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Transcript of Fatawa Siyam
Oct-Nov 2004/Ramadaan-Shawwal 1425 HIssue 2
Fatawa Siyam(fasting verdicts)
An Amalgam of Physical and Spiritual worships
Along with the physical worship of abstention from food and drink, fastingincorporates a number of inward worships or worships of the heart. Unlike theapparent forms of worship like the prayers, fasting is a hidden action, a secret
between the believer and his Lord. Since the people do not see fasting, the chances of it beingcorrupt by Riyaa (show off) is reduced. It is thus, a worship done with pure Ikhlas (sincerity),which is a great form of worship of the heart. Allah's Messenger said:
[Saheeh al-Bukharee] One, who fasts,does so for the sake of Allah, with in His Mercy and the promised reward. He fasts outof for Allah, in to His Command and as a practical expression of devotionto Him. This and are again great worships of the heart. Thus,
“He, who observedthe fasts of the month of Ramadaan out of sincerity and hoping for the rewardfrom Allah; he will have his past sins forgiven."
love, hope submissionfasting incorporates many important worships of the heart that are directed
towards increasing the faith. Read on
Editorial by Abu Saliha
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S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
Fatawa courtesy towww.islam-qa.comFatawa on Fasting,
Zakaat and Taraweeh,'Published by Darussalam
As-SunnahBi-Monthly Islaamic Newsletter
EDITORSister SHAWANA A. AZIZ
SAJID A. KAYUMMUHAMMAD NAJEEBSHAHID SATTARAMIN KAZI
CIRCULATION / MARKETING
FAIZAL RAKHANGIAYAZ KAZI
DESIGNING AND LAYOUT
Sister SHAWANA A. AZIZ
Fastingis a meansof controlling one's desires
Fasting teaches Patience:
Fasting leads to Paradise:
,“O youths, whosoever
amongst you is able to marry then let him do so, since it restrainsthe eyes and protects the private parts, and he who is unable, thenlet himfast becauseit is ashield for him."
"Verily, thepatient ones will be given their reward in full, without anyreckoning."
“The son of Adam does not fill any vesselworse than his stomach. It is sufficient for the son of Adam to eat afew mouthfuls, to keep him going. If he must do that (fill hisstomach), then let him fill one third with food, one third with drinkand onethirdwithair."
“…Fasting is a shield (against the Hell and sins)…"
“Take tofasting, there is nothing like it."
whetherin Ramadaanor outside it. The Prophet advised the youth,
The fast requires patience on the part of thefasting person in order to suppresshis desires, and Allah says,
Fasting opens the heart to contemplation andremembrance of Allah for it restricts the fasting person from food, drinkand fulfilling his desires. Often a full stomach makes one heedless andperhaps hardens the heart. This iswhy the Prophet advised us to eat anddrink little, when he said:
[Silsilatul-Ahadeth-Saheehah (no.2265)]Fasting is a means of attaining Taqwa (piety) and righteousness, becausethe one who does not submit to his desires is more inclined and receptive tothe Words of Allah and His Commands, which in turn makes it easier forhim to attain piety and become devout to Allah.
Abu Hurayrah reported a Qudsi Hadeeth,[Agreed upon]
Fasting is a shield from Hell Fire, because it protects the fasting personfrom shameful and unjust deeds, which protect him from the Hell-Fire.Thus, when Abu Umamah asked the Prophet , “O Messenger of Allah,tell me of an action by which I may enter Paradise." He said,
[Saheeh al-Jamee. (no. 4044)]
The Reward of Fasting:“Every
deed of the son of Adam will be rewarded ten to seven hundred times its worth. Allah, the Mightyand Sublime, said, 'Except for the fast, for indeed it is for Me, and I will reward it. He leaves off hisdesires and his food for My sake...'"
, 'Except for the fast, for indeed it is for Me, and I will reward it.'
“…two times of joy for the fasting person; the time of joywhen he breaks his fast, and the time of joy when he meets His lord…"
The combination of inner and outward forms of worships, entitles a fasting personto the many glad tidings mentioned in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah. The Messenger of Allah said,
[Agreed upon] The presence of Ikhlas (sincerity) and the lack of Riyaamake fasting a highly rewarding worship; the reward of which is a secret between the Lord and his slave as,Allah said While good actions may berewarded up to seven hundred times depending upon the sincerity with which an action is performed, thereward of fasting is known only to Allah … a generous reward from the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. Inanother Qudsi Hadeeth, Allah has promised,
[Agreed upon] As for the joy atthe time of breaking the fast, then it is the joy of fulfilling an important worship of Allah, Glory be to Him, Whofavored his slave and granted him the ability to fast and worship, while others were deprived from thisblessing. The second time of joy is when the fasting person will meet his Lord and enjoy the abundant rewardsof fasting.
A word of caution! All these merits will not be attained except by him, who fasts with sincerity and abstainsfrom all Haraam, including listening to the unlawful, looking at the prohibited, and refraining from unlawfulmeans of earnings, to mention a few. So, the limbsmust fast andabstain fromsinfulacts. The tongue must fastand abstain from lying, foul speech and false swearing. This is the required fast that results in acquiring thepromised rewards. And if it is not so, then,
[ (saheeh) IbnHibban]
"Perhaps, all that one who fasts will get from his fast ishunger and thirst!! And perhaps, all that one who stands at night in prayer will get from hisstandingis sleeplessness."
Begind o e s F a s t i n g
[Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 185] Fasting beginswith the sighting of the new moon. It issufficient that a trustworthy Muslim testifiesto those in authority of seeing the new moon.Thereby, everyone should observe the fasts.Abu Hurayrah narrated, “A bedouin came tothe Messenger of Allah and reported, 'OMessenger of Allah , I have seen the newmoon of Ramadaan.' Thereupon, the Prophetasked him,
(i.e., there is no god worthy ofworship except Allah)?', 'I do,' said the bedouin.The Prophet further asked him whether hetestifies that Muhammad ( ) is the Messengerof Allah. The bedouin affirmed that again.Thereupon, the Prophet asked Bilal toannounce the beginning of Ramadaan.” [SunanAbu Dawoodno. 2333 and 2334]
Ibn Umar said, “The people were seeking thenew moon. Having sighted it myself, I reportedto the Prophet . He began his fast andordered the people to begin theirs, too.” [SunanAbu Dawoodno, 2335 (saheeh)]
Sighting the new moon is compulsory and itcannot be replaced by astronomicalcalculations. The Messenger of Allah said:
If it becomes difficult to see the moon due to badweather conditions, then 30 days of the monthof Shabaan are completed. He said,
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 4number 106) andSaheeh Muslim(no. 1081)]
It is not permissible to fast a day or two beforeRamadaan (the day of doubt) in anticipation ofRamadaan. The Messenger of Allah said,
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 3,no. 138)]
“So whoever of you sights (thecrescent of the first night of) the month(ofRamadaan), he must fast that month.”
'Do you bear witness that 'Laailaha illAllah.'
“We are an unlettered nation; we neitherwrite, nor know accounts. The month islike this and this, i.e., sometimes of 29days and sometimesof 30days.”
“Fastwhen it (the moon) is seen and ceasefasting when it is seen, so if it is concealedby clouds, then complete thirty days ofShabaan.”
“None of you should start Ramadaan byfasting a day or two before it, except for aman who usually fasts (on those days),then let him fast that day.”
What should a Muslim do if he moves from onecountry to another, where the people have started fastingRamadaan on adifferentday?
“Praise be to Allah. If a person finds himself in acountry where the people have already started fasting, he mustfast with them, because he must follow the ruling of the countryhe is in. The Prophet said, “Fast when the people fast, breakyour fastwhenthe people break their fast, and offer your sacrificewhen the people offer their sacrifice.” [Reported by Abu Dawoodwith a jayyid isnad. There are corroborating reports narrated byAbuDawood and others]Suppose that he moved from a country where he had begunfasting with the people there, and went to another country. Hehas to either break his fast or continue fasting according to theruling of the people in thecountry towhichhe has traveled, even ifthey end their fast earlier than the country where he startedfasting. But if it turns outthathe has fasted less thantwenty-ninedays, he must makeup the fasts later on, because the Hijri monthcannot be less than twenty-nine days.”
Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah, 10/124
In our city, there is a group of committed brothers, butthey differ fromus with regard to some matters,suchas fasting inRamadaan. They do not fast until they see the moon with thenaked eye. Sometimes, we fast two or three days before them inRamadaan, and they break their fast one or two days after Eid al-Fitr…
“Praise be to Allah. They should fast with the peopleand breaktheir fast with the people, and they should offer the Eidprayer with the Muslims in their city because the Prophet said:“
[Agreed upon]. What is meant by this command to fast and tobreak the fast is; ‘if the sighting is proven by the naked eye or bymeans that help the eye to see,’ because the Prophet said:
[AbuDawood (2324) at-Tirmidhee (697) Authenticated by al-Albaneein Saheehal-Tirmidhee (561)] And Allah isthe Sourceof strength.May Allah send blessings and peace upon our ProphetMuhammad anduponhis familyandcompanions.”
Shaikh Salih al-Munajjid
Fast when you see it (the new moon) and break your fastwhen you see it, and if it is cloudy then complete thenumber (of days, i.e., assume the month is thirty days).”
“Fasting is the day when you (i.e., the Muslim community)fast, iftar is the day when you (all) break your fast andadha is the day when you (all) offer your sacrifice.”
It is ot llowed for a ew eople to solatethemselves and nitiate amadan or elebrate id.
N A F P II R C E
D M S CE T R
ifferences in oon ighting between ountriesand its ffect on those who ravel in amadaan
Dua of Sighting the New Moon
“O Allaah, makethe new moon riseon us withblessing, faith,safety and Islam.My Lord andYour Lord isAllah.”
S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
asting is obligatory on every sane, mature andhealthy Muslim. Young children are encouraged tofast. [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 3, no. 181)]
Authentic Ahadeeth confirm that a traveler has thechoice to fast or to abstain from fasting. Anas IbnMalik al-Ka'bi narrates that the Prophet said,
[Reported byAhmad, Abu Dawood, an-Nisaee, at-Tirmidhee andIbnMajah]Hamzah Ibn Amr al-Aslamee askedAllah's Messenger
, “Shall I fast while traveling?" and he was a personwho fasted often, so Allah's Messenger said to him,
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/156) and SaheehMuslim (no. 1121)]
Ibn Abbas also said, “Do not condemn one whoobserves fast, or one who does not observe it (on ajourney), for the Messenger of Allah observed fast ona journey or he did not observe it (too)." [SaheehMuslim (no. 2471)]
“Allah has permitted the traveler to postponehis fasts and shorten his prayer…"
“Fast if you wish and refrain from fasting if youwish."
xempted are those who suffer terminal(incurable) illnesses, or are too old to fast. Allah doesnot overburdenHis slaves.
ermission to abstain from fasting is granted totravelers, who do not travel for the purpose of breakingthe fast.
Anas Ibn Malik reported, “I traveled along withAllah's Messenger in Ramadaan, and the fastingperson would not criticize the one not fasting, norwould the one, not fasting, criticize the fastingperson." [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/163) and SaheehMuslim (no. 1118)]
Whos h o u l d F a s t& Who
s h o u l d n o t F a s t
If fasting on a journey produces hardship, then it is forbiddento fast. Narrated Jabir Ibn Abdullah , “Allah's Messengerwas on a journey and saw a crowd of people and a man wasbeing shaded (by them). He asked, 'What is the matter?' theysaid, 'He (the man) is observing Saum (fast). The Prophetsaid,
s for those whose sickness does not allow them to fast,they fall into three categories;
c) If fasting is harmful for him, then he is ordered to abstainfrom fasting, because Allah says,
[Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 195] And theMessenger of Allah said,
[(saheeh) Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Majah(Saheehal-Jamee as-Sagheerno. 7517)]
uring menstrual period or the post-natal bleeding,women should abstain from fasting. The Prophet said,
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (304)]
he pregnant or breast feeding women, whose health orthe health of the suckling baby might be affected due tofasting, may abstain from fasting.
'It is not from al-Birr (righteousness) to observefast on ajourney.'
“Do not throw yourselvesinto destruction."
“There is (to be) no harm orreciprocating harm."
“Isn't it true that a woman does not offer prayer anddoes not observe fast on menstruating? And that is thedefect (a loss) in her religion."
Thus, “…It is permissible for one to observe fast or break hisfast while traveling. But it is recommended for a healthy,strong person to observe fast, whereas a sick person isrecommended not to observe fast. The saying of the Prophet ,'It is not from al-Birr (righteousness) to observe fast on ajourney,' is applicable to a particular case, i.e., when one is soweak or sick that observing the fast will harm him. In such acase, one has to break his fast, for Allah does not like Hisdevotees to harm themselves unnecessarily." [From thefootnotes of Saheeh al-Bukharee by Dr. Muhammad MuhsinKhan]
a) If fasting does not impose hardships and does not harm,then it isbetter to fast.b) If fasting is hard but not harmful, then he is permitted tobreak his fast.
QuestionAllamah Abdullah Ibn Jibreen (hafidahullah) replied,
Question:Allamah Mohammed Ibn Salih al-Uthaimeen (rahimahullah) replied,
: When shoulda young girl begin fasting?“When a young girl attains the age of puberty and
becomesa woman, she must begin to fast. If a girl attained puberty at an age of ten years or up,she must begin to fast. Ifa young girl's menstruation starts she must fast theprescribedmonth of Ramadaanregardlessof her age.”
'Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,' Published by Darussalam
Myson is a minor,who insiststo fast, although he is not too healthy. Should I force him tobreak hisfast?“A minor who has not yet attained
puberty is not required to observe fasting. If a minor, however, can afford to fast without hardship and difficulty, heshould be rather commanded to perform fasting. The Companions of the Prophet commanded their youngsters to fastduring the month of Ramadaan. A small child may cry, because of hunger and fatigue. The parents will give such achild, a toy to play with, until the time of sunset. But if it is proven and obvious that such a child may endanger hishealth by observing the fasts, then such a minor must be forbidden to observe the fast. No force must be applied,however, to forbid minors fromfasting, force isnot preferred inthe Islamic method for upbringing.”
'Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,' Published by DarussalamS UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
The fast has to be observed from theappearance of Fajr until the daytime ends andthe night begins, i.e. from dawn (sunrise) todusk (sunset). Allah says in the Qur'aan,
The Prophet explained:
[Reported byIbn Khuzaimah(3/210),al-Hakim (1/191- 495), ad-Daaraqutnee(2/165) and al-Baihaqee (4/261) by way ofSufyan, from Ibn Juraij, From Ataa, From IbnAbbas and its isnaad is saheeh. It has asupporting witness from Jabir reported by al-Hakim (1/191), al-Baihaqee (4/ 215) and ad-Daaraqutnee (2/165) and they differ about itsbeing mawsool or mursal, and it has a thirdwitnessing narration from Thawbaanreported by IbnAbeeShaibah (3/27)]
1. is the rising verticalcolumn of whiteness that appear looking likethe tail of afox.2. is the horizontallyspreading reddishness, which can be seenabove the mountain passes and tops, whichspread its light throughout the roads, streets,and houses.
Samurah said, Allah's Messenger said,
[Saheeh Muslim(no. 1094)]
From Talq Ibn Alee that the Prophet said,
[Reported by at-Tirmidhee (3/76), Abu Dawood (2/304),Musnad Ahmad (4/23) and Ibn Khuzaimah(3/211). Its isnad is saheeh]
“And eat and drink until the whitethread (i.e., light, whiteness of dawn)appears to you distinct from the blackthread (i.e., darkness of night)."
“The Fajr is twoFajrs; as for the first Fajr, it does notmake food forbidden, nor does it makethe prayer lawful. As for the second, itmakes food forbidden and the prayerlawful."
The False Fajr
The True Fajr
“Let not the adhaan of Bilal deceive you,nor this vertical whiteness of dawn untilit spreads horizontally."
“Eat and drink and do not let the tallvertical brightness deceive you, but eatand drink until the reddish one spreadshorizontally for you."
I t i C o W i YH
f here s up f ater n ourand, then drink it at ease, even if you hear
the nidaa (call for prayer), since it is anallowance from Allah, the Most Merciful, for
Durationo f F a s t i n g
His fasting servants. The Prophet said,
[Reportedby Abu Dawood (no. 235), Musnad Ahmad (2/423), al-Hakim (1/426), al-Baihaqee (2/218) and Ibn Jareer (no. 3115) from Abu Hurayrah. Itsisnadis hasan, and ithas another chain of narrators reported byAhmad(2/510) andal-Hakim(1/203,205) andit is saheeh.]
Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr (rahimahullah) says in al-Fath(4/199), “One of the reprehensible innovations which have appeared inthis time is to make the secondary adhaan about a third of an hourbefore Fajr in Ramadaan, and the extinguishing of lights, which is usedas a sign indicating the forbiddance of eating and drinking for the one,intending to fast, claiming that what he has innovated is aprecautionary measure to protect his worship...This has lead them tothe stage, where they do not give adhaan until four minutes or so afterthe actual sunset, to make sure of the time as they claim. So, they delaybreaking the fast and take suhoor early and act in contradiction to theSunnah. Therefore, there is little good found in them and much evil andAllah's Aidis sought."
“If one of you hears thenidaa (call) and the drinking vessel is in his hand, then let himnot put it down until he has satisfied his need from it."
An-Nidaa here meansthe second adhaan given for theappearance of thetrue dawn. This meaning is attested to by what Abu Umaamahreports, “That the call for prayer wasgiven and a drinking vessel was inthe hand of Umar , so he said, 'Shall I drink it, O Messenger of Allah?'He said, 'Yes,' so he drank it." [Reported by IbnJareer (2/102) throughtwo isnads]
Narrated Aisha (radhi allahu anha), “Bilalused to pronounce theAdhanat night, so the Messenger of Allah said,
" [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
Umar said, “The Prophet said,
" [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/171)and SaheehMuslim (no. 1100)]
This is something, which, comes about immediately after the sun sets,even if the sky is bright and clear. During his fasts, Allah'sMessengerwould order a man to climb upon something and check the status of thesun, which if hadset, he would break his fast. [See, al-Hakim (1/434) andIbn Khuzaimah (no. 2061). Al-Hakim declared it authentic accordingthe standards ofal-Bukharee and Muslim]
It may be misunderstood that the night does not appear directly afterthe setting of the sun, but rather starts when the darkness spreads inthe east and west. Such is how some of the Sahabah also understood thematter, so they were made aware that the beginning of darkness in theeast directly after the sun disappears is sufficient. Abdullah Ibn AbeeAwfaa said, “We were with Allah's Messenger on a journey and hewas fasting (in the month of Ramadaan), so when the sun set he said toone of the people, 'O so and so (and in a narration of Abu Dawood, 'OBilaal') stand and mix gruel (thin porridge) for us.' He said, 'OMessenger of Allah , if you were to wait until evening' (and in a
'Carry on taking yourmeals (eat and drink) till Ibn Umm Maktum pronounces theAdhan, for he does not pronounce it till it is dawn.'
'When the night approaches fromhere, and the day passes away from here, and the sun sets, thenthe fasting person's fast is broken.'
W f F b t A o tT F d t C o T P i B
T T I B t F
ithholding rom ood efore he ppearance f herue ajr ue o laims f aking recaution s a idah
he ime of ftar: reaking he ast
05S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
narration ofal-Bukharee, 'The sun!') He said, 'Get down and mixgruel for us.' He said, 'It is still day time!' He said, 'Getdown and mix gruel for us.' So he dismounted and made the gruel and the Prophet drank (and he said, 'if anyone hadmounted his camel to try and see the sun, he would have seen it'. Then he beckoned (in a narration of al-Bukharee, 'heindicated with his hand), (and in a narration of al-Bukharee and Muslim, 'he indicated with his finger towards the east')then said,[Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/199), Saheeh Muslim (no.1101), Ahmad (4/381) and Abu Dawood (no. 2352). The first addition isreported by Muslim (no. 1101) and the second by 'Abdur-Razzaq (4/226). The Hadeeth contains many valuable points,whichcan bereadin al-Fath(4/198)]
'when you see that the night has approached from here then the fasting person's fast is broken."
Note: One should break the fast and pray according to the Sunnah even if for some reason theadhan is deliberately delayed.
A N i i t Hn- iyyah s n he eart: The Prophet said,
[Agreed upon] An-Niyyah isthe resolution (intention) of the heart. The place of the intention is theheart and announcing the Niyyah aloud is an innovation (Bidah) that hasno basis inthe Book and the Sunnah.
“The actionsare Innama (only, certainty) tied to the intentions and everyperson will earn that which he intended.”
A N f t F F
A N f t N F
T i N S D f a N
n- iyyah or he ard (obligatory) asts:
n- iyyah or he afl (voluntary) asts:
here s o pecific ua or n- iyyah.
It is obligatory tohave the intention for the obligatory fasts prior to the dawn(sunrise) as theProphet said,
[Reported by Abu Dawood (no. 2454). IbnKhuzaimah (no. 933), al-Baihaqee (4/202), an-Nisaee (4/196) and atTirmidhee(no. 730). Its isnad issaheeh.]
One may intend tofast voluntarily even after the crack of dawn, unlike the obligatory fasts,provided that one has avoided eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse.Evidence for this ruling is the Hadeeth of Aisha (radhi allahu anha), whenshe narrated, “The Prophet came to visit me one day and asked,
I said, “No.” He replied,[Saheeh Muslim]
“He, who does not resolve to fast before it is Fajr,then there is no fast for him”
“Doyouhave anything (to eat)?” “Then, I am fasting.”
Intentiono f F a s t i n g
“Some scholars were of the view that inthe case of a repeated act of worship, it is
sufficient to form the intention once thefirst time one does, unless the sequence
of repetition is interrupted, in which casea new intention must be formed. On this
basis, if a person has the intention offasting on the first day of Ramadaan that
he will fast this whole month, that isenough to cover the whole month, so long
as he does not have an excuse to breakhis fast and thus break this continuity,such as traveling during Ramadaan. In
that case, when he wants to resumefasting he must form the intention of
fasting again. This is the more correctopinion, because all the Muslims, if you
ask them, will say that they intend tofast the whole month from beginning tothe end. So, even if the intention is not
formed literally, it is there byimplication, because the basic principle is
that it does not stop. Hence, we say thatif the continuity is broken for somepermissible reason, then one starts
fasting again, the intention must berenewed. This is the view which brings
peace of mind.”
Al-Sharh al-Mumti', vol. 6, p. 369-370.
“ f t rosses a erson's ind hate s oing o ast omorrow,
hen e as ade he ntention.
I i c p m th i g t f t
t h h m t iShaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah in al-Ikhtiyaaraat (p. 191)
Some of our Muslimbrothers did not know that Ramadaan hadbegun until after thesunhad risen, but theycompleted their fast. Is that sufficient or do they have to repeattheirfast?
Al-Hamdulillah. They have done the right thing by refraining from eating, etc. for the rest of the day, buttheyhaveto fast another day inits place.“The reason why they have to make up the fast is that they did not have the intention of fasting from the night before.The Prophet said, [Narratedby Ahmad (6/287), Abu Dawood (no. 2454), at-Tirmidhee (730), an-Nisaee (2331) classed as saheeh by Shaikh al-Albanee in Saheeh Abu Dawood (2143)]” Standing Committee for Academic Researchand Issuing Fatawa (10/245)
“Whoever does not make the intention before dawn, there is no fast for him.”
T F O D t D t R h B s t Fhey ound ut uring he ay hat amadan ad egun, o hey asted
06S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
“ uhoor s ot a ondition forthe ast to be alid,S i N C
F V rather it ismustahabb (recommended), becausethe Prophet said,
“Have suhoor,for, in suhoor, there is blessing.”
Fatawa al-Shaikh Ibn Baz, (vol. 4, p. 259)
“The distinctionbetween our fasting and the fasting of the People of Book is the taking of thepre-dawnmeal (suhoor).”
“It is a blessing which Allah has given to you, so do not leave it.”“Take Suhoor as
there is a blessing in it.”
S t p d muhoor ( he re- awn eal) is the name for thefood takenat late night beforeFajr. Allah’s Messenger ordered taking the meal of suhoor saying,
[SaheehMuslim (1096)]The Excellence of Suhoor is that it is a blessing from Allah. A companion of Allah'sMessenger said, “I entered upon the Prophet and he was taking the suhoor and he saidto me, [(Ahmad (5/270) and An-Nisa'ee (4/145).] The Prophet also said,
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 3, no. 146) and Saheeh Muslim(2412)] Even drinking a cup of water instead of a meal for Suhoor has blessings, for, itimplies obeying the Messenger of Allah and following his Sunnah. Furthermore,Suhoor adds to the physical health, and provides the essential nutrition and strength tosustain thebodyduring the longtiringhours of the day. [See, Fatawa as-Siyam, p.40]
as understood from the following Hadeeth ofthe Prophet , [(saheeh) AbuDawood (2/303), Ibn Hibban (223), al-Baihaqee (4/237)]
The Prophet said,
[Abu-Dawood, at-Tirmidhee, Ibn-Majah andothers]
as soon as the sun sets (as explainedearlier) is from the Sunnah. Allah's Messenger said,
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/173) and Saheeh Muslim (1093)] and healso said,
[(hasan) AbuDawood (2/305)and Ibn Hibban (224)]
“The Prophetused to break his fastbefore offering the (Maghrib) prayer…” [(saheeh) At-Tirmidhee]
The Prophet used to break his fast beforeoffering the (Maghrib) prayer with some fresh dates, if he didn'tget any, then dried dates,and failing that too, he would drink a few mouthfuls of water.” [(saheeh) SaheehMuslim, Musnad Ahmad (3/163), AbuDawood 2/306]
The Messenger of Allah saidextolling the time of Iftar for supplication,
[Ibn Majah and al-Hakim] One should supplicate to Allah hoping that itwill be answered, andknowing thatAllahdoesnot respond to aheedless and inattentive heart.
“How excellent are dates as the believer's suhoor.”
:“The people will
remain on the right path as long asthey hasten the Iftar (breaking of the,fast) and delay taking Suhoor.”
“My Ummah (nation) will notcease to be upon my Sunnah as long as they do not await the stars whenbreaking the fast.”
“The Deen will not cease to be uppermost as long as the people hastento break the fast, since the Jews and the Christians delay it.”
.“Indeed, the fasting person has at the
time of breaking the fast, a supplication that is not rejected.”
T b f o S i d
D S i a S
H i I b t f
B t f b p S a M
R f f I
T v o D a t T o I
he est orm f uhoor s ates
elaying uhoor s unnah
astening n ftar ( reaking he ast)
reaking he ast efore raying alaat l- aghrib
ecommended oods or ftar.
he irtues f ua t he ime f ftar
Breaking the fast with salt in not established inthe Sunnah
Sunnaho f F a s t i n g
“He who gives
food for a
break his fast,
he will receive
D Iua of ftar:‘The thirst has gone and the veins are quenched and the reward is confirmed, if Allah wills.’
[Abu-Dawood, al-Baihaqi, al-Hakim, Ibn Al-Sunni and An-Nisaee, ad-Daraqutni with hasan isnad]
07S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
P t G p b
ostponing he husl ( urity ath):
If one is in the state of Janabah
Menstruating women and women experiencing post-natal bleeding
, he is allowed to make the intention of fasting and take his suhoor while postponing hisghusl until the break of dawn. Aisha and Umm Salamah (radhi allahu anhuma) narrated, “Sometimes, the Prophet wasin a stateof Janabah fromhis wivesand Fajr came upon him, then he would bath and fast.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
may delay the ghusl until after the dawn (ifthe blood ceases at night) and observe the fast, but the intention of fasting should be made before dawn (for obligatoryfasts).
Ghusl is a pre-condition for offering prayer and prayer is an obligation without which the fast is incomplete,therefore, one should hasten the ghusl in order to offer the Fajrprayer.
Permittedw h i l e F a s t i n g
D N No ot ullifyt h e F a s t
OR actions which
Allamah Ibn Jibreen (hafidahullah) replied
Is it permissible to brush the teeth using a toothbrush after dawn isdeclared? If so, what is the ruling on bleeding while brushing the teeth? Does it breakthe fast?
, “It ispermissible to rinse the mouthand use Siwak, wooden brush or other brushes. Some scholars disliked the use ofSiwak in the afternoon because using it freshens the mouth. Thus, using thetoothpaste and toothbrush becomes more disliked on this analogy. Moreover,toothpaste has a flavoring taste that will be felt during brushing. Yet, the user mightswallow a very little amount during the brushing process or may not. Therefore, it ishighly advised and recommended to use toothpaste and toothbrush after finishing theSuhoormeal, before declaring the beginning of fast. However, careful use of toothpasteand brush is permissible during the fasting hours of the day. Minor gum bleeding doesnot render fastingnull. Allah, the Almighty, knowsbest.”
'Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,' Published by Darussalam]
sing iwaak:U SAmir Ibn Rabeanarrates, “I have seenAllah's Messengerusing siwaak so manytimes whilst fasting thatI cannot count.” [Saheehal-Bukharee] and hesaid,
[Saheeh al-Jaami as-Sagheer (no, 3695)]
“The siwaak is ameans of cleansingthe mouth andpleasing the Lord.”
QuestionMuhammed bin Salih al-Uthaimeen (rahimahullah)
Will gargling with mouthwash render the fasting null?
“Gargling with mouthwash while fastingdoes not break thefast provided it is not swallowed. It is better, however, not to usemouthwash while fasting unless it is an extreme necessity. Garglinggenerally does not break the fast unless the fasting person swallowseven a drop.” ‘Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,'
Published by Darussalam
Allamah insing he outh nd
niffing:R t M a
S The Prophet used to wash hismouth and nose whilst fasting, but heprohibited the fasting person from sniffingstrongly. He said,
[Musnad Ahmad (4/32), AbuDawood (2/305) and at-Tirmidhee (3/146)]
“… and breath waterinto your nose strongly, unless you arefasting.”
melling erfumes:S P One ispermitted to smell perfumes and goododors, but he should avoid directly sniffingthe Indian Qust (incense) (al-Bukhour) andallthat has smoke.
Allamah Muhammed bin Salih al-Uthaimeen (rahimahullah)replied
What is the verdict concerning the use of oil perfumesduring the day of fasting Ramadaan?
, “It is allowed to wear perfume while fasting as long as onedoesnot inhale the smoke if it isburnt incense.”
‘Fatawa on fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,Published by Darussalam]
T B o P C W O t Haking ath r ouring old ater ver he ead:The Prophet used to pour water over his head whilst fastingdue to heat. [Abu Dawood]Ibn Umar would soaka garment in water and put it over himself while he was fasting. And al-Hasan said, 'There is noharm in rinsing the mouth and cooling one's body with cold water while fasting.' [See, Fath al-Baree (4/153) MukhtasarSaheehal-Bukharee (no. 451) of Shaikhal-Albanee]
08S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
A Kpplying ohl (eyeliner,surma) or similar things, whichenter the eyes for beauty ormedicinal purposes do not nullifythe fast. This was the conclusionpreferred by Shaikhul-Islam IbnTaymiyyah (rahimahullah) in hisimportant treatise, ‘Haqeeqat as-Siyam’ andalsoby hisstudent, IbnQ a y y i m a l - J a w z i y y a h(rahimahullah) in his valuablebook, ‘Zaadul-Ma'aad.’ Imam al-Bukharee (rahimahullah) says inhis Saheeh, “…Anas, al-Hasanand Ibraheem did not see anyharm in using Kohl for the fastingperson.” [Mukhtasar Saheeh al-Bukharee (no. 451) of Shaikh Al-Albanee]
do not break the fast becausethey are neither food nor itssubstitute.
which do notprovide nourishment and aremeant for medical treatment only,such as penicillin, insulin, orinjections for the purpose ofvaccinations, do not affect the fastat all, regardless of whether theyare taken via muscle or vein. Theinjections with nutritional valuessuch as glucose or vitamins, etc.,are considered as food andtherefore, nullify the fast.
If the amount of blood issmall and it does not harm theperson, then it does not invalidatehis fast, such as the small amountof blood that is taken for testing.[See, Blood, which invalidatesfasting (pg. 10)]
is permissible, if one is ableto control his desires. Aa'isha(radhi allahu anha) reported thatAllah's Messenger used to kissher and embrace (his wives) whilehe was fasting and he had morepower to control his desires thananybody else did. [See, Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/131) and SaheehMuslim (no. 1106)]
E E o N DW P O oH
B f MP
K a E oW
ye, ar r ose rops,earing erfumes, iling ne'sair
lood letti ng or edi calurposes;
issing nd mbracing ne'sife
Are medicinal preparations permitted whilst fasting, specifically,a) tablets/syrups b) inhalers for asthma c) suppositories and d) intravenousforms of treatment. Adetailed response will be appreciated.
“Praise be to Allah. What follows is a list of a number of things usedin the medical field, explaining what does and does not break the fast. This isa summary of Shareeah research presented to the Islamic Fiqh Councilduring itsregular meetings. Following does nothaveany effecton thefast,i) Eye drops, ear drops, ear syringing, nose drops and nasal sprays, so long asone avoids swallowing anymaterial that may reach the throat.ii) Tabletsor lozenges that are placed beneath the tongue for the treatment ofangina pectoris etc., so long as one avoids swallowing any material thatreaches the throat.iii) Vaginal pessaries, douching, use of a speculum, or internal digitalexamination.iv) Introductionof ascopeor coil (IUD), etc., intothe uterus.v) Introduction of a scope or catheter into the urethra (male of female), orinjection of dyes for diagnostic imaging, or of medication, or cleaning of thebladder.vi) Drilling of teeth (prior to filling), extraction or polishing of teeth, using amiswaak or toothbrush, so long as one avoids swallowing any material thatreaches the throat.vii) Rinsing, gargling or applying topical treatment in the mouth, so long asone avoids swallowing anymaterial that reaches thethroat.viii) Injections, whether subcutaneous, intra-muscular or intra-venous withthe exception of those usedfor purposes ofnutrition.ix) Oxygen.x) Anesthetics,so long as they do notsupply nutrition to the patient.xi) Medicines absorbed through the skin, such as creams, lotions and patchesusedto administer medication through the skin.xii) Introduction of a catheter into the veins in order to examine or treat thevessels ofthe heart or other organs.xii) Laparoscopy for the purpose of diagnosis or surgical treatment of theabdominal organs.xiii) Biopsies of the liver and other organs, so long as this is not accompaniedby the administration of nutrients.xiv) Gastroscopy, so long as this is not accompanied by the administration ofnutrients.xv) Introduction of medicine orinstruments into thebrainor spinal cord.xvi) Involuntary vomiting(as opposed to self-inducedvomiting).The Muslim doctor should advise his patients to postpone the above-described treatments and procedures until after he has brokenhis fast, if it issafeto doso and willnot cause any harm (even though these procedures donoteffect thefast).”
Majmoo al-Fiqh al-Islami (Islamic Fiqh Council), p. 213.
E o M a M T o Fffect f edicines nd edical reatments n asting
Do wet dreams nullifyone's fast?“Whoever has a wet dream whilst he is fasting or is in a state of
ihram for Hajj or Umrah, there is no sin on him and he does not have to offerKaffarah. It does not affect his fast, but he has to perform ghusl to cleansehimself fromjanabah (impurity) if maniy (semen)was emitted.”
See, Fatawa al-Lajnah ad-Daaimah (vol. 10, p. 274)Umm Salamah, the Mother of the Believers, narrated, “Umm Sulaym thewife of Abu Talhah came to the Messenger of Allah and said, 'O Messengerof Allah, verily Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. Is it necessary for awoman to take ghusl after she has a wet dream?' The Messenger of Allahreplied, 'Yes, if she notices a discharge.'” [Saheeh al-Bukharee, (al-Ghusl-373), SaheehMuslim (al-Hayd - 471)]…”
W D d t F H o Ret reams uring he asting ours f amadaan
09S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
,“Whoever has an attack of vomit, then no atonement isrequired of him, but whoever vomits intentionally then lethim make al-Qadaa for it.”
Allah's Messenger said,
[Abu Dawood (2/310), at-Tirmidhee(3/79), Ibn Majah (1/536) and Musnad Ahmad (2/498). Its isnad issaheeh as Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said in Haqeeqat as-Siyaam(p. 14).]
does not nullify the fast provided the food doesnot reach the throat, in light of the report from Ibn Abbas , whosaid, “There is no harm for a person to taste vinegar oranything elsewhilst he is fasting as long as it does not enter his throat.”[(Mu'allaq)Saheeh al-Bukharee(4/154)]
Doessaliva invalidate thefast?“Praise be to Allah. A fasting
person swallowing his saliva does notinvalidate his fast even if there is a lot of it.However, if it is thick like mucus, one shouldnot swallow it; rather one should spit it outinto a tissue or whatever if he is in themosque. And Allah is the Sourceof strength.”
Al-Lajnah ad-Daaimah li'l-Buhooth wa'l-Ifta, 1-/270.
F P S Sasting erson wallowing aliva
Nullifyt h e F a s t
M o a Qa i R
eaning f l- adaa (atonement)nd ts ulings:
Al-Qadaa is making up missed fasts ofRamadaan with similar number of fasts ondays other than Ramadaan.
It is not obligatory to make al-Qadaaimmediately after Ramadaan. Al-Qadaa forthe missed fasts of Ramadaan may be delayeduntil the next Ramadaan as is known fromAa'isha (radhi allahu anha), who relates, “Itused to be that I had days to make up forRamadaan and I would not be able to do soexcept in Shabaan (the month beforeRamadaan).” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/166)and SaheehMuslim (no. 1146)]Al-Hafidh (rahimahullah) says in al-Fath(4/191), “The (above) Hadeeth contains prooffor allowance of delaying al-Qadaa of missedRamadaan fasts unrestrictedly, with orwithout anyexcuse.”
Although, it is better to hasten in making upthe missed fasts than to delay them, since thisfalls under the general command of hasteningto do good deeds and not delaying them, suchas the saying of Allah in the Qur'aan,
[Soorah al-Imran, (3): 133]
It is also not obligatory to make up the daystogether (i.e. one immediately after theother).Allah, the Exalted, says,
[Soorah alBaqarah (2):185]
“Andmarch forth in the way (which leads to)forgiveness from your Lord, and forParadise as wide as are the heavens andthe earth, prepared for al-Muttaqoon(the pious).”
“The same number(of days which one did not fast must bemade up) from other days.”
Ibn Abbas said, “There is no harm if one fasts them separately.”[(mu'allaq) Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/189)] See, Taghleequt-Ta'leeq(3/186)] And Abu Hurayrah said, “One may fast them together if hewishes.” [(saheeh) Daaraqutnee, al-Irwa(4/95)]
However, it is not permissible to postpone al-Qadaa fasts until afterthe next Ramadan without a legal excuse like, continuous illness,nursing mothers, etc.
If one does not make al-Qadaa of the missed fasts until the nextRamadaan, then he should make al-Qadaa and feed a poor person foreach day. Abu Hurayrah narrates concerning a person who fallssickand thus breakshis fast and does notmakeal-Qadaaof hismissedfasts until the next Ramadaan arrives, “He should fast the presentRamadaan, and then make al-Qadaa for the missed fasts of theprevious Ramadaan and feed a poor person for each missed fast.[Reported by Daraqutni]
G c T t B t Fuidelines oncerning hings hat reak he ast
On the following pages, are mentioned things, which nullifythe fast. All of them, apart from menses and nifas, onlyinvalidate the fast if three conditions are met:
Similar is the case of the person, who does something thatbreaksthe fast, thinking that it does not break the fast.
The person was aware of the ruling and not ignorant of it.If he does not know the ruling then it does not break his fast,because Allah says:
[Soorah al-Ahzaab (33): 5]
The person did it knowingly and not out of forgetfulness.The Prophet said:
he person did it by choice and not due to force. TheProphet said:
See, Fatawa al-Shaikh Ibn Uthaimeen (vol. 1, p. 508)
“And there is no sin on youconcerning that in which you made a mistake, except inregard to what your hearts deliberately intend.”
“My Ummah is forgiven for mistakesand forgetfulness and for what they are forcedto do.”
“My Ummah is forgiven for mistakes andforgetfulnessand for what they are forced to do.”
10S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
2. Nourishment via needle as in the case of a drip or injectionsintended for nourishment or substitute for food will render the fastinvalid.
The order of al-Qadaa is known by the following Hadeeth in which awoman asked Aa'isha (radhi allahu anha), “Why is it that themenstruating woman has to make up her fasts but not the prayers?”…She (radhi allahu anha) said, “…We were ordered to make up thefasts and were never ordered to make up the prayers.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/429) and SaheehMuslim (no. 335)]
M a P N B
enstruation nd ost- atal leeding
“Whoever has an attack of vomiting, then no atonement isrequired of him, but whoever vomits intentionally then lethim make atonement for it.”
“Is it not that when shegets her period, she does not pray or fast?”
Whoever vomits deliberately bysticking his finger in his throat, pressing his stomach, deliberatelysmelling something nasty or persisting in looking at something thatmakes him vomit, has to make al-Qadaa. Allah's Messenger said,
[Abu Dawood (2/310), at-Tirmidhee(3/79), Ibn Majah (1/536) and Musnad Ahmad (2/498). Its isnaad issaheeh as Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said in Haqeeqat as-Siyaam (p. 14).]
When a womanbegins to menstruate (haid) or begins afterbirth bleeding (nifas)during the fasting hours of Ramadaan, whether it is at the start ofthe fast or a moment before sunset; her fast is nullified. She mustmake up for that day and the rest of the days until she is pure again,and if she were to continue fasting during her days of menstruation,it would not count, for the Prophet said,
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (304)]
“It is preferable for a woman to keep to hernatural cycle and to accept that which Allahhas decreed for her, and not take anymedicine to prevent her period. She shouldaccept what Allah has decreed for her of notfasting during her period, and make up thosedays later on. This is what the mothers of thebelievers and the women of the Salaf used todo.” Fatawaal-Lajnahal-Daimah(10/151)
It has been medically proven thatthese means of preventing menstruation areharmful and many women have sufferedmenstrual irregularities as a result.
I d n F RW a P E
id ot ast amadaan,ithout ny hysical xcuse
‘It is necessary upon you to make upthat month in which you did not fast, while,at the same time, repenting and seekingAllah's forgiveness. You must also feed a poorperson for every day the amount of half a sa'of the staple food of dates, rice or other suchfoods, if you have the ability to do so. If youare poor and do not have the ability to do so,then there is nothing upon you besides themaking upof the fast.’'Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,'
Published by Darussalam
Allamah Ibn Baz (rahimahullah)replied,
T R U P tP M P
he uling on sing ills hatostpone enstruation eriod
If the blood comes out as a result of a person's action or choiceand its amount is large and has an effect on the person's body,then this invalidates his fast (such as donating blood). One shouldmake up that day (so as to avoid an area of scholarly dispute andbe on thesafeside and besurethathe has fulfilled his obligation).
See, Fatawa Islamiyyah, 2/132 and al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah li'l-Buhooth al-'Ilmiyyah wa'l-Ifta, 10/263
If the bloodcomes out as theresult of aperson's actionsor choiceand its amount is small and it does not harm the person, then itdoes not invalidate the fast, such as the small amount of bloodthat is taken for testing.
If the blood comes outas a result of no deliberate action, such asan accident or nosebleed or an injury to any part of the body, thefast is still valid even if the amountof blood is large.
If the blood that comes out as a result of no deliberate actionand is of such a large amount that the person becomes weak andunable to fast, then it is permissible for him to break his fast andhe should fastanother day to makeup for it.
The blood of menstruation (haid) and post-natal bleeding(nifas) invalidates the fast for the women, she must make up forthat dayand rest ofthe days until she is pure again.
E a D Iating nd rinking ntentionally:
“If one of you eats and drinks out offorgetfulness, then let him complete his fast(maintain his fast for the rest of the day) forit was indeed Allah, Who gave him food anddrink.”
“Allah has excused for myUmmah mistakes, forgetfulness and whatthey are forced to do.”
Itis well known that fasting is abstaining fromeating and drinking, therefore, if one eats ordrinks deliberately and in full consciousness, he isobliged to make al-Qadaa for the sin hecommitted. However, he, who eats or drinksaccidentally or out of forgetfulness or is forced,nothing is required from him. The Prophet said,
[Saheehal-Bukharee (41135) and SaheehMuslim(no. 1155)] Thus, while eatingor drinking,if one remembers that he is fasting, he mustimmediately stop and spit out any food stillpresent in his mouth and continue his fast. Allah'sMessenger said,
[(Saheeh) ad-Daraqutnee(4/171) from IbnAbbas]
1. Transfusion of blood to the fasting personinvalidates the fast because blood is formed fromfood and drink.
A t C U tS H a E a D
nything hat omes nder heame eading s ating nd rinking
also invalidates the fast. This includestwo things,
B t I Flood hat nvalidates asting
S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
M o a K a i reaning f l- affarah nd ts ulings: Al-Kaffarah is to pay, in order to gain forgiveness for thesin committed in the state of fasting. This paymentshould be done in one ofthe following ways,1.To set a slave free, if he couldn't find any, then,2. He should fast two consecutive months; if he couldn'tdothat, then3. He should provide food for sixty poor people on theaveragescale of that which he feeds hisown family.Al-Kaffarah must be carried out in the same order asmentioned above. It is not permissible to transfer fromone state to another unless one cannot afford theprevious option.
One who has to make al-Kaffarah but is unableto free aslave or fast two consecutive months, or feed thepoor - then, nothing is binding upon him, since, Allah,the Most High, says,
This is also manifested from thefollowing Hadeeth. Abu Hurayrah narrates, “A mancame tothe Prophet and said, 'OMessengerof Allah !I am destroyed.' He asked, 'What has destroyed you?'He said, 'I cohabited with my wife in Ramadaan.' Heasked, 'Are you able to free aslave?' He replied, 'No.' TheProphet asked, 'Are you able to fast two monthsconsecutively?' The man replied, 'No.' He asked, 'Are
A b n p b hs
llah urdens ot a erson eyond iscope:
“Allah burdens not a personbeyond his scope.”
Nullifyt h e F a s t
you able to feed sixty poor people?” He replied, 'No.' TheProphet said, 'Then sit.' So, he sat down. Then a large basketof palm leaves containing dates was brought to the Prophetand he said, 'Give this in charity.' He said, 'There is no onebetween its two lava-plains poorer than us.' So the Prophetsmiled until his molar teeth became visible and said, 'Take itand feed it to your family.' [The Hadeeth is established withvarious wordings. Saheeh al-Bukharee (11/516), SaheehMuslim (no. 1/11) Abu Dawood (no. 2390), at-Tirmidhee (no.724), Ibn Majah (no. 1671) and others]
“...The wifemust also offer expiation for having intercourse if shewillingly went along with her husband in that. But if she wasforced then she does not have to do anything…” [See, Fatawaal-Lajnah, (10/320)]
Sexual intercourse is the most serious and the most sinful ofthe things that invalidate the fast. Whoever deliberately hasintercourse during the day in Ramadaan with his or her ownfree will, in which the two parts meet, and penetratrationoccurs, has invalidated his fast, regardless of whetherejaculation takes place or not. Whoever commits such a sinhas to repent, complete that day (i.e., not eat or drink untilsunset), perform al-Qadaa and al-Kaffarah.Ibn al-Qayyim writes in Zaadul-Ma'aad (2/60), “The Qur'aanshows that sexual intercourse breaks the fast, just like eatingand drinking - no disagreement is known concerning this.”Ash-Shawkaanee said in ad-Daraariyyu-Mudiyyah (2/22),“There is no disagreement that sexual intercourse breaks thefast if it is done deliberately, however, if it is done due toforgetfulness then some scholars make it the same as one whoeats or drinks forgetfully (i.e., nothing is binding upon theperson).”
I K B U t W
O S I i t S o FR a Q a a K
s affarah inding pon he oman?
nly exual ntercourse n he tate f astingequires l- adaa nd l- affarah
Meaning of al-Fidya and itsRulings:Al-Fidya is to abstain from fasting or breakone's fast in Ramadaan, due to legal excuse,and feed a poor person for each day (eitherlunch or supper) on the average scale of thatwhich one feeds his own family.One can either feed a poor person for eachday individually or gather poor peopleaccording to the number of days that requireal-Fidya and feed them all at once. [See,
(10/198)]Or one may give each poor ¼ Saa' (i.e. half kgand ten gm) of good wheat and it is better tooffer it with some meat and oil.Al-Fidya should be offered in Ramadan andnot before that.
Refrainf r o m f a s t i n g
P w a G t P t R fF a O a F O
eople ho re ranted he ermission o efrain romasting nd ffer l- idya nly:
Old men and women,
A sick person
who are incapable of observing fasts in Ramadaan,may recompense for it by offering al-Fidya. Abdullah Ibn Abbasnarrates, “Old people are allowed to refrain from fasting. But for everymissed fast, one should feed the poor and he is not obliged to make al-Qada.” [Daraqutni and al-Hakim]
whose health is not likely to improve, for example, if one isafflicted with the incurabledisease ofcancer then he should offer al-Fidya.
AllamahAbdullahIbn Jibreen (hafidahullah) replied, “If anold person becomes totally and physically unable to observe thefasting then such a person will become exempted from fasts and hemust offer al-Fidya... However, if the old person reaches the age oflack of recognition, then fasting will become un-required from him.Such a person is not even required to pay al-Fidya.... Such a personwill become unaccountable for his deeds just like a minor or aninsane.” Fatawaon Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh.
Published by Darussalam
O A w E o t A f Fa P a F o
ld ge hich ntitles ne o bstain rom astingnd ay l- idya nly
12S UNNAH SSUEA -S | I 2
Avoidedw h i l e F a s t i n g
Actions that should be
C i P o o Warelessness n erforming ther acts f orship:
“Do not preventyourwomen (fromgoing to) the Masjid, but their houses are better for them.”
Performing the other obligatory acts of worship and duties isimportant; specifically Salaat, because without it no act ofworship is accepted by Allah.
Regularly attending the congregational prayer is directed to menand the best place for a woman is to pray in her house. TheMessenger of Allah said,
[(saheeh) Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood, al-Hakim, Saheeh al-Jameeas-Sagheer no. 7458]
AbuHurayrah narrates, “A man approached Allah'sMessenger andasked him concerning embracingone'swife whilst fasting, Allah'sMessenger allowed him. Then, another man approached himand asked him concerning embracing one's wife whilst fasting,Allah's Messenger forbade him. (Abu Hurayrah says) Hewhom Allah's Messenger allowed was an old man and he whomAllah'sMessenger forbade was a youngman.” [Abu Dawood]Aa'isha (radhi allahu anha) reported that Allah's Messengerused to kiss her and embrace (his wives) while he was fasting andhe had more power to control his desires than anybody else did.[See, Saheehal-Bukharee (4/131)and Saheeh Muslim (no. 1106)]
N p i C
H w C C h D S NA h W K o E h
S W S i t N
ot raying n ongregation:
e ho annot ontrol is esires hould otpproach is ife, iss r mbrace er.
niffing ater trongly nto he ose
Praying in congregationis of great importance in our religion, thus everyone must attendthe congregational prayer. It is rewarded twenty-seven timesgreater than the prayer performed individually. [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 1, no. 618)] Once, the Messenger of Allah wasabout to burn the houses of those who did not attend thecongregational prayers. This was due to the gravity of their sin.[Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 1, no, 17) and Saheeh Muslim (no.1369)]
such as lying, cheating, backbiting,slandering, etc., are Haraamevenout of Ramadaan andshould beconsciously avoided even more in this sacred month. AbuHurayrah said, “Allah's Messenger said,
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/99)] The meaning ofthis Hadeeth is that such a fast is not acceptable to Allah because“
[(saheeh) IbnKhuzaimah (no. 1996) and others]
in such amanner that it is feared the water will reach the throat. Allah'sMessenger said,
[Abu Dawood (2/305) andothers]
“Whoever doesnot abandon falsehood in word and action, then Allah theMighty and Majestic has no need that he should leave hisfood and drink.”
Fasting is not (merely abstaining) from eating anddrinking, rather it is (abstaining) from ignorant andindecent speech, so if anyone abuses or behavesignorantly with you, then say, 'I am fasting, I am fasting.'
“…and breath water into your nosestrongly unless you are fasting.”
The Relationshipbetween Fasting and Prayer
Answer by Allamah Muhammad IbnSalih al-Uthaimeen (rahimahullah),
Some Muslim scholars criticizethose who observe fasting, but do notmaintain the prescribed daily prayers. Whatis the relationship between fasting andprayer? I want to fast to be entitled to thereward of the fasting people. I know that,"Fasting Ramadaan, then fasting nextRamadaan will abrogate all sins committedin between." Please explain.
“Those who criticize you for fasting and notmaintaining the daily-prescribed prayersare right. Prayer is a main pillar of Islam.The person who purposefully neglects thedaily-prescribed prayers is declared a non-Muslim, denying the right of His Lord, Allahthe Almighty. This person will not beentitled to the rewards of fasting, charity,pilgrimage or anything else. This is based onthe verse of the Holy Qur'aan,
[SoorahTawbah (9): 54]Thus, if one fasts, but does not maintain theprescribed daily prayers, this will render hisfasting null. Such a person will not benefitfrom fasting. As for the misconception youhave, concerning fasting (alone) willabrogate the sins committed between twoRamadaans; (then) you should understandthat the true meaning of this Hadeeth ofAllah's Messenger . The statementreported by Muslim is as follows,
We notice that Allah's Messengerpreconditioned that one must avoid all majorsins in order to be entitled to have his sinsabrogated and wiped out between the twomonths of Ramadaan. As for the person whofasts but does not maintain the five dailyprayers, he is not actually avoiding themajor sins. Purposeful negligence of thedaily-prescribedprayers is one of the gravest
"Andnothing prevents their contributionsfrom being accepted from them exceptthat they disbelieved in Allah and in HisMessenger; and that they came not toas-Salaat (the prayer) except in a lazystate, and that they offer notcontributions but unwillingly."
"Maintaining the five daily prescribedprayers, maintaining the prayer ofFriday, to the second Friday prayer,and fasting the month of Ramadaan, tothe next month of Ramadaan willabrogate the sins committed inbetween so long as one avoids any andall major sins."
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major sins. In fact, neglecting the prayer in itself is an actof disbelief, namely it is a denial of the Existence of Allah,the All Mighty. Thus, fasting will not be accepted fromsuch a person. One must repent to Allah; establishwhat isrequired to do in termsof the five daily-prescribed prayersfirst, then observe fasting. Thus, when Allah's Messenger
sent Mu'adh , his Companion, to Yemen, hecommanded him, as reported by al-Bukharee,
We notice that the Prophet began with theprayers right after the declaration of faith.” ['Fatawa onFasting, Zakat and Taraweeh,' Published byDarussalam]
“…Let thefirst thing you call them to be the testification thatnone has the right to be worshiped except Allah,and I am the Messenger of Allah. If they obey you inthat, then inform them that Allah has made fiveprayers obligatory upon them in each day andnight…”
I i O o t W w It O Ft s bligatory n he oman ith stihadao bserve asting:
A woman whose menstrual bleeding lasts formore than the normal time period
A woman whose bleeding lasts for more thanforty days
“If a woman in nifaas sees that she has becomepure before forty days are over
, then she shouldperform ghusl after the normal menstrual time period isover and start fasting and praying because the bleedingwhich is prolonged is not the menstrual blood, rather thebloodof Istihadaandis thus tahir (pure).
. If this blood coincides with her regularmenstrual cycle, then she is menstruating; if it does notcoincide with her regular menstrual cycle, then it is theblood of Istihada. She should, therefore, perform ghuslafter fortydays,and fast and pray.
, then she should doghusl and pray and fast, and her husband may cohabitwith her.'
See, Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah (5/458)
P w a G P t Bt F
eople ho re ranted ermission o reakheir ast
One is also allowed tobreak his fast in all those situations,which allow a person to refrain from fasting, like sickness,traveling,old age, menstruation, post-natal bleeding, etc.
If one sets out during the day, then he isallowed to break his fast, but is that subject to thecondition that he leaves his village first, or if he hasdecided to travel, canhe break his fast (before departure)?
The answer is that two views havebeen narrated from the salaf. The correct view is that heshould notbreakhis fast until he has left his cityor village,because he is not yet traveling, rather he has the intentionof traveling. Hence, it is not permissible for him to shortenhis prayers until he has left his town,so by the same token,it is not permissible for him to break his fast until he hasleft his town. Al-Sharh al-Mumti (6/218)
Answer by Allamah:
Salih Ibn Uthaimeen(rahimahullah)
The following is the advice of Allamah Abdul-AzeezIbn Baz (rahimahullah)
If a person stays up all night duringRamadaan, then he prays Fajr and sleeps until Zuhr, andprays and then sleeps until Asr, and prays then sleepsuntil the time of Iftar, is his fasting valid?
to those who are fasting andothers, to make the most of their time and not waste itsleeping. He said, “There is nothing wrong with sleepingduring the day or the night, so long as it does not lead tomissing out on any of the obligatory duties or committingany Haraam(prohibited) action. What is prescribed for theMuslim, whether he is fasting or not, is not to stay up lateat night, and to hasten to sleep after doing whatever he isable to, of Qiyaam al-Layl. Then, he should get up forsuhoor, if it is Ramadaan, because eating suhoor is aconfirmed Sunnah as the Prophet said,
[Agreedupon] And the Prophet said,
[SaheehMuslim]Those who are fasting and others must also adhere tooffering the five daily prayers in congregation, and avoidbeing distracted from them by sleep or anything else.Those who are fasting and others must also do all theirduties on time for the government or other duties, and notbe distracted from them by sleep or anything else. Andthey must strive to seek Halaal provision which they andtheir dependents need, and not be distracted from it bysleep or anythingelse.In conclusion, my advice to everyone, men and women,those who are fasting and those who are not, is to fearAllah in all situations,and to continueto performduties ontime in the manner enjoined by Allah, and to avoid beingdistracted from it, by sleep or any other permissible thing.If the thing that distracts them from that is an act ofdisobedience towards Allah, then the sin is greater andmore serious.May Allah guide the Muslims, enable them to understandtheir religion and make them steadfast in adhering to thetruth, and guide their leaders, for He is Most Generous,
“Eat al-Suhoor,for in Suhoor there is barakah (blessing).”
“The thing thatdifferentiates between our fastingandthe fasting ofthe People of the Book is eating al-Suhoor.”
S A D L d Rleeping ll ay ong uring amadaan
“Some of the things that invalidate the fast involvethings coming out of the body, such as intercourse,
deliberate vomiting, menstruation… These things comeout of the body and weaken it. Hence Allah has
described them as being things that invalidate the fast,so that the fasting person will not combine the
weakness that results from fasting with the weaknessthat results from these things, and thus be harmed by
his fast or his fast no longer be moderate. And some ofthe things that invalidate the fast involve things
entering the body, such as eating and drinking. If thefasting person eats or drinks, he does not achieve the
purpose of fasting.”See, Majmoo al-Fatawa (25/248)
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It is permissible for the Muslim woman if she is pregnantor nursing her baby to break her fast inRamadan, if she isafraid that fastingmayaffect her health or affect her babyor affect both. However, if she is healthy and strong anddoes not find fasting difficult and it does not affect herfetus then the woman is obliged to fast, because she hasnoexcusenot todo so.
S ha i kh Mu hamm ad Sal ih al - Muna jji d(hafidahullah) replied:
Is it permissible for pregnant women andbreastfeeding mothers not to fast, and that they canfeed the poor and do not have to make up the misseddays?
'Praise be to Allah. Thescholars differed concerning the ruling on pregnantwoman and breastfeeding mothers if they do not fast.There are several opinions.1. That they have to make up the fasts only. This is theview of Imam Abu Haneefah (rahimahullah). Amongthe Sahabah, it was the view of AliIbn Abi Taalib .2. That if they fear for themselves, they have to makeup the fast only,and if they fear for their children thenthey have to make up the fasts and feed one poorperson for each day. This is the view of Imam al-Shaafa'ee and ImamAhmad. Al-Jassaas also narratedthis from Ibn 'Umar .3. That theyhave to feed the poor only,anddo not haveto makeup the fasts.Among the Sahabah, this was theview of Abdullah Ibn Abbas . Ibn Qudaamah alsonarrated this in al-Mughni (3/37) from Ibn 'Umar .Abu Dawood (2318) narrated from Ibn Abbas andAli that this phrase; “those who can fast withdifficulty” [Soorah al-Baqarah (2):184] was aconcession granted to old men and old women who findit difficult to fast, allowing them not to fast and to feedone poor person for each day instead, and the same forpregnant and breastfeeding women if they are afraid.Abu Dawood said, 'i.e., for their children they may notfast and may feed (the poor) instead.' Al-Nawawi said,'its isnad is hasan.'This was also narrated byal-Bazzaar who added at theend, 'Ibn Abbas used to say to a concubine of his whowas pregnant: “You are like one who cannot fast, soyou have to pay the Fidya but you do not have to makeup the fasts.” Al-Daraqutni classed its isnad assaheeh,as stated by al-Hafiz in al-Talkhees.Al-Jassaas narrated in Ahkaam al-Qur'aan that thescholars differed concerning this issue. He said, 'TheSalaf differed concerning this matter, and there werethree opinions. Ali said, 'they have to make up the fastif they do not fast, but they do not have to pay theFidya.' Ibn Abbas said, 'They haveto pay the Fidya butdo not have to make up the fasts.' Ibn Umar said, 'Theyhave topay the Fidyaand make upthefasts.'Those who said that they only have to make up thefasts quotedthe followingas evidence:1. The report narrated by al-Nisaee (2274) from Anasthat the Prophet said: “Allah has waived half of theprayer for the traveler, and fasting, and for those whoare pregnant and breastfeeding.” Classed as saheeh
by al-Albanee in Saheeh al-Nisaee. The Prophet stated thatthe ruling on pregnant and breastfeeding women is like theruling on the traveler. The traveler may not fast and has tomake it up later, and this also applies to pregnant andbreastfeedingwomen. See Ahkaam al-Qur'aan byal-Jassaas.2. Analogy to the sick. Just as the sick are allowed not to fastand have to make it up later, the same applies to those whoare pregnant and breastfeeding. See al-Mughni, 3/37; al-Majmoo',6/273.This view wasfavored by a number of scholars.Shaikh Ibn Baz said in Majmoo' al-Fatawa (15/225),'Pregnant and breastfeeding women come under the sameruling as those who are sick. If it is too difficult for them tofast, then it is prescribed for them not to fast, but they have tomake up the fasts when they are able to do so, like those whoare sick. Some of the scholars are of the view that it issufficient for them to feed one poor person for every day theymissed, but this is a weak view. The correct view is that theyhave to make up missed fasts, just like travelers and thosewho are sick, because Allah says: “but if any of you is ill or on ajourney, the same number (should be made up) from otherdays.” [Soorahal-Baqarah (2): 184]He also said in Majmoo' al-Fatawa, 15/227, 'The correct viewconcerning this matter is that pregnant and breastfeedingwomen have to make up the fasts, and what was narratedfrom Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar that pregnant andbreastfeeding women have to feed the poor instead, is a weakview that goes against the Shareeah evidence. Allah says(interpretation of the meaning): “but if any of you is ill or on ajourney, the same number (should be made up) from otherdays.” [Soorahal-Baqarah (2): 184]Pregnant and breastfeeding women are likened to those whoare sick, and do not come under the ruling on old men who areunable to fast. Rather, they come under the ruling on thosewho are sick, so they should make up the fasts when theybecome able todo so, even if that is delayed.It says in Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah (10/220), 'If apregnant woman fears for herself or her fetus because offasting in Ramadaan, she may break thefast and she only hasto make up the missed fasts. In this regard, she is like one whois sick and is unable to fast or fears that fasting will harmhim. Allah says: “but if any of you is ill or on a journey, thesame number (should be made up) from other days.” [Soorahal-Baqarah (2): 184]Similarly, if a breastfeeding woman fears for herself, or shefears for her child, then she may not fast, and she only has tomakeup the missed fasts.It also says in Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah (10/226), 'Apregnant woman has to fast when she is pregnant, unless shefears for herself or her foetus if she fasts, in which case she isallowed not to fast, but she has to make up the missed fastsafter she gives birth and becomes pure from nifas… it is notsufficient for her to feed a poor person instead, rather she hasto fast and does not have to feed a poor person if she does that.'Shaikh Ibn Uthaimeen said in al-Sharh al-Mumti (6/220),after mentioning the difference of scholarly opinion about theruling on this matter, and expressing his preference for theview thatshe only has to make up the missed fasts:This view is the most likely to be correct in my (
) opinion, because at most theyare like one who issickor traveling, who only have to make upmissed fasts. And Allah knows best.'
ShaikhMuhammad Salih al-Munajjid
T V o t P Wa t N M
he erdict f he regnant omannd he ursing other
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This coursecomprises ofa series of videolectures explaining,'The Book ofTawheed'by Allamah ash-Shaikh Saleh binFauzan al-Fauzan
The Meaning of al-Aqeedah,The Sources of the CorrectAqeedah, and the Manhaj (way) of the Salaf in deriving it.The deviations from the Aqeedah and the ways of avoiding itExplanation of Tawheed and its Categories:Explanation of the meaning of Tawheed Ar-Rububiyah and its
Affirmation by the MushriksMeaning of the word ar-Rabb in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah and
concepts of the misguided nations.Explanation of the way of the Qur'aan in affirming the Existence of
the Creator and His Oneness.'Tawheed Al-Rububiyyah necessities Tawheed Al-Uluhiyyah'Meaning of Tawheed Al-Uluhiyyah and that it was the main object of
the Dawah of the ProphetsThe Two Testifications, their Meaning, Pillars, Conditions,
Requisites and NullifiersAt-Tahleel (to make something halaal) and at-Tahreem (to make
something haraam) is the Right of AllahWorship: its Meaning, Categories and PerfectionExplanation of the misunderstandings in the defining al-EebadahLove, Fear and Hope are forms of worshipExplanation of the Conditions for the Acceptance of Worship and
ActionExplanation of the Levels of the Religion: al-Islam, al-Eeman and al-
Ihsaan their Definitions, Commonalities and DifferencesThe Proofs from the Qur'aan and the Sunnah and the Aql (intellect)
for the establishment of the Names and Attributes (of Allah)The Way of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama'ah with regards to the Names of
Allah and His AttributesRefuting those Who Deny the Names and Attributes or deny
anything of themHow and when did the Deviation in Human Life occur?Shirk: It's Definition and Types
Kufr (Infidelity): Its Definition and TypesNifaq (Hypocrisy): Definition and TypesJahiliyyah, Fisq, Dhalal, Riddah: Its Types and RulingsStatements or Actions that negate Tawheed or defect itCharms and AmuletsThe Ruling on Swearing by Other than AllahTawassulMaterialism Theory of Life and its Malicious EffectsThe Incumbency of Loving the Messenger and revering him, and the
prohibition of praising him excessively.The Incumbency of Obeying and Following the MessengerThe Merits of the Household of the Prophet, Bhis Companions and
what is due to them without negligence and excess
Bid'ah (Innovations): It's definition, kinds and rulings.The prevalence of Bid'ah in the lives of Muslims and its reasons.The stance of the Muslim Ummah with regards to the people of
Bid'ah, and the methodology of Ahl us-Sunnah wal Jama'ah inrefuting their assertions.Examples of contemporary Bid'ah such as, the celebration of the
Prophet's birthday, seeking blessing from places and relics of deadpeople,The Bid'ah in worship, and the means of access to Allah and more...
Prohibition of Abusing the Sahabah and the stance of Ahl-as-Sunnahwal-Jamaah with regards the events that took place among them
This course covers thefollowing subjects indetails
Quran Sunnah Educational Programs
An Extensive Course on the Fundamentals of Tawheedand Explanation of the Major aspects of Aqeedah
Explanation of the book,
Explanation andPresentation byDr. Abdullah al-Farsi