. We would also like to thank

    Mr. Sameer Pradhan and Mr. Rajesh Pattnaik of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

    Dept. for helping us in DSC measurements, three point bend test and SEM of our

    samples.

    Last but not the least, we would like to thank all our friends who have

    been a constant source of help to us.

    Sabitra Subhadarsan Panda

    Pradipta Kumar Das

    B.Tech

    Metallurgical and Materials Engineering

  • CONTENTS

    Abstract…………………………………………………………………………....i

    List of Figures…………………………………………………………………….ii

    List of Tables……………………………………………………………………...ii

    Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION……………………………………………….1-4

    Chapter 2 WHY WE HAVE TAKEN THIS WORK………………………5-6

    Chapter 3 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………...…...7-15

    3.1 Composites ………………………………………………………….8

    3.2 Fiber Reinforced Composites………………………………………...9

    3.2.1 Types of Fibers Used In FRP……….. ………………………9-10

    3.2.2 Epoxy Resin………………………………………………….11

    3.3 Hygrothermal Diffusion…………………………………………….11

    3.3.1 Theory of Moisture Absorption……………………………...12-13

    3.3.2 Effect of Moisture Absorption on FRP’S Properties………..13-14

    3.4 DSC …………………………………………………………………15

    Chapter 4 EXPERIMENTAL WORK……………………………………….16-19

    4.1 Fabrication of FRP…………………………………………………..17

    4.1.1 Sample Fabrication ……………………………………………17-18

    4.1.2 Cutting of Laminate Samples of Desired Dimensions………….18.

    4.2 Hygrothermal treatment…………………….. ……………………….18

    4.3 3-Point Bend Test…………………………………………………….19

    4.4 Characterisation Using DSC…………………………………………19

    4.5 SEM fractography……………………………………………………19

  • Chapter 5 RESULTS, DISCUSSION & INTERPITATION ………… ..20-33

    5.1 Variation of Moisture Content with Time……………………..21-23

    5.2 Effect of Rate of Loading on ILSS……………………………24-28

    5.3 Effect of Moisture Content on ILSS……………………………..29

    5.4 Effect of Moisture Content on Tg…………………………………………….29-32

    5.5 Effect of Tg on Mechanical Properties …………… …………...33

    Chapter 6 CONCLUSION……………………………………………….34-35

    REFERENCES…………………………………………….…36

  • i

    ABSTRACT

    The conventional materials are nowadays not sufficient to cater to the variety of

    uses and exposure to various environments that may take place while they are put into

    use. Hence this leads to the development of composites, which nearly suffice the above

    two conditions.

    But they are always prone to detoriation and degradation of properties due to their

    extreme affinity for moisture absorption. Many complex reactions occur at the fiber-

    matrix interface due to moisture absorption, but very little information is available

    regarding the deviation in physical and chemical behavior at the interface due to this. The

    present work focuses on the physical changes occurring at the fiber-matrix interface.

    In our case, the samples were divided into three parts. One was kept as dry

    sample; the others were hygrothermally aged for 50 hours and 100 hours respectively at

    50 o

    C and 95% humidity. Now a comparative study of all the three samples was done

    near the interface.

    The DSC technique was carried out to study the physical changes or deviation of

    the Glass transition temperature of the composite. From the nature of the curve obtained

    from the DSC measurements, we can infer about how the Glass transition temperature

    varies with the heat flow, and how it varies for different samples with different

    hygrothermal treatment. From these data, the changes occurring at the interface can be

    known.

  • ii

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Fig: 3.1 Moisture Absorption Kinetics ………………………………………………… …12

    Fig 3.2 Heat Flux DSC…………………………………………………………………….15

    Fig 3.3 Power Compensated DSC…… … ………………………………………………..15

    Fig 4.1 3-Point Bend Test………………………………………………………………….19

    Fig: 5.1 Variation of %Moisture with Square Root of Time……………………………….23

    Fig 5.2 Variation of %Moisture with Time……………………………………………….23

    Fig 5.3 Variation of ILSS with Crosshead Velocity for Dry sample…………………… ..27

    Fig 5.4 Variation of ILSS for 50 Hrs Hygrothermally treated sample…………………….27

    Fig 5.5 Variation of ILSS for 100 Hrs Hygrothermally treated sample…………………...27

    Fig 5.6 Variation of ILSS with Moisture Content…………………………………………29

    Fig 5.7 Variation of Tg for Dry sample…………………………………………………….30

    Fig 5.8 Variation of Tg for 50 Hrs Hygothermally Treated Sample……………………….30

    Fig 5.9 Variation of Tg for 100 Hrs Hygothermally Treated Sampl