Evolution of Management Thought

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Evolution of Management ThoughtThe emergence of Management Thought Early Approaches to Management Classical Approach Behavioral Approach Quantitative Approach Modern Approaches to Management Emerging Approaches in

The emergence of Management Thought

Frederick W. Taylor Acknowledged as the father of Scientfic management. His primary concern was to increase productivity through greater efficiency in production and increased pay for workers, through the application of the scientific method. Taylors famous work entitled The principles of Scientific Management was published in 1911.

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The emergence of Management ThoughtHenry L. Gantt(1901): called for Scientific selection of workers and harmonious cooperation: between labour and management. Stressed the need for training.sonali dhawan

The emergence of Management ThoughtFrank and Lillian Gilberth (1900) Frank is known primarily for his time and motion studies. Lillian an industrial psychologist, focused on the human aspects of work and the understanding of workers personalities and needs.

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Henri Fayol Refferred to as the father of modern management theory . Divided industrial activities into six groups: Technical , Commercial, Financial, Security, Accounting and Managerial. Formulated Fourteen Principles of Management.sonali dhawan

The emergence of Management Thought

The emergence of Management Thought

Hugo Munsterberg (1912):Application of psychology to industry and management. Walter Dill Scott :Application of psychology to advertising, Marketing and personnel. Max Weber:Theory of Bureaucracy Vilfredo Pareto:Reffered to as the father of the social systems approach to organisation and management. sonali dhawan

The emergence of Management Thought

Elton Mayo:Famous studies at the Hawthrone plant of the western Electric Company. F.J.Roethlisberger:Influence of social attitudes and relationships of work-group performance.sonali dhawan

The emergence of Management ThoughtChester Barnard :The task of managers is to maintain a system of cooperative effort in a formal organisation. He suggested a comprehensive social systems approach to management.

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Classical ApproachApproach Scientific Management Rationale Focus One best way Job level to do each job

Administrative One best way Organisational Principles to put an Level organisation together Bureaucratic organisation Rational and Organisational impersonal Level organisational arrangements sonali dhawan

Behavioral ApproachName Mary Parker Perio Contribution d 1868- Emphasized group 1933 influence and advocated the concept of power sharing and integration.

Elton Mayo1880- Laid the foundation for the 1949 Human Relations movement; recognised the influence of group and workplace culture on job performance. sonali dhawan

Behavioral ApproachName Period Contribution Abraham 1908- Advocated that humans are Maslow 1970 essentially motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Douglas 1906- Differentiated employees McGregor 1964 and manages into Theory X and Theory Y personalities. Chris Argyris Classified organisations based on the employees set ofsonali dhawan values.

Approaches to Management (1) Empirical or Case ApproachStudies experience through cases. Identifies successes & Failures.Case situation

Failure

Success

Why?

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(2) Managerial Roles Approach

Interpersonal Roles Decision Roles Informational Roles

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(3) Contingency Or Situational ApproachManagerial Practice depends on circumstances. Contingency Theory recognizes the influence of given solutions on organizational behaviour patterns.Cause Effect

Situation Contingency

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(4) Mathematical or Management Science ApproachManaging is seen as mathematical processes, concepts, symbols, and models. Looks at management as puerly logical process, expressed in mathematical symbols and relationship.

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(5) Decision Theory ApproachFocus on the making of decisions, persons or group making decisions, and the decision-making process. Some theorists use decision-making as a springboard to study all enterprise activities. The boundaries of study are no longer clearly defined.

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(6) Reengineering ApproachOperations

Input

Transformationsonali dhawan

OutPut

(7) Systems ApproachSystems concepts have broad applicability. Systems have boundaries, but they also interact with the external environment. Organizations are open systems (open to external environment)sonali dhawan

(8) Socio-Technical Systems ApproachTechnical system has great effect on social system (personal attitudes,group behaviour). Focus on production, office operations and other areas with close relationships between the technical system and people.

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(9) Group Behaviour ApproachEmphasis on behaviour of people in groups. Based on sociology and social psychology. The study of large groups is often called organization behaviour.sonali dhawan

10) Interpersonal Behaviour ApproachFocus on interpersonal behaviour, human relations, leadership, and motivation. Based on individual psychology.sonali dhawan

11)McKinseys 7-S frame work :STRUCTURE

SYSTEMS STRATEGY

SHARED VALUES

SKILLS STAFF sonali dhawan

STYLE

12) Total Quality Management Approach.

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13) Management process or operational ApproachDraws Knowledge from approaches Above

OPERATIONAL APPROACH

Integrates the approahes with science And theory that is practical.

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Theory X (Douglas McGreor) Management's only responsibility is to improve the company's "bottom line." The employees of an organization are tools to be used to meet this goal. People are basically unwilling to work in the best interests of the company, cannot handle responsibility, and must be tightly controlled, prodded, and punished to get their work done.

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Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Management should create conditions that enable and encourage employees to attain their own goals by working toward the goals of the organization. Employees are inherently ready to accept responsibility, do a good job, and work in the best interests of the company. It is management's responsibility to create the conditions that will allow employees to develop their fullest potential.sonali dhawan

Theory Z Ouchis)

(Dr. William

Based on Japanese management practices and motivational pattern.Ouchi has suggested five broad features of Theory z. Trust Strong Bond between organisation & Employees. Employee Involvement. No formal structure. Coordination of Human Beings.sonali dhawan