Esophagoenteral stents in patients with recurrent gastric ... efficacy of esophagoenteral stents

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ABSTRACT

One of the problems that can appear in patients with total gas-trectomy for adenocarcinoma with esophagoenteral anastomosisis the appearance of a stenosis of the anastomosis. These stenosisare frequently malignant due to relapse of neoplasia. The thera-peutic possibilities available are the surgical bypass or palliativetreatment. There is very little experience described in the literature(21 cases) on the placing of self-expandable metal stents as a pal-liative treatment for the symptoms of stenosis.

We present our experience of 3 patients, in whom 4esophageal stents were fitted (1 covered and 3 uncovered) withgood results. The dysphagia disappeared or improved, it allowedthe ingestion of a soft diet and meant an improvement in the qual-ity of life and at the same time stopped the weight loss. It seemsan effective palliative treatment as a treatment for dysphagia inpatients with tumoral relapse in the anastomosis of total gastrec-tomies.

Key words: Stents. Total gastrectomy. Relapse. Carcinoma.

Prez Roldn F, Gonzlez Carro P, Legaz Huidobro M, Orue-zabal Moreno M, Soto Fernndez S, Roncero Garca-EscribanoO, de Pedro Esteban A, Ruiz Carrillo F, Seoane Gonzlez J.Esophagoenteral stents in patients with recurrent gastric ade-nocarcinoma. Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2006; 98: 341-349.

INTRODUCTION

In recent years there has been a progressive increase ingastric adenocarcinoma, together with improvements in

its surgical and oncologic treatment. Increasingly morerescue surgeries are being performed when localized re-lapses develop, while chemotherapy treatments are alsoadministered with both curative and palliative purposes.

The existence of multi-disciplinary teams has enabled amore extensive management of these neoplasms, and hasparticularly pointed what to do when inoperable relapsesappear with significant clinical manifestations such asvomiting, dysphagia, and weight loss. There is little pub-lished experience on the treatment to follow when we findourselves facing a malignant stenosis in patients with anesophagojejunal anastomosis after a total oncological gas-trectomy. Therapeutic possibilities include surgical bypassand palliative treatment. Within possible palliations is theinsertion of an esophagoenteral stent, but there is little ex-perience thereof in the literature (1-9).

The objective of this work is to describe the palliativeefficacy of esophagoenteral stents in patients after totalgastrectomy, and with a subsequent relapse of their gas-tric neoplasm at the anastomosis or next to it.

PATIENTS AND METHODS

During the period between 1999 and January 2003, 130stomach neoplasms were diagnosed out of 5,432 upper GIendoscopies undertaken (2.39%). Of these, 3 patients weresubjected to total gastrectomy with curative intent, andsubsequently suffered a tumor relapse at the anastomosissite. All three patients had the same symptoms, includingthe presence of dysphagia and vomiting with weight loss.Treatment consisted of the placement of esophagoentereralstents using endoscopy with an Ultraflex, covered orotherwise, from Boston Scientific Corporation S.A. in or-der to palliate the symptoms of patients.

The prostheses were placed under endoscopic vision,leaving the end of the stent in the small intestine and the

Esophagoenteral stents in patients with recurrent gastricadenocarcinoma

F. Prez-Roldn, P. Gonzlez-Carro, M. Legaz-Huidobro, M. Oruezabal-Moreno1, S. Soto Fernndez,O. Roncero Garca-Escribano, A. de Pedro Esteban, F. Ruiz-Carrillo and J. Seoane-Gonzlez2

Units of Gastroenterology, 1Oncology and 2General Surgery. Complejo Hospitalario La Mancha-Centro. Alczar de SanJuan. Ciudad Real, Spain

1130-0108/2006/98/5/341-349REVISTA ESPAOLA DE ENFERMEDADES DIGESTIVASCopyright 2006 ARN EDICIONES, S. L.

REV ESP ENFERM DIG (Madrid)Vol. 98. N. 5, pp. 341-349, 2006

Recibido: 01-02-05.Aceptado: 11-05-05.

Correspondencia: Francisco Prez-Roldn. Unidad de Gastroenterologa.Complejo Hospitalario La Mancha-Centro. Avda. de la Constitucin, 3.13600 Alczar de San Juan (Ciudad Real). Fax: 926 547 700.

PEREZ ROLDAN 13/6/06 18:53 Pgina 341

proximal side in the esophagus. Also, we had radiologiccontrol in order to check the situation and opening of thestent. The patient remained at rest for 24 hours, and aftera control X-rays to check the correct placement of theprosthesis, they were put on a liquid diet.

All 3 cases reported, and their clinical outcome are de-scribed below.

Case 1

A 41-year-old woman had undergone total gastrecto-my with Roux-Y reconstruction after presenting with apoorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma 2 years ear-lier. Chemotherapy was associated according to cisplatinand iridotecan guidelines, and 12 cycles were given. Sherequired rescue surgery at 18 months for a local extralu-minal tumor relapse terminolateral anastomosis withRoux-Y reconstruction and subtotal colostomy with ter-minolateral ileocolic anastomosis and associated ileosto-my. Surgical pieces clearly showed an infiltration of theperitoneum, colon, and previously ascended intestinalloop, and in the esophageal reflux area from resection.

She was referred to the Gastroenterology Departmentfor progressive dysphagia two months after surgery, ac-companied by weight loss. An esophagogram was per-formed in which a distal esophageal stenosis was found,and subsequently an upper digestive endoscopy wasdone: distal esophageal stenosis with normal mucosa,with biopsies being negative for malignity; she also hadsutures and surgical staples. It was decided to remove thesutures, and she was given 6 sessions of pneumatic dila-tion, but these were ineffective. Given the suspicion oftransmural neoplastic infiltration and the continuing dys-phagia, an uncovered esophageal stent of 7 cm was fitted(Fig. 1). On expanding the stent, neoplastic infiltrationcould be seen. After 48 hours she could take a soft dietand showed a clearly improved dysphagia. The patientalso received cycles of associated palliative chemothera-py.

Eight months after stenting there was a recurrence ofdysphagia and weight loss. At endoscopy a neoplasticgrowth could be seen through the stent (Fig. 1); it was de-cided to insert a covered esophageal stent 10 cm inlength. The patient was restarted on oral feeding, and herdysphagia improved. She died 6 months later from sys-temic tumor invasion.

Case 2

A 58-year-old woman had undergone total gastrectomywith Roux-Y reconstruction for a Laurens diffuse, poorlydifferentiated gastric adenocarcinoma 1 year before. Sheneeded a second surgery a month later to address an infiltra-tion of the esophageal anastomosis ring, and also chemother-apy was added. A year later an upper endoscopy was per-

formed to study progressive dysphagia with weight loss,which showed evidence of tumor relapse with associatedesophageal stenosis. It was decided to insert an uncovered 7-cm stent dysphagia disappeared and ingestion became pos-sible. Biopsies taken from the stenosis were positive for ma-lignity. The patient received palliative chemotherapy.

She died 8 months after stenting from tumor progres-sion, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and pulmonary metas-tases without dysphagia.

Case 3

A 69-year-old man had undergone total gastrectomywith Roux-Y reconstruction for a poorly differentiatedgastric adenocarcinoma 12 months earlier. For backuptreatment he was given radiotherapy and chemotherapy,after which he showed peritoneal implants in the histo-logical study of the surgical piece. An upper endoscopywas performed for progressive dysphagia and weightloss, which demonstrated a fibrous ring at the esopha-goenteral anastomosis, and a jejunal stenosis close to theanastomosis. Biopsies were taken, which were negativefor malignity. Against the suspicion of local relapse from

342 F. PREZ ROLDN ET AL. REV ESP ENFERM DIG (Madrid)

REV ESP ENFERM DIG 2006; 98(5): 341-349

A

Fig. 1.- A. Esophagoenteral stenosis seen with barium radiology(arrows).A. Estenosis esofagoenteral vista por radiologa baritada (flechas).

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peritoneal carcinomatosis, an expandable uncovered 10-cm esophageal stent was inserted (Fig. 2). The patientdied 4 months later from systemic tumor invasion.

DISCUSSION

Metal stents have conventionally been used for thepalliation of esophageal (10) and biliary neoplasms. Re-cently they have been given new uses, such as the pallia-tion of obstructive colon neoplasms, treatment of ob-structed gastric outlet, and duodenal compression (3,11).

On the other hand, we should remember that, in spiteof the improvement of surgical and oncologic therapiesfor gastric adenocarcinoma, problems have arisen, in-

Fig. 1.- B. Endoscopic image of a stenotic site at the anastomosis.B. Imagen endoscpica de la estenosis de la anastomosis.

Fig. 1.- E. Tumor relapse developing over the expandable stent.E. Recidiva tumoral que reaparece sobre la prtesis expandible.

Fig. 1.- C. Uncovered expandable stent in place. C. Prtesis expandible no recubierta colocada.

Vol. 98. N. 5, 2006 ESOPHAGOENTERAL STENTS IN PATIENTS WITH RECURRENT 343GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMA

REV ESP ENFERM DIG 2006; 98(5): 341-349

Fig. 1.- D. Plain radiograph showing an expanded stent in place. D. Radiologa simple con prtesis colocada y expandida.

B

C

D

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Fig. 2.- A. Stenosis in the intestinal loop close to the anastomosis in theradiological study (arrow).A. Estenosis en asa intestinal prxima a la anastomosis en el estudio ra-diolgico (flecha).

A

Fig. 2.- D. Abdomen radiograph with a stent placed and expanded.D. Radiologa de abdomen con prtesis colo