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Transcript of Fiber Optic Cable Assemblies Fiber Basics and .Fiber Optic Cable Assemblies Fiber Basics ... History

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2014 Amphenol

    Fiber Optic Cable Assemblies

    Fiber Basics

    and Theory

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2014 Amphenol

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

    What is a fiber? A fiber is an optical

    waveguide ; a medium for

    transferring information in

    the form of light across

    glass

    A fiber is to light what

    a hose is to water!!!

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Fiber Optic Benefits:

    Low attenuation (significant savings

    on repeaters)

    Small size and weight

    Large bandwidth

    Longer lengths (in excess of 20km)

    Easy to install/maintain

    Enhanced security

    Non-conductive

    All-dielectric designs available

    No EMI/cross talk concerns

    Designed for future high-bandwidth

    applications

    Optical Parameters - Benefits

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Optical Parameters - History

    1880: Alexander Graham Bell invented the Photophone

    1954: Abraham van Heel demonstrated core-clad technology

    1958: LASER invented

    1970: Corning developed the first low loss fiber (

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    Optical Parameters -Transmission Sequence

    Information is encoded as electrical signal and converted to optical signal.

    Can be analog or digital.

    Light is transmitted down the fiber.

    Detector receives signal and decoder converts the signal to electrical.

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2014 Amphenol

    Fiber OpticBasics & Terminology

    Types of Fiber

    Optical Single-mode (OS2)

    Core/cladding diameter: 9/125um

    Single path/mode through fiber eliminates distortion from overlapping light pulses

    Can go a longer distance than multi-mode fiber, but requires a light source with a narrow spectral width, which makes the equipment quite costly

    Optical Multi-mode (OM1, OM2, OM3, OM4)

    Core/cladding diameter: 62.5/125um, 50/125um

    Light waves dispersed through numerous paths/modes through fiber

    Able to carry more data than single-mode fiber, but is best for shorter distances because of higher attenuation values and optical dispersion

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2014 Amphenol

    Fiber OpticBasics & Terminology

    Physical Characteristics of Fiber

    Cladding Core

    Multimode 140m 100m

    Step Index

    125m 50m

    Multimode 125m 62.5m

    Graded Index 140m 100m

    Single Mode 125m 8.5m

    Step Index 125m 9m

    Dispersion

    High-Order Mode

    Low-Order Mode

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    Fiber Type

    Core Cladding (m) Standard

    Jacket Color

    minEMB (MHzkm) 1G 10G 40G 100G Cost

    OM1 62.5/125TIA-492AAAA

    IEC 60793-2-10 Orange 200 275 33 $

    OM2 50/125TIA-492AAAB

    IEC 60793-2-10 Orange 500 550 82 $

    OM3Laser optimized

    50/125TIA-492AAAC

    IEC 60793-2-10 Aqua 2000 800 300 100 100 $$$

    OM4Laser optimized

    50/125TIA-492AAAD

    IEC 60793-2-10Currently

    Aqua 4700 1000 550 125 125 $$$$

    ~85% of data center links are 100m or less

    Typical Max Reach (m) for 850nm Ethernet

    Key factors for choosing a fiber type Current and future data rates, bandwidth needs, reach, cost

    Fiber OpticOptical Multi-mode (OM) Fiber

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    OM3 and OM4 fiber types are recommended for data centers

    Optimized for laser-based 850nm operation with a much higher minimum effective modal bandwidth (EMB) and longer distance capability

    Dominant in data centers due to emergence of high data rate stems, such as 10, 40, 100Gigabit Ethernet and 8 and 16 Gigabit Fibre Channel

    Cable, connectors, hardware, and electronics are now readily available to support usage of this fiber

    Industry has recognized the benefits of this fiber

    IEEE 40/100G

    Fibre Channel 4/8/16G transmission standards

    TIA-568-G3 structured cabling and connectivity standards

    Most economical solution due to electronic costs

    Data rate scalability ensures support for both legacy and future application needs

    Fiber OpticOptical Multi-mode (OM) Fiber

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    Multi-mode (M/M) RL -45dB

    Usually hole diameter of 127um depending on the connector

    Connector color code is typically: Beige or Black

    SMA hole diameter goes to 1500um

    Single mode (S/M) UPC ultra polish

    RL -55dB

    Usually 125um, 125.5um, or 126um

    Color code typically: Blue

    Single mode Angled APC angled polish

    RL -65dB

    Color code typically: Green

    UPC

    Fiber OpticBasics & Terminology

    Typical Polish Types

    Keeping the endface

    clean is critical

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2014 Amphenol

    Fiber OpticCable Types

    Examples of Loose Tube Buffer and Tight Buffer Constructions

    Loose Tube Buffer

    Coated Optical Fiber

    Tight Buffer

    Buffer Layers Applied Directly

    Over Fiber Coating

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2014 Amphenol

    Zipcord Distribution Loose Tube Breakout

    Simplex- Available in 900m, 1.6mm, 2mm, 2.9mm

    Zipcord- Available in 1.6mm, 2mm, 2.9mm

    Ribbon Cable- Available in fiber counts of 4, 8, 12, 24

    Distribution- Tight buffered 900m. Available in a variety of fiber counts.

    Breakout-Tight buffered fibers enclosed in subunits throughout the cable.

    Available in a variety of fiber counts. Subunit sizes range from 1.6mm to

    2.9mm.

    Outside plant (OSP)- 250m loose tube construction. Available in a

    variety of fiber counts, armored or non-armored.

    Fiber OpticCable Types

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2014 Amphenol

    Fiber OpticBasics & Terminology

    Attenuation

    Measure the decrease in transmitted optical power and is expressed in decibels per kilometer (dB/Km)

    Casual Factors:

    Absorption

    Impurities

    Scattering

    Variances in the structure of the fiber

    Micro/Macro Bending

    Insertion loss

    The attenuation caused by the insertion of an optical component (i.e. a connector or coupler in an optical transmission system)

    Return loss

    Ratio of incidental optical power to the reflected optical power.

    The scattering of light in the direction opposite to its original

    propagation

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    Attenuation is the loss of optical power, measured in

    decibels (dB).

    ATTENUATION (dB) = -10 log (Powerout/Powerin )

    Power is measured in watts (mW or W).

    The negative sign gives attenuation a positive value,

    since input power is always greater than output power

    for passive optical devices.

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    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Optical Parameters - Attenuation

    Absorption: light is absorbed by impurities in the

    glass

    Accounts for about 5% of intrinsic attenuation

    Light is absorbed by impurities introduced during

    the manufacturing process

    Absorption

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Optical Parameters - Attenuation

    Scattering: Technically referred to as Rayleigh

    scattering, it accounts for about 95% of intrinsic

    attenuation

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Macro-bendingOptical fiber bends that are much larger and visible.

    Typically caused by bending the cable beyond the

    specified bend radius. Attenuation is increased by

    light escaping through these bends.

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Micro-bendingSharp microscopic curvatures in optical fiber on the

    order of a few micrometers.Typically caused by shrinking of the buffer or poor

    cable manufacturing methods.

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

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    Index of refraction: (IOR or n) is a way of

    measuring the speed of light in a material:

    IOR: Speed of light in a vacuum

    Speed of light in the material

    Medium IOR or n Speed

    Vacuum 1.0000 Faster

    Air 1.0003

    Water 1.33

    Cladding 1.46

    Core 1.48 Slower

    Optical Parameters - Index of Refraction

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Optical Parameters - Refraction and Total Internal Reflection

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Optical Parameters - The Critical Angle

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    455 nm Violet

    650 nm Green

    750 nm Red

    850 nm Short Wavelength lasers/LEDs

    1310 nm Long Wavelength Lasers/LEDs

    1550 nm Long Wavelength Lasers

    Fiber

    Optic

    Applications

    Visible

    Spectrum

    Higher Frequency

    Optical Parameters - The Optical Spectrum

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Optical Parameters - Operating windows

    Fiber Optic Basics & Terminology

  • Proprietary and Confidential 2013 Amphenol

    Optical Parameters - Numer