Exploring best options for the inclusion of rural poor in cassava value chain: lessons from...

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Importance of cassava in East and Southern Africa,Postharvest Issues,Factors contributing to poor quality & safety of products,cassava's value chain,Assessment of quality and safety of products from mechanized and traditional processing,Quality management guidelines for cassava and training of processors,Tanzania Assessment of value chain and actors’ performance,Determinants of profitability and overall success of village processing units

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  • 1.Women and children are here,where are the men? ., the task is too difficult for them International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org

2. Exploring best options for the inclusion ofrural poor in cassava value chain: lessons from small-scale cassava processing inEast and Southern Africa Abass AdebayoInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 3. Importance of cassava in ESA An ideal crop for food security Stable yield even during harsh weather Stores well underground Suitable for piecemeal harvesting Household food security Many varieties (improved) are tolerant to diseasesAn export crop in the past (Madagascar, Tanzania, Uganda)An up-and-coming industrial raw material (Zambia, Tanzania,Madagascar)International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 4. Production and yield, 200850.0Production (million MT)40.0Yield (tons/ha)30.020.010.00.0FAOSTAT, 2011International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 5. Yield (tons/ha) South-Eastern Asia18.4Southern Asia31.6 Eastern Asia 16.3 South America13.5 Africa 10.1 Western Africa11.4Central Africa 9.0Eastern Africa8.8Southern AfricaLow yield = Lack of global competitivenessInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 6. Postharvest IssuesPostharvest methodsPounding Storage of harvested roots Processing 1. Boiling/Roasting/Frying 2. Hand grating/pounding of fresh roots 3. Fermentation Heap fermentation SoakingDrying 4. Pounding of dried chips to flour 5. Sun-drying Storage of dried cassavaInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 7. Postharvest constraints High labor input Drying Long processing time Small output High postharvest loss High contamination: poor quality & safety Pounding Women do the hard work Knowledge of processing machinery fabrication developing Scale-up problems for processing/ lack of examples for the private sector to follow. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 8. Factors contributing to poor quality & safety of products Use of contaminated water, or lack of it, for processing . Most fermentation practices promote fungi growth with potential aflatoxins contamination and discoloration Soaking DryingInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 9. Occasional inadequate processing methodso Short-cutso Repeated use of soak water Contamination during storage Unhygienic handling, transportation and trading practicesStorage in the attics HandlingInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 10. Low yield + high labor for processing+ Poor product quality & safety= Low marketpriceInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 11. Profitability of traditional cassava production and processing in TanzaniaSouthern zoneEastern zone Lake zone150.0100.0 US$/farmer/year 50.00.0-50.0Production ProcessingProduction and -100.0 Processing -150.0 -200.0 to limit losses, farmers do not use hired labor and they allocate land for cassava production based on available family laborInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 12. Farmers coping strategy : Cassava for food and less for cash9080 Tanzania70% 605040 Food30 Sale2010 0 Southern zoneEastern zoneLake zone higher proportion of farm output is for home consumptionInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 13. IITAs Value Chain interventions:Value chain activities through special projects:Some examples: 2003 -2007: Small scale cassava processing project - Phase I 2004/2005: CIAT/IITA Starch Project and Livelihoods project 2009-2010: UPoCA 2009-2011: CAVA 2009 2013: Small scale cassava processing project - Phase II Formulate value addition interventions that utilize collectiveaction to correct scale- and knowledge-related market failuresInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 14. Set-up value chain models....to investigate and develop a sequence of inter-linkedagents and markets to transform cassava into products withattributes for which consumers are prepared to pay.International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 15. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 16. Setting-up the laboratory. Development? Step 1: Partnership formation: NARES, selected beneficiaries/actors along the value chain Step 2: Value chain analysis and benchmarking Step 3: Introduction of technologies or innovations through trainingof value chain actors End 1Collecting the data..Research Step 4: Monitoring of the value chain performance Step 5: Evaluation or impact measurement 2International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 17. Issues of interest.. how cassava can be used as input for food, feed and industrial raw material ; what factors are associated with its passage through several marketing or supply channels, including its transformation? how much and at which stage of the channels value is added to it; how the value can be maximized at the least possible total cost for the competitive advantage of every chain actor?International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 18. Technology introduction : Machinery Train and backstop equipment manufacturers in machinery design and fabrication International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 19. Collective action for small-scale processing : Introduce improved processing methods and relatedtechnologiesMechanized chipping, grating, pressing, starch extraction, raised areadrying. Grating/Chipping/Pressing Raised area drying Starch settlingHigh quality grits/flourDelivery for industrial use International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 20. Work with industries to increase technical possibility of cassava use in industrial processes Bread and other Pastries Large scale bakeries Training andIn-factorytestingof cassavato diversify market optionsfor cassava Paper/packagingfarmersBiscuitInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 21. Standards/certification (CRP2)Partnerships with national food regulatory agencies to establish themechanisms for verifying to consumers the quality, food safety, and/orproduction methods of cassava products. The following standards arenow operational in at least 7 countries 1. Fresh (Sweet)Cassava Roots Specification 2. Dried Cassava Chips Specification 3. Cassava Crisps Specification 4. Composite Flour- Specification 5. Cassava Flour Specification 6. Cassava Starch Specification 7. Assay for Total Cyanogens International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 22. Assessment of quality and safety of products from mechanizedand traditional processing Microbial quality compliance test in Tanzania, 2010Microbial tests ValuesTolerance Commentlevels*Total plate count, cfu/g6.7 x 104 -Total coliforms, cfu/g1.1 x 103 -E. coli, cfu/g9.3 x 101 Shall be absent Not compliantYeast and mould, cfu/g2.6 x 103 103Salmonella, cfu/g Not detected Shall be absentVibrio cholerea, cfu/ g Not detected -*EAS 740:2010 & TZS 466: 2010 :- Cassava Flour Specification International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 23. Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin in traditional cassava flour and chips, 2008-2009Products tested Brazzaville, Congo TanzaniaAflatoxin B1 Fumonisin Aflatoxin B1(ppm)(ppm) (ppm)Cassava chips 0.35a0.008a0.28aCassava flour 0.31a0.009aCassava chips: 4 0.89bmonth- storageMaize 1.07b0.42b -On-going: Assessment of quality and safety of products fromtraditional and mechanized processing in Tanzania, Madagascar andZambia International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 24. Application of food quality and safety management measures that prevent microbial and chemical contaminants (CRP2/CRP3-RTB) Assessment of 21 processing units in Tanzania, Malawi and Mozambique for quality management practicesProcess control1. Both low and high in cyanide varieties are processed: mild processing techniques - chipping and quick drying may pose safety risks2. Water from rivers is used without pre-treatment.3. Processing machines: graters and chipper, are made of mild steel4. Weevil infestation problems during storage International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 25. Assessment of processing units Hygiene1. Sun-drying during wet seasons provides ample time for multiplication of spoilage microorganisms.2. Public service hammer mills contaminate cassava flour3. Most processors lack good drainage systems4. Processors do not have necessary cleaning and sanitation tools.5. No hand-washing facilities nor hygiene rules6. Occasional weevil infestation during storage International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Institut international dagriculture tropicale www.iita.org 26. Quality management guidelines for cassava and training ofprocessors Quality management procedures or guidelines. Control measures to preven