Facilitating Collective Intelligence - Systems Concept A Science of Generic Design: Managing...

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Facilitating Collective Intelligence: Advancing Applied Systems ScienceJaron Lanier argues:
1) The algorithm-driven direction of Web 2.0 is disempowering individuals and reducing the creativity of people online
2) The social-semantic web is distorting human relationships and distancing people from true intimacy.
Cathy O’Neill argues:
1) Many mathematical models (algorithms) we use to ‘resolve’ societal problems are opaque and have negative societal consequences (most people did not anticipate).
2) We need to work together to design models that support societal outcomes that we truly value
Therefore, let’s empower people to be creative, to design models together in a more intimate dialogic environment – supporting community and valued collective action. The web alone, and mathematical models alone, are insufficient tools. The application of psychology and the learning sciences are needed.
Consider two recent (most excellent) books
1. Enable clear communication
3. Prevent under-conceptualization
3. Conformity pressure
Groupthink may dominate
IT, Information System, and Semantic Web supports IT, Information System, and Semantic Web supports
Developmental automaticity
Learning can be challenging. Creating a useful synthesis is often hard work.
John N. Warfield (1925-2009)
Relevant Books • 1976. Societal Systems: Planning, Policy, and Complexity. New York: Wiley Interscience. • 1990. A Science of Generic Design: Managing Complexity through Systems Design. Ames,
IA: Iowa State University Press 1994. • 1994. A Handbook of Interactive Management. With Roxana Cárdenas, Ames, IA: Iowa
State University Press 1994. • 2002. Understanding Complexity: Thought and Behavior. AJAR Publishing Company, Palm
Harbor, FL. • 2003. The Mathematics of Structure. AJAR Publishing Company, Palm Harbor, FL. • 2006. An introduction to systems science. Singapore: World Scientific.
Warfield, past president of the society for systems science, recognised that group communication often results in a ‘mess’.
Groups and teams find it challenging to arrive at a useful synthesis. They need methods and tools that help them communicate and learn.
Warfield developed Interactive Management
People use different mental models to describe the same problematic situation.
Hofstadter’s integration of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem, the music of Bach, and the art of Escher
Kurt Fischer (Harvard): People integrate at different levels of complexity
Jay Forrester’s World Model.
Mathematical models can capture significant complexity but less often facilitate the resolution of social problems.
Forrester’s original World Model (1973) included 58 elements, 81 pair relations, and complex mathematical interdependencies. 1. The model is quantitative, but includes many unstated qualitative assumptions. 2. The model is not the product of consensus and it is not presented in a way that can be readily understood by the public. 3. Many solutions can be generated depending on what assumptions are entered in a particular computer run. 4. Any decisions and solutions anticipated as a consequence of belief in the validity of the model would involve many individuals,
groups, and organizations to implement solutions.
When a group works to resolve a shared societal problem they need to build consensus models that facilitate collective action
eg., formal logic, graph theory, matrices
Mathematics of content: e.g., differential equations,
integral equations used to describe
phenomena in physics, chemistry, biology,
psychology, sociology.
What is Interactive Management?
• Integrated design process • Based in the theory of systems design • Specifically developed for dealing with complex
issues • Goals are to help participants:
– Develop understanding of the issues they face – Establish collective basis for thinking and working
cooperatively – Produce framework for effective action.
Essential Components of IM Process
1. Participants 2. Facilitation Team 3. Group Methodologies 4. Software Support 5. Productive Workshop Space
4 5
Step 1: Idea Generation in response to a trigger question (e.g.,  what are barriers to wellbeing in Ireland?)
Steps in the Interactive Management process
Step 2: Recording , posting, clarifying and categorising  ideas on display walls
(3) Selection and ranking of sub-problems in the problem field
Statement Number of Sum of ranks Category votes
2. Lack of clear incentives to 4 16 8 23. Clashing personalities and 4 10 4 12. Challenge of identifying l 3 8 6 4. Lack of identity for the new 3 9 2 17. Uncertainty regarding new 2 7 2 25. Lack of reward systems to 2 6 8 9. Difficulty in defining clust 2 6 1 24. Unrecognized value of soci 2 7 2 5. Specialization (mitigates ag 2 6 5 7. Lack of clear language that 2 6 5 19. Overdependence on "bureauc 2 4 6 22. Some individuals want to w 2 2 4 3. Lack of motivation or intere 2 7 7 13. Lack of opportunity for fo 1 3 3 26. Turf issues: individuals w 1 5 4 32. Someone needs to commit si 1 4 6 20. Divergence in methods, pro 1 5 5 28. Not really an existing, re 1 4 3 33. Institute based on what we 1 2 6 14. Lack of information/certai 1 1 5 15. Lack of translation of res 1 2 8 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
(4) Structuring the interdependence between problems in the problem field
From voting, to matrix, to structure
Figure C1 shows a Boolean matrix (i.e., a matrix, all of whose entries are either 0 or 1). The matrix rows and columns are identically indexed, the index numbers ranging from 1 to 15. Such a matrix might represent the information provided to the computer by a group of participants, in which e.g., 15 problems are interrelated (or possibly 15 options, or 15 events, etc.). The entries in the matrix could represent a mix of the answers to questions posed to the participants and the answers inferred by the computer (using a property of relationships known as transitivity).
Well-Being in Ireland Conference June 8, 2012, NUI, Galway
Overcoming Barriers to Well-Being in Ireland: Workshop Report Lack of
trust/dissatisfaction with the system, government, and decision-makers in general (I) A national sense of
gloom due to emphasis on austerity (I)
Feelings of helplessness in the face of current global economic/ environmental conditions (B)
Stigma associated with mental health difficulties such as depression, anxiety and stress (E)
Corrosion of work-life balance, with people working longer/harder and taking the stresses of work home with them (E)
Lack of an effort to galvanise collective action around the issue of promoting well-being (F)
Lack of understanding as regards the nature of well-being and how to measurement it (H)
Maladaptive coping mechanisms (e.g. avoidance of problems or use of alcohol or drugs to deal with problems) (B)
Limited number of government initiatives designed to promote social capital (e.g., social cohesion and trust) (A)
Limited understanding of the factors that influence and increase well-being (H)
Lack of space for dialogue on holistic views of well-being (G)
Lack of funding for community well-being initiatives (D)
No national measurement of well-being (A)
Absence of holistic approaches to health-care (E)
Lack of education about the importance of well- being in schools and universities (G)
No charismatic champion or leader to advance the well-being of the nation (F)
(5) Generate options as a response to the structural problems
Multiple actors work in  multiple directions
Many butterflies flap their wellbeing wings...
• Conduct research to establish the factors that individuals and communities consider important for well-being • Encourage community and voluntary organisations to showcase initiatives of best practice that are currently working well • Change aspects of the education system to incorporate understanding of well-being • Organise a “National Day of Well-being” to raise awareness • Set up well-being “think-tank” similar to the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in Ireland • Teach happiness skills e.g. CBT (Penn Resiliency Programme), mindfulness, loving-kindness meditation; providing a basis
for secular flourishing and meaning • Promote values and promote the process over the product • Encourage active lifestyles by developing cycle paths, open-air gyms etc • Promote resilience through education about emotions and coping strategies • Reduce/ban advertising of ‘junk’ food, especially that which targets children, and advocate healthier eating/lifestyle
advertising campaigns • Use the media to challenge stigma around mental illness. • Educate parents about how to regulate their children’s use of (social) media • “Positive lives, good lives”: Encourage media focus on “good” celebrities e.g. Nelson Mandela, Nobel Laureates , and
discuss their value and impact on society • Implement mental health campaigns to highlight and remove stigma around issues like depression, anxiety, alcoholism by
having positive role models participate in these campaigns e.g. sports stars • Reduce inefficiencies in the HSE and creatively redesign services • Implement an overarching resource allocation model to target resources at areas of greatest need • Develop a ‘code of practice’ for promotion of well-being in voluntary organisations • Pooling of funding between groups for shared resources related to well-being • Lack of funding: encourage sharing of existing resources between groups involved in promoting well-being • Develop education/programmes for parents/young people pm eating healthily on a budget/recipes. This could be school-
based and done by volunteers. • ‘Cost associated with healthy lifestyle’- often don’t need to pay money to engage in healthy behaviours eg. Sports
team/running vs gym, grow veg or shop in market vs organic food store • Etc.
Continue the dialogue and transform the system
Read Conference Report Here
Wellbeing : Designing Measures and Implementing Policies, June 2013
Trigger question for Design Conference: In the context of developing a new national wellbeing index for Ireland, what are the strategic objectives that should guide our efforts to enhance the wellbeing of the people of Ireland over the coming decade?
Top Ranked Strategic Objectives across Ten Wellbeing domains
Read Full Conference Report Here
How Strategic Objectives are seen by conference participants  to be related in an  ‘enhancement structure’
Think global, act local The Galway Healthy Cities Project
Overcoming Barriers to Wellbeing in Galway City Galway Healthy Cities 2014
• A total 149 barriers to wellbeing were organised into 12 categories
• A total of 254 options to overcome barriers to wellbeing
• Synergist projects tacking leadership, community engagement, and awareness barriers
• Systems logic informing project design – empowering stakeholders
A strong well-being focus is now emerging in the local economic and community plan for Galway City
Basic and applied research using collective intelligence methods
• Basic Learning Sciences Research on Group Model Construction. Effects of: 1) Open versus Closed Group Dynamics 2) Facilitator Prompts while structuring – generic versus informative 3) Peer-to-Peer versus Facilitator Prompts
• Descriptive Social Science and Scale Development Projects 1) Music and Wellbeing – (a) develop collective intelligence models, which then (b) inform scale
development project on the adaptive functions of music listening. 2) Romantic Relationships and Wellbeing – developing a model describing interdependencies
between components of successful romantic relationships. 3) Employee Sabotage – developing a model describing sabotage behaviours in academia, and
causes of these behaviours. 4) Critical Thinking: developing (a) a student-centered model of critical thinking and (b)
understanding the dispositions of good critical thinkers 5) Entrepreneurial Competencies: developing a model describing interdependencies between
core entrepreneurial competencies. • Applied Social Science, Innovation Projects and Collective Action across Europe
1) The Sea for Society Project – Collective Intelligence work across 8 EU countries used in the design of 159 mobilisations activities focus on promoting marine ecosystem sustainability.
2) The Route-To-PA Project – Collective Intelligence and Scenario-Based Design work shapes the design of a new open data collaboration platform.
3) The Q-Tales Project - Collective Intelligence and Scenario-Based Design work shapes the design of a new collaboration platform for creation of e-books for Children.
The Social Psychology of Education Open versus Closed Group Dynamics
Harney, O., Hogan, M.J., Broome, B. (2012). Collaborative learning: the effects of trust and open and closed dynamics on consensus and efficacy. Social Psychology of
Education, 15, 517–532
• The effects of open versus closed voting and dispositional trust on perceived consensus and efficacy in a collective intelligence session.
• Two groups (N = 30) high or low on dispositional trust.
• Randomly assigned to two conditions: – Open = discussion prior to voting – Closed = silent voting
Owen Harney, NUIG
• Participants with higher dispositional trust, and those in more open working groups, reported higher levels of perceived consensus (p = .007 and p = .011, respectively).
• Also, reported higher levels of perceived efficacy of IM technology (p = .047 and p = .02, respectively).
Generic versus information prompts – the role of the collective intelligence facilitator
• Four groups (N = 75 students in total) randomly assigned to two conditions
– Generic : simple feedback and instruction (“ok, well done, anyone else?”)
– Information: directed, process-level feedback (“what evidence supports your claim?” ; “Is your view consistent with John’s?” )
Harney, O. M., Hogan, M. J., Broome, B., Hall, T., & Ryan, C. (2015). Investigating the effects of prompts on argumentation style, consensus and perceived efficacy in collaborative learning. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 10(4), 367-394.
• Students in the informative prompt condition reported higher levels of perceived consensus after the collective intelligence session (p<.001).
• Students in the informative feedback condition also exhibited higher levels of sophistication in their arguments -- more propositions, amplifications, challenges, and more varied argumentation.
Research Questions
• Why do people listen to music? • How does music listening promote well-being? • Do older and younger adults differ in their uses
of music?
The Adaptive Functions of Music Listening
Using Collective Intelligence to inform Scale Development
What scale items do we need to generate and what is the factor structure of our scale?
European Projects
Michelle Devaney Christine Domegan Benjamin Broome Michael Hogan
Behaviour Change and collective action across Europe The Sea for Society Project
Multidisciplinary partnership of 21 partners from 8 EU countries   that engages stakeholders, citizens and youth on societal issues  related to the marine sustainability
Atlantic Region  Baltic Region Mediterranean Region 
France Sweden Greece
Ireland Poland Italy 
Portugal  Norway Spain 
• 249 stakeholders participated in  consultations across eight 
Citizen/Youth Consultations • What contributions do the sea 
and its resources make to your  daily life?
• 318 citizen/youths were involved  in consultations across eight 
• 858 contributions and 832  options generated in total for a  sustainable marine ecosystem
Stakeholder Meta Analysis  38 barrier categories across 6 themes 
• Knowledge Deficit • Conflict • Legislation • Human Population Growth • Short Term view • Sustainability
In total, the project partners organised 159 mobilisations activities reaching close to 500,000 people in Europe
International conferences Contests National conferences Exhibitions National workshops Trainings International workshops Open days Science and Sea festivals Think Tanks Blue Cafés, Blue Talks, Blue
Bars Blue weeks
A “day with” / a “night with” Webinar Intergroup Lectures Keep the beach clean activities Social media posts Books: edition and publication
Project Final Review, Luxemburg, 30.9.2016
44Q-Tales EU project Design a platform for authoring e-books for children
(using Scenario-based Collective Intelligence Design)
Objective: to understand barriers to literacy skill development, options to overcome these barriers, and the scenario specific needs of users of the Q-tales platform.
Method: We combined collective intelligence methodologies (Warfield, 2006) with scenario-based design (Carroll, 2000) and agile user story (Cohn, 2004) methods.
Scenarios describe the interaction between people and technology, and are used to identify specific user needs.
Collective Intelligence is used to understand the problem field, and options in response to the problem
Project Final Review, Luxemburg, 30.9.2016
Developing the Q-tales authoring tool and ecosystem
Educational Applications • We have developed a new final year psychology
module: Introduction to Collaborative Enquiry and Applied Systems Science.
• Students learn how to use collective intelligence methods to resolve different societal problems
• I’m currently working on a book: Facilitating Collective Intelligence.
• I blog about exercising our freedom and intelligence on Psychology Today
Teams Team orientation; Mutual performance monitoring;
Backup behavior management; Adaptability; Leadership; Mutual trust, Shared mental models; Closed loop
Develop an action plan
Territories Define a territory of influence Discovery a niche as a team
Timelines The project has a reasonable timeline
Totalities Have a vision and build pragmatic systems
Totalities Have a vision and build pragmatic systems
The Seven Ts Model - A Proposal for Systems Science Education
Hogan, M.J., Harney O. & Broome (2014). A Proposal for Systems Science Education. In, Wegerif, R., Kaufman, J. Li L. (Eds.). The Routledge Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking. Hogan, M.J., Harney O. & Broome (2014). Integrating Argument Mapping with Systems Thinking Tools – Advancing Applied Systems Science. In, Knowledge Cartography: Software Tools and Mapping Techniques. (Eds.) Okada, A., Buckingham Shum, S. and Sherborne, T. Springer: Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing Series.
Thank you!
• For anyone who would like access to the collective intelligence software and a manual, please email: michael.hogan@nuigalway.ie
• We aim to build capacity in collective intelligence for basic and applied research purposes
• How might you use CI in your work?