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  • Fiber Optics Engineering

    For further volumes:http://www.springer.com/series/6976

  • Optical Networks

    Series Editor: Biswanath MukherjeeUniversity of California, DavisDavis, CA

  • Mohammad Azadeh

    Fiber Optics Engineering

    123

  • ISSN 1935-3839ISBN 978-1-4419-0303-7 e-ISBN 978-1-4419-0304-4DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-0304-4Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York

    Library of Congress Control Number: 2009929311

    c Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without the writtenpermission of the publisher (Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 233 Spring Street, New York,NY 10013, USA), except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis. Use inconnection with any form of information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computersoftware, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed is forbidden.The use in this publication of trade names, trademarks, service marks, and similar terms, even ifthey are not identified as such, is not to be taken as an expression of opinion as to whether or notthey are subject to proprietary rights.

    Printed on acid-free paper

    Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com)

    Mohammad AzadehSource Photonics, Inc.20550 Nordhoff St.Chatsworth, CA 91311USAazadeh@sourcephotonics.com

    Series EditorBiswanath MukherjeeUniversity of CaliforniaDavis, CAUSA

  • Preface

    Within the past few decades, information technologies have been evolving at a tremendous rate, causing profound changes to our world and our ways of life. In particular, fiber optics has been playing an increasingly crucial role within the telecommunication revolution. Not only most long-distance links are fiber based, but optical fibers are increasingly approaching the individual end users, providing wide bandwidth links to support all kinds of data-intensive applications such as video, voice, and data services.

    As an engineering discipline, fiber optics is both fascinating and challenging. Fiber optics is an area that incorporates elements from a wide range of technolo-gies including optics, microelectronics, quantum electronics, semiconductors, and networking. As a result of rapid changes in almost all of these areas, fiber optics is a fast evolving field. Therefore, the need for up-to-date texts that address this growing field from an interdisciplinary perspective persists.

    This book presents an overview of fiber optics from a practical, engineering perspective. Therefore, in addition to topics such as lasers, detectors, and optical fibers, several topics related to electronic circuits that generate, detect, and process the optical signals are covered. In other words, this book attempts to present fiber optics not so much in terms of a field of optics but more from the perspective of an engineering field within optoelectronics. As a result, practicing professionals and engineers, with a general background in physics, electrical engineering, com-munication, and hardware should find this book a useful reference that provides a summary of the main topics in fiber optics. Moreover, this book should be a useful resource for students whose field of study is somehow related to the broad areas of optics, optical engineering, optoelectronics, and photonics.

    Obviously, covering all aspects of fiber optics in any depth requires many vol-umes. Thus, an individual text must out of necessity be selective in the topics it covers and in the perspectives it offers. This book covers a range of subjects, start-ing from more abstract basic topics and proceeding towards more practical issues. In most cases, an overview of main results is given, and additional references are provided for those interested in more details. Moreover, because of the practical character of the book, mathematical equations are kept at a minimum, and only es-sential equations are provided. In a few instances where more mathematical details are given and equations are derived, an elementary knowledge of calculus is suffi-cient for following the discussion, and the inconvenience of having to go through the math is well rewarded by the deeper insights provided by the results.

    The logical flow of the book is as follows. The first three chapters act as a foundation and a general background for the rest of the book. Chapter 1 covers basic physical concepts such as the nature of light, electromagnetic spectrum, and a brief overview of fiber optics. Chapter 2 provides an overview of important net-working concepts and the role of fiber optics within the telecommunication infrastruc-

  • ture. Chapter 3 provides an introduction to fiber optics from a signal viewpoint. This includes some basic mathematical background, as well as characterization of physical signals in the electrical and optical domains.

    Chapters 47 cover the main elements of a fiber optic link in more depth. Chapter 4 is dedicated to diode lasers which are the standard source in fiber optics. Chapter 5 deals with propagation of optical signals in fibers and signal degradation effects. PIN and APD detectors that convert photons back to electrons are the topic of Chapter 6. Thus, these three chapters deal with generation, propagation, and detec-tion of optical signals. Chapter 7, on the other hand, deals with light coupling and passive components. Therefore, Chapter 7 examines ways of transferring optical signals between elements that generate, detect, and transport the optical signals.

    The next two chapters, Chapters 8 and 9, essentially deal with electronic circuits that interface with diode lasers and optical detectors. In particular, Chapter 8 exam-ines optical transmitter circuits and various electronic designs used in driving high-speed optical sources. Chapter 9 examines the main blocks in an optical receiver circuit as well as ways of characterizing the performance of a receiver. A feature of this book is that in addition to traditional CW transceivers, burst mode transmitter and receiver circuits, increasingly used in PON applications, are also discussed.

    The final three chapters of the book cover areas that have to do with fiber op-tics as a viable industry. Chapter 10 presents an overview of reliability issues for optoelectronic devices and modules. A viable fiber optic system is expected to op-erate outside the laboratory and under real operating conditions for many years, and this requires paying attention to factors outside pure optics or electronics. Chapter 11 examines topics related to test and measurement. In an engineering environment, it is crucial not only to have a firm grasp on theoretical issues and design concepts, but also to design and conduct tests, measure signals, and use test instruments effectively. Finally, Chapter 12 presents a brief treatment of fiber op-tic related standards. Standards play a crucial rule in all industries, and fiber optics is no exception. Indeed, it is oftentimes adherence to standards that enables a de-vice or system to go beyond a laboratory demonstration and fulfill a well-defined role in the jigsaw of a complex industry such as fiber optics.

    * * * I am greatly indebted to many individuals for this project. In particular, I would

    like to thank Dr. A. Nourbakhsh who inspired and encouraged me to take on this work. I would also like to acknowledge my past and present colleagues at Source Photonics for the enriching experience of many years of working together. In par-ticular, I would like to thank Dr. Mark Heimbuch, Dr. Sheng Zheng, Dr. Near Margalit, Dr. Chris LaBounty, and Dr. Allen Panahi, for numerous enlightening discussions on a variety of technical subjects. Without that experience and those discussions, this book could not have been created. I would also like to thank Springer for accepting this project, and in particular Ms. Katelyn Stanne, whose guidance was essential in bringing the project to its conclusion.

    Mohammad Azadeh

    vi Preface

  • Contents Chapter 1 Fiber Optic Communications: A Review............. ............................1 1.1 Introduction ................................................................... ............................1 1.2 The nature of light ......................................................... ............................3

    1.2.1 The wave nature of light ....................................... ............................4 1.2.2 The particle nature of light.................................... ............................8 1.2.3 The wave particle duality ...................................... ............................9

    1.3 The electromagnetic spectrum ....................................... ..........................10 1.4 Elements of a fiber optic link......................................... ..........................13 1.5 Light sources, detectors, and glass fibers....................... ..........................15

    1.5.1 Optical sources...................................................... ..........................15 1.5.2 Optical detectors ................................................... ..........................18 1.5.3 The optical fiber .................................................... ..........................19

    1.6 Advantages of fiber optics ............................................. ..........................20 1.7 Digital and analog systems ............................................ ..........................21 1.8 Characterization of fiber optic links .............................. ..........................22 1.9 Summary ...................................................................... ..........................25

    Chapter 2 Communication Netwo