Facilitating Learning

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Includes theories from great philosophers that can help educators perform effectively in facilitating the learning of students.

Transcript of Facilitating Learning

Competency: Apply Principles,Theories and Laws of learning in resolving classroom problems.

Formal education is based on the belief that the learning process can be directed and facilitated, however to direct and facilitate learning is not a simple task if the teacher has no clear understanding of the learning process.

THREE DISTINCT TYPE OF LEARNING: 1.Psycho motor learning -learning that involves the use of the senses and muscles. 2.Cognitive learning -involves the intellectual activities, using the brain or mental areas in processing learning. 3.Affective learning -involves the heart in the acquisition of attitudes, judgment and knowledge concerning values.

Children learned after they use all of their senses, to learn about the sights, sounds, tastes, and smells in their environment. They learned further as they interact with their parents and other family members, friends, and other people important to their world. When they enter the school, they continue to learn further the basic academic subjects like reading, writing, and mathematics.

Learners continue to learn a great deal outside the classroom, where they learned social skills as they interact, learning which behaviors are to be rewarded and which are likely to be punished. We must learn to adapt to the many major changes that affect our lives, such as getting married, raising children, and finding and keeping a job. As teachers we need to understand the best ways to educate our learners, making use of the principles of learning to understand how certain experiences change peoples behaviors and lives.

LEARNING

IS

-the core of the teaching-learning process. -involves a particular kind of change in behavior. -the development of new associations as a result as a result of experience. -modification of an organismic behavior, a result of maturation and environmental experience.

-process inferred from relatively stable changes in behavior, through practice or interaction with the environment. Task: construct a simple meaning of learning from the sample definitions given.

Learning- is a process of change in behavior resulting from experience. Analyzing the sample definitions given, all will show that learning involves process of change in the earners behavior emphasizing the important role of experience, as a provider of conditions that will enhance the learning process for effective learners learning.

1.Children learn by doing. 2.Motivation should be intrinsic and natural, not artificial. 3. Learning should be gradual and continuous, not discrete. 4. Instruction should be adapted to individual needs. 5. Natural social setting should constitute learning situations.

6. Learning depends upon the childs ability. 7. Learning comes through sense impressions. 8. The child can be best educated as a whole, as a unit organism. 9. Teacher-pupil relationships should be cooperative. 10. Education means improving the quality of living.

3.Psychoanalytic theory -PSYCHOSEXUAL (Freud), focuses on the effect of early childhood experiences to adults behavior.

PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY (ERICKSON) -believed that people pass through 8 psychosocial stages in their lifetimes ,and as they grow, they face series of psychosocial crises that shape their personality:

-Each crises focuses on a particular aspect of personality and involves the persons relationship with others.

4.Interactionism / Cognitive theory-Knowledge is created as children interact in their social and physical environment.

VYGOTSKYS view of cognitive development-believed that cognitive development is strongly linked to input from others.

PIAGETS stages of cognitive development -believed that development precedes learning, assuming that the child is an active organism & that development depends in large part of the childs manipulation of and active interaction with the environment.

GARNERS theory of multiple intelligences -believed that individuals are capable of developing at seven domains.

5.Moral Development theory (kohlberg) -When people consider moral dilemmas, it is their reasoning that is important, not their final decision. -people progress through three levels as they develop abilities of moral reasoning.

1.Behaviorism / Association theory -a theory that rooted in the philosophy of John Locke, Tabula Rasa,viewing that the mind of the child is blank at the time they were born.

BEHAVIORIST -believed that learning comes about because person receives a reward or reinforcement for the correct response to a particular stimulus. ASSOCIATIONIST (Thorndike) -believed that learning is the result of association of events.

2.Nativistic theory -believed that the child will learn, if given proper time to develop. -childs outward behavior indicate readiness.

THORNDIKES CONNECTIONISM THEORY -Also known as stimulus-response theory, using the following activities; a. Situation which influences or affects the individuals. b. The response made by the individual to a a particular situation. c. Connection between the situation and the response produce by the individual in response to a particular given stimulus.

Principles of Connectionism -is the basis of Thorndike in expressing his Laws of learning. 1.Law of Readiness -states that when a person is prepared to respond or act, giving the respond is satisfying, and being prevented from doing so is annoying. -this law is related to the law of effect and accounts for the motivational aspects of learning.

-reminds that a learner must not be forced beyond the present level of readiness to avoid acquiring some undesirable attitudes that might affect their learning capabilities. -implies that teacher must either wait or accept the present level of readiness of the learner, but should apply motivational learning activities.

2.Law of exercise -states that constant repetition of the response strengthened its connection to the stimulus, and disuse of the response weakened the connection with the stimulus. -this law satisfies many educational practices such as drill, practice activity, review, examination and removal exams. -effective use will lead to mastery of the discipline.

3.Law of Effect -states that learning is strengthened if it results in satisfaction, but learning is weakened if it leads to annoyance. -implies that, a person tends to repeat life experiences that has been satisfying, and tends to avoid what has been dissatisfying. -basis in setting a classroom conducive for effective teaching-learning process. -reminds teachers to make learners learning experience pleasant and gratifying to encourage them to love learning.

-Views learning as a result of conditioning that form the sequential relation of stimulus-response bond that brings the behavior change. -there are two prominent names in conditioning theory as they differ in their basis of response change. a. Ivan Pavlov classical conditioning -using the adhesive principle as basis of response change.

Adhesive principles -shows that response is attached to the stimulus, so the recurrence of the of the stimulus will evoke or cause the response, even without reinforcement.

Theory: An individual learns when a previously neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus evokes a conditioned response. tasks: 1.identify the key word and give the one common word meaning 2.What is the most commonly used word meaning of the conditioning. 3.fill up the missing expected response.

Learning paradigm

Before

Neutral stimulus response

expected

conditioningteachers command hands forward ___?_____ _______________________________________________________________ During Neutral Stimulus + unconditioned stimulus Conditioning teachers command hands forward + demonstration ____?____ _______________________________________________________________ After Conditioned Stimulus Conditioning teachers command hands forward _____?____

Theory: An individual learns the desired the desired responses because s/he is rewarded for doing so, and learns to avoid undesired responses because s/he is punished for doing so.

Response/behavior leads to occuring consequence Situation #1 operant behavior Jose studied hard And got 95 in the Last test in math

repeating avoiding

operant behavior

positive reinforcement Father gave him P50

increases response occurrence of Increases the desire to study harder

Response/behavior leads to occuring consequence Situation #2

repeating avoiding

operant behavior

operant behavior

Negative reinforcement

Increases the chances of getting high grades,Keeps on studying harder

Pete studied hard

escaped home chores

Response/behavior leads to occuring consequence Situation #3 operant behavior Ronald Shouted in class

repeating avoiding

operant behavior

punishmentReceived Scolding and detained after class

responsewill probably avoid shouting again

Banduras social learning theorytasks: 1.Incircle the key words used in the theory. 2.Fill up the expected response from the learner.

Theory:An individual learns through observation and imitation of others. Learning paradigm ________________________________________________ model learner (attractive, popular, competent, successful and interesting) 1. Models the behavior ___________________ 2. Demontrates the behavior ___________________ 3. Continues modelling ___________________ 4. Praises/ grades students ___________________

Atkinson and Shiriffins information processing theory task: Internalized the information given and construct a learning paradigm.

Theory: The individual learns when the human mind takes in info