Escaping the “Polluter Pays” Trap: Financing Wastewater FISCHHENDLER.pdf ·...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    21-Jan-2021
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    0
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Escaping the “Polluter Pays” Trap: Financing Wastewater FISCHHENDLER.pdf ·...

  • Escaping the “Polluter Pays” Trap: Financing Wastewater Treatment on

    the Tijuana-San Diego Border

    Itay Fischhendler Department of Geography, The Hebrew University of

    Jerusalem

  • Introduction •Addressing transboundary hazards require dividing the cost of pollution prevention •The solution often suggested is the “polluter pays principle” (PPP)

    PPP means that the polluter should be the one to bear the cost of measures to prevent pollution.

    •The PPP is endorsed by many international organizations and agreements

    Among them: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development The European Union NAFTA Rio de Janeiro Declaration Agenda 21 World Summit on Sustainable Development

  • Introduction (Cont)

    The rationale behind it: - economic efficiency - environmental effectiveness - fairness

    The problem: cost-sharing arrangements other than PPP are often adopted instead

    Research aim: To explain the gap between theory and reality

  • Theoretical background

    Infeasibility Ambiguity Unfairness Lack of property

    rights

    Lack of international

    law

    Barriers for PPP

  • Research hypothesis Cost-sharing principle

    offset

    Effect on Asymmetries

    ignores

    Effective Wastewater treatment

    Ineffective wastewater treatment

  • Research MethodCycle II Cycle III

    The evolution of cost-sharing, and its underlying reasons, of the pollution abaitment regime along Tijuana and San Diego

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    ?

    1958 2004time

  • Ability to pay & beneficiary

    pays

    outfall construction

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    outfall operation

    Equally pays

    Polluter pays

    1938 Years

    Cost-burden evolution of wastewater infrastructure along the San Diego/Tijuana border

  • Treatment plant

    Pump station

    Collection system

    Point Loma TP

  • Years

    Ability to pay & beneficiary

    pays

    outfall construction

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    outfall operationEqually pays

    Tijuana early wastewater

    plant

    1958

    Polluter pays

    1938

    Cost-burden evolution of wastewater infrastructure along the San Diego/Tijuana border

  • Treatment plant

    Pump station

    Collection system

    Em ergency connection

  • Polluter pays

    Ability to pay & beneficiary

    pays

    outfall construction

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    outfall operationEqually pays

    Tijuana early wastewater

    plant 1958 1965

    Emergency connection

    1938 Years Cost-burden evolution of wastewater infrastructure along the San Diego/Tijuana border

  • Treatment plant

    Pump station

    Collection system

    Em ergency connection

    International Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Ocean Outfall

  • Treatment plant

    Pump station

    Collection system

    Em ergency connection

    International Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Ocean Outfall

    San Antonio TP

    Proposed Rio Almar

  • Polluter pays

    Ability to pay & beneficiary

    pays

    outfall construction

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    outfall operationEqually pays

    Tijuana early wastewater

    plant

    1958 1965

    Emergency connection

    1985

    Tijuana wastewater

    plant 1938 Years

    Cost-burden evolution of wastewater infrastructure along the San Diego/Tijuana border

  • Treatment plant

    Pump station

    Collection system

    Em ergency connection

    International Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Ocean Outfall

    Proposed Rio Almar

    San Antonio TP

    Defensive measures

  • Polluter pays

    Ability to pay & beneficiary

    pays

    outfall construction

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    outfall operationEqually pays

    Tijuana early wastewater

    plant

    1958 1965

    Emergency connection

    1985

    Tijuana wastewater

    plant

    Defensive measures

    19871938

    Cost-burden evolution of wastewater infrastructure along the San Diego/Tijuana border

  • Treatment plant

    Pump station

    Collection system

    Em ergency connection

    International Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Ocean Outfall

    Proposed Rio Almar

    San Antonio TP

    Defensive measures

  • Polluter pays

    Ability to pay & beneficiary

    pays

    outfall construction

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    outfall operationEqually pays

    Tijuana early wastewater

    plant

    1958 1965

    Emergency connection

    1985

    Tijuana wastewater

    plant

    Defensive measures

    1987

    International wastewater plant

    1938 1996

    Cost-burden evolution of wastewater infrastructure along the San Diego/Tijuana border

  • Treatment plant

    Pump station

    Collection system

    Em ergency connection

    International Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Ocean Outfall

    Proposed Rio Almar

    San Antonio TP

    Defensive measures

    Conveyance system

  • 1938

    Polluter pays

    Ability to pay & beneficiary

    pays

    outfall construction

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    outfall operationEqually pays

    Tijuana early wastewater

    plant

    1958 1965

    Emergency connection

    1985

    Tijuana wastewater

    plant

    Defensive measures

    1987 1996

    International wastewater plant

    1997

    Conveyance system and

    improve existing wastewater

    system

    Cost-burden evolution of wastewater infrastructure along the San Diego/Tijuana border

  • Treatment plant

    Pump station

    Collection system

    Em ergency connection

    International Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Ocean Outfall

    Proposed Rio Almar

    San Antonio TP

    Defensive measures

    Conveyance system

    Proposed Bagaagua

  • 1938

    Polluter pays

    Ability to pay & beneficiary

    pays

    outfall construction

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    outfall operationEqually pays

    Tijuana early wastewater

    plant

    1958 1965

    Emergency connection

    1985

    Tijuana wastewater

    plant

    Defensive measures

    1987 1996

    International wastewater plant

    1997

    Conveyance system and

    improve existing system

    2004

    Rehabilitation of Tijuana collection

    system

    Tijuana master plant and

    Bajaagua project

    Cost-burden evolution of wastewater infrastructure along the San Diego/Tijuana border

  • Cycle i Cycle II Cycle III

    1938

    Polluter pays

    Ability to pay & beneficiary

    pays

    outfall construction

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    outfall operationEqually pays

    Tijuana early wastewater

    plant

    1958 1965

    Emergency connection

    1985

    Tijuana wastewater

    plant

    Defensive measures

    1987 1996

    International wastewater plant

    1997

    Conveyance system and

    improve existing system

    2004

    Rehabilitation of Tijuana collection

    system

    Tijuana master plant and

    Bajaagua project

    Cost-burden evolution of wastewater infrastructure along the San Diego/Tijuana border

  • Research hypothesis Cost-sharing principle

    offset

    Effect on Asymmetries

    ignores

    Effective Wastewater treatment

    Ineffective wastewater treatment

  • ----PPPEarly wastewater plant -Wastewater plant

    Operational capacities

    Willingness to pay

    Ability to pay

    Power asymmetry

    Effect of cost-burden principle on Tijuana/San Diego asymmetries

    Cost-burden principle

    Agreement signed

    Projects built and programs adopted

    1938

    Polluter pays

    Ability to pay & beneficiary pays

    C os

    t- bu

    rd en

    p ri

    nc ip

    le

    Equally pays

    1958

    Tijuana early Wastewater

    system

    Emergency connection

    1965 1985

    Tijuana Plant

    defense measures

    1987 1996

    International Wastewater

    plant Conveyance system

    Rehabilitation of Tijuana collection

    system

    Tijuana master plant and Bajaagua project

    2004

    +---Soft version of PPP

    Minute 222- Emergency connection