Euthanasia and Mass Depopulation During Animal Health Emergencies

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Euthanasia and Mass Depopulation During Animal Health Emergencies. Overview and Considerations. Definitions. Euthanasia “Good death” As painless and stress free as possible Mass depopulation Large numbers of animals Safely, quickly and efficiently destroyed - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Euthanasia and Mass Depopulation During Animal Health Emergencies

Euthanasia-Mass Depopulation

Euthanasia and Mass DepopulationDuring Animal Health Emergencies Overview and ConsiderationsDecember 2013During an animal health emergency, the euthanasia of large numbers of animals (or mass depopulation) may be necessary. This action, most commonly used during highly contagious disease outbreaks, can help minimize the spread of disease between animals in efforts to protect the nations agricultural and national economy and safeguard the health of the public. Following large-scale disaster events, euthanasia efforts may be needed to end the suffering of severely ill or injured animals. This Just-in-Time presentation will provide an overview of considerations for euthanasia and mass depopulation measures that may be needed for an animal health emergency response.1DefinitionsEuthanasiaGood death As painless and stress free as possibleMass depopulationLarge numbers of animalsSafely, quickly and efficiently destroyedMoral obligation to ensure welfare

Just In Time TrainingEuthanasia and Mass DepopulationThe terms euthanasia and mass depopulation may be used interchangeably in this presentation, but it is important to be aware of the difference in these terms as defined by the United States Department of Agricultures Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA APHIS) and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA). Euthanasia, taken from the Greek meaning good death, is the process of transitioning an animal to death as painlessly and stress-free as possible. It usually applies to an individual animal. Mass depopulation on the other hand is a method used in animal health emergencies by which large numbers of animals are destroyed quickly and efficiently with as much consideration given to the welfare of the animals as is feasible. Individuals handling and caring for animals have a moral obligation to ensure the welfare of the animals under their care. Situations involving disease or injury can reduce an animals quality of life or result in pain in suffering of the animal. When effective medical treatment is not available or a viable option, euthanasia of the animal is indicated. While there are many different methods of euthanasia, our discussion in this presentation will be limited to those methods applicable to large scale animal health emergencies.MSP, CFSPH - 20102Goals of EuthanasiaHumane treatment at all timesAcceptable methodQuick, efficient and humaneMinimize negative psychological impactAnimal owners and caretakers, responders, publicPrevent disease spreadPrevent adulterated animal products from entering food chain

Just In Time TrainingEuthanasia and Mass DepopulationThe goals of euthanasia are to (a) provide humane treatment of animals at all times until they are euthanized; (b) select and use an acceptable form of euthanasia to be executed as quickly, efficiently, and humanely as possible; (c) minimize the negative emotional and psychological impact on animal owners, caretakers, and the public; (d) prevent or mitigate disease spread, and (e) prevent adulterated or potentially adulterated meat products from entering the food chain.MSP, CFSPH - 20103ConsiderationsGuidelinesMethod SelectionProcedurePersonnelAnimal WelfarePublic PerceptionJust In Time TrainingEuthanasia and Mass DepopulationThere are a number of factors that must be considered before any mass depopulation effort is taken. These include following established euthanasia guidelines for selecting an appropriate method, ensuring animal welfare issues are addressed throughout the process, having appropriately trained personnel for the procedure, determining appropriate site selection, and remaining cognizant of public perception at all times. We will discuss each of these factors next.MSP, CFSPH - 20104Euthanasia GuidelinesAmerican Veterinary Medical AssociationGuidelines on Euthanasia (2013)FAD PReP/NAHEMS Guidelines: Mass Depopulation and EuthanasiaWorld Organization for Animal Health (OIE)Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Ch. 7.6)Killing Animals for Disease Control PurposesJust In Time TrainingEuthanasia and Mass DepopulationWhen the decision is made to depopulate, planned actions should follow current recommendations for appropriate methods and approaches. Euthanasia methods must be appropriate to the species involved, legal for use in the jurisdiction and implemented according to current professional standards. Guidelines can be found in the following documents: the American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for Euthanasia and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Foreign Animal Disease Preparedness and Response Plan Guidelines on Mass Depopulation and Euthanasia. For events involving international trade, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Killing Animals for Disease Control Purposes found in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code can be helpful.MSP, CFSPH - 20105Method SelectionSpeciesNumber of animalsHandling and restraintTechnical skillCostResiduesPersonnel safetyRegulationsJust In Time TrainingEuthanasia and Mass Depopulation

Different euthanasia methods are recommended based on the animal species involved. Much of this relates to the size and quantity of animals as well as the temperament of the animals. Additionally, the animals comfort level with humans and the ability of the animal(s) to be handled and/or restrained will factor into method selection. Most euthanasia methods require a high level of technical skill. Having an ample number of trained team members available will be an important consideration for euthanasia method selection. The potential for chemical residue in the carcasses often eliminates the use of chemical euthanasia methods. Measures to ensure personnel safety during all euthanasia procedures must also implemented. In some instances, method selection may require consideration of the cost of the procedure. Laws regarding acceptable methods of euthanasia vary from state to state, so the states legal authority should be consulted when selecting a depopulation method. [The top photo shows a feedlot of cattle. Source: Renee Dewell, Iowa State University/CFSPH; The bottom photos shows a flock of chickens. Source: Center for Food Security and Public Health] MSP, CFSPH - 20106Procedure ConsiderationsHumane treatmentQuickly rendered unconsciousMinimize pain and stressSkilled personnelConfirmation of deathBack-up methodSite selection

Just In Time TrainingEuthanasia and Mass Depopulation

Regardless of the method selected, all animals must be handled humanely throughout the entire euthanasia process. Humane euthanasia requires that animals be rendered unconscious quickly and with the least amount of pain and stress as possible. The ability to carry this out will be determined by the euthanasia method used as well as the skill, training and expertise of the team. In all cases, worker familiarity with the species is important. If euthanasia is not performed directly by a veterinarian, there should be close observation and supervision by veterinary personnel. Each animal should be checked at the conclusion of the procedure to ensure death has occurred. A backup method of euthanasia must be available if the primary euthanasia method fails. The location of the euthanasia procedures, especially for large animal species, must take into consideration the removal of carcasses for disposal.

[This photo shows a group of finisher pigs. Source: Alex Ramirez, Iowa State University, VDPAM]MSP, CFSPH - 20107Animal WelfareCalm, gentle handling Non-slip surfacesIndoors consider access for removal and disposalNon-ambulatory animals euthanized where they areJIT Guidelines for handling/restraint

Just In Time TrainingEuthanasia and Mass DepopulationEuthanasia measures should take place in such a way as to minimize an animals stress and pain, therefore, appropriate animal handling and restraint is critical. Calm, gentle handling will help minimize animal stress and ensures the safety of euthanasia workers and others in the area. For animals accustomed to being handled, gentle restraint in a familiar environment can have a calming effect on animals. Animals should be handled on non-slip surfaces, as quietly as possible; loud noises and shouting should be avoided. Animals that cannot be handled or moved may be euthanized in their customary housing with consideration given to access for removal of carcasses for disposal. Non-ambulatory animals should be euthanized where they are. Just-In-Time presentations overviewing guidelines for the handling and restraint of various species are available.MSP, CFSPH - 20108Public PerceptionConduct indoors or away from public viewTreat animals humanely at all timesMedia may help convey informationNecessity of depopulationUpdatesPublic Information Officer (PIO) should coordinate to treat the situation proactivelyJust In Time TrainingEuthanasia and Mass DepopulationAny response requiring the euthanasia of large numbers of animals will attract considerable attention from the media and public. When possible euthanasia sites should be conducted indoors away from public view. Animals should be treated humanely at all times. The media may be helpful in raising public awareness of the necessity of depopulation. Appropriately crafted media messages will help. A public information officer can provide these messages, as well as information and regular updates to the media and general public (i.e., stakeholders) to treat the situation proactively. MSP, CFSPH - 20109Euthanasia MethodsPhysicalChemicalJust In Time TrainingEuthanasia and Mass DepopulationNext, lets overview the particular methods of euthanasia that may be used for animal health emergency situations. Both physical and chemical means of euthanasia may be utilized in mass depopulation situations. MSP, CFSPH - 201010Physical Euthanasia MethodsCaptive boltGunshotSpecial circumst