Exploring Humanitarian Law

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    Exploring Humanitarian LawAre there Rules of War? An Overview of International

    Humanitarian Law (IHL) and How It Functions in the Real World

    4th International Summit on Conflict Resolution EducationCuyahoga Community College, Cleveland, Ohio June 11, 2011

    Laurie Fisher (American Red Cross)Paul Frankmann (Harmon Middle School)James Lane (Educational Consultant)

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    A World of Conflict

    Image Source: Population Action International

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    Introductions Red Cross IHL Survey Questions- March

    2011 Defining Human Dignity What is Exploring Humanitarian Law? The Explorations EHL Curriculum and Resources Bringing EHL into the Classroom

    AGENDA

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    Channel Setting Instructions forResponseCard RF

    1. Press and release the "GO" button.

    2. While the light is flashing red and green, enter the 2 digit

    channel code (i.e. channel 1 = 01, channel 21 = 21).

    Channel is 04

    3. After the second digit is entered, Press and release the

    "GO" button.

    4. Press and release the "1/A" button. The light shouldflash yellow to confirm.

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    Who are you?

    1. Teacher-Elementary or

    Secondary2. College or

    University

    Professor

    3. Social AgencyWorker / NGO

    4. GovernmentOfficial

    5. Student/

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    Where are you from?

    1. United States2. Caribbean3. Latin America4. Africa5. Europe6. Asia-Pacific7. Other

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    What issue is most important to the

    people you work with?1. Torture2. Bullying3. Gangs / Youth

    Violence

    4. Domestic Abuse5. Discrimination6. Civil Unrest7. Other

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    Survey on

    International Humanitarian Law

    Report Date: March 2011Research conducted by ORC International

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    How Familiar are you with the Geneva

    Conventions and International Humanitarian

    Law (IHL)?

    1. Very Familiar2. SomewhatFamiliar3. Just Know Name4. Never Heard of

    Them

    5. Not Sure / DontKnow

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    More than half of adults (55 percent) feel they are familiar with theGeneva Conventions and IHL. For youth 12-17 years old, one in five feel

    familiar with these rules and laws.

    There is a body of law about how wars should be conducted, including the Geneva Conventionsand International Humanitarian Law. These laws have been adopted by every country in the

    world. How familiar are you with these rules and laws? Would you say you are. . .

    Familiarity with Geneva Conventions and IHL

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    Variations in Familiarity: Military vs. Non-

    Military

    There is a body of law about how wars should be conducted, including the Geneva Conventionsand International Humanitarian Law. These laws have been adopted by every country in the

    world. How familiar are you with these rules and laws? Would you say you are. . .

    Note: Very/Somewhat Familiar (Adults Only)

    Familiarity with Geneva Conventions and IHL

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    Rules and Laws governing actions in war are

    a good way to reduce human suffering.

    What is your opinion?

    1. Strongly Agree2.

    Agree

    3. Neutral4. Disagree5. Strongly Disagree

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    Adults (55 percent) are more likely than youth (44 percent) to

    believe that rules and laws governing actions in war are a good wayto reduce human suffering.

    Using a 5 point scale with 5 being completely agree and 1 being completely disagree, to whatextent do you agree or disagree that adopting rules and laws to govern what actions are

    acceptable in war is a good way to reduce the human suffering caused by war?

    Attitudes on adopting rules and laws

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    To what exent is it acceptable to deliberately attack

    religious and historical monuments when there are

    no enemy combatants present?

    1. Always Acceptable2. Sometimes

    Acceptable3. Rarely Acceptable4. Never Acceptable5.

    Unsure/ DontKnow

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    To what exent is it acceptable to take civilian

    hostages to be used in bargaining with the

    enemy?

    1. Always Acceptable2. Sometimes

    Acceptable3. Rarely Acceptable4. Never Acceptable5.

    Unsure/ DontKnow

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    To what exent is it acceptable to deprive civilians in

    combat areas of food, medicine, or water in order to

    weaken the enemy?

    1. Always Acceptable2. Sometimes

    Acceptable3. Rarely Acceptable4. Never Acceptable5.

    Unsure/ DontKnow

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    To what exent is it acceptable to kill enemy

    prisoners in retaliation for the enemy killing its

    prisoners?

    1. Always Acceptable2. Sometimes

    Acceptable3. Rarely Acceptable4. Never Acceptable5.

    Unsure/ DontKnow

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    To what exent is it acceptable to torture captured

    enemy soldiers or fighters in order to get important

    military information?

    1. Always Acceptable2. Sometimes

    Acceptable3. Rarely Acceptable4. Never Acceptable5.

    Unsure/ DontKnow

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    To what exent is it acceptable to refuse to allow

    prisoners to be visited from a neutral organization to

    confirm that they are being treated well?

    1. Always Acceptable2. Sometimes

    Acceptable3. Rarely Acceptable4. Never Acceptable5.

    Unsure/ DontKnow

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    Youth are more likely than adults to believe that these actionsare always or sometimes acceptable.

    To what extent is it acceptable for soldiers and fighters to take the following actions in war? Foreach action, please tell me if it is always acceptable, is acceptable in some circumstances, or if it

    is never acceptable.

    Acceptability of actions during war

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    Variation in acceptability of torture of enemy soldiers

    Youth are more likely than adults to believe that torturing captured enemy soldiers

    is either always acceptable or acceptable in some circumstances.

    To what extent is it acceptable for soldiers and fighters to take the following actions in war? Foreach action, please tell me if it is always acceptable, is acceptable in some circumstances, or if it

    is never acceptable. Torturing captured enemy soldiers or fighters in order to get important military information

    Acceptability of actions during war

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    To what exent is it acceptable for an American

    soldier who has been captured with important

    military information to be tortured by the enemy for

    that information?

    1. Always Acceptable2. Sometimes

    Acceptable3. Rarely Acceptable4. Never Acceptable5.

    Unsure/ DontKnow

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    Variation in acceptability of torture of American soldiers

    Youth are more likely than adults to believe that the torture of a captured American

    soldier is either always acceptable or acceptable in some circumstances.

    From what you know, if an American soldier who has important military information is captured, is itacceptable for enemy soldiers to torture the soldier to get that information? Would you say it is. ..

    Acceptability of actions during war

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    When did the U.S. Government first adopt rules

    imposing limits on how wars should be

    conducted?

    1. Revolutionary War2. Civil War3. World War I4. World War II5. Not Sure / Dont

    Know.

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    About 1 in 5 youth (18 percent) and 7 percent of adults knew that

    the U.S. first adopted rules limiting how wars should be conductedduring the American Civil War.

    From what you know, when did the U.S. government first adopt rules imposing limits

    on how wars should be conducted? Was it during

    Knowledge of origins of Geneva Conventions/IHL

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    Should government leaders ban the use of land

    mines because of their potential for harming

    civilians and preventing land use after conflict?

    1. Yes2. No3. Not Sure / DontKnow

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    The majority of both youth and adults believe that land minesshould be banned, though nearly 2 in 5 youth oppose a ban.

    In your opinion, should government leaders ban the use of land mines because they have greatpotential for hurting civilians and for preventing use of the land long after the war is over?

    Attitudes on use of land mines

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    In your opinion what should be done to those

    who broke the rules of war on