Erik Forsberg Joint Research Center of Photonics

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The electron waveguide Y-branch switch A review and arguments for its use as a base for reversible logic. Erik Forsberg Joint Research Center of Photonics of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University Hangzhou 310027, P. R. China 中国杭州浙江大学玉泉校区 erikf @zju.edu.cn. Outline. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The electron waveguide Y-branch switch A review and arguments for its use as a base for reversible logic The electron waveguide
Y-branch switch
A review and arguments for its use as a base for reversible logic
Erik Forsberg
of the Royal Institute of Technology and Zhejiang University
Hangzhou 310027, P. R. China

erikf@zju.edu.cn
Good morning, my name is Erik Forsberg and I come from the JORCEP, which is a collaboration between the Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. Main research topic is, as the name implies, photonics.
I’ve been asked to give a presentation on the electron waveguide YBS switch, and this is work that has been done at our group at KTH.
EF RC ’05 Ischia, Italy *
Outline
Conclusions
The YBS was proposed by our group at KTH (not by me though, I was still in high school at the time) but I’ll present work done by other groups with which we have collaborated with as well.
Basic outline will be this, I’ll start with the basic idea, present some theoretical aspects, discuss fabrication techniques that has been employed and then discuss logic based on the switch.
EF RC ’05 Ischia, Italy *
Electron Waveguide Y-Branch Switch (YBS)
T. Palm and L. Thylén, Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 237 (1992)
Single mode coherent mode of operation:
Envelope of electron wavefunction propagates to either drain depending on the direction of electric field across the branching region.
no thermal limit promises extreme low-power consumption
waveguide device small is good
monotonic response tolerant to fabrication inaccuracies
economics … ?
e-
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The YBS was proposed in 1992 by Lars Thylen and his, at the time, student, Tomas Palm. The inspiration came from optics, the electron waveguide switch is basically an electronic analogy of the optical YBS.
At the time there were a number of proposal of devices based on electron waveguides, all with the intention of eventually replacing the FET.
The basic idea is simple enough, form a Y-shaped electron waveguide device, send in electrons into the stem, and direct the electrons into either of the two branches depending on the applied gate voltage.
Pretty much at once, the KTH group realized that the YBS had a very appealing feature, which is that the change in the applied gate voltage required to switch the state of the device is not thermally limited.
Also, in contrast to other devices considered it has a monotonic response to the applied gate bias, making it more tolerant to fabrication defects.
EF RC ’05 Ischia, Italy *
Required switching voltage
T. Palm, L. Thylen, O. Nilsson, C. Svensson, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 687 (1993)
Example (GaAs):
Interaction length 200 nm
Theoretically required switch voltage 1 mV
Required change in applied gate bias required to change the state of the YBS:
Sub-thermal switching in YBS just experimentally verified !
L. Worschech et. al., private communication
Contrast:
The fact the required switch voltage is not thermally limited is quite easily understood from intuitive arguments. In the YBS electrons need be stopped as in an FET, you only need to deflect them. And so the limiting value of the switch voltage is determined by the interaction length, or the time the electron wave package is influenced by the gate field.
As an example, we can calculate the minimum required switch voltage in a typical YBS to be of the order of a mV. This can of course be optimized more, so we can consider this to be a conservative number.
This is of the order of 50 times less than for an FET (at room temperature)
I should mention that subtermal switching has just been demonstrate by a group at Wurzburg university headed by Lukas Worschech. I don’t know the details yet, they’re working on a paper right now.
EF RC ’05 Ischia, Italy *
Electron transport –
Landauer-Büttiker formalism
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Gate bias [arb. units]
Being an electron waveguide device operating in the single mode coherent regime the electron transport can described using the Landauer-Buttiker formalism, where the current through the device is determined by a transmission probability matrix. And if you design the switch properly the reflections in the stem can be neglected and if so the matrix is dependent on one parameter only. This parameter is of course dependent on the gate bias and has been through simulations and experiments found to tangent hyperbolic function.
As gates are not perfect one normally adds a gate efficiency parameter eta. Delta Vs is a measure of the response.
EF RC ’05 Ischia, Italy *
Space-charge effects switching
The Self-Gating Effect
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Initial work did not consider the effect of space charge inside the device but this is a bit to simplistic. Wesstrom in our group at KTH first considered this, and realized that when you direct the electron flow through one of the branches, you will create an internal field between the branches. The field is in a direction opposite the applied gate field and as such reduce the switching efficiency. Under certain conditions one can also achieve a bi-stability.
EF RC ’05 Ischia, Italy *
Space charge cont’d...
E. Forsberg, J. Appl. Phys, 93, 5687 (2003)
E. Forsberg and J.-O. J. Wesström, Solid-State. Electron. 48, 1147-1154 (2004).
Space-charge can be dominant.
Single parameter model not adequate to model space charge effects
Screening of gate voltage can be severe.
Fully self-consistent simulation tool for simulations of electron waveguide devices developed.
Conclusions:
Gate efficiency is a showstopper
So let’s see, we did some further work on this with more rigorous simulations, which partly supported this but also pointed at a more complex dependence than the one-parameter model predicted.
EF RC ’05 Ischia, Italy *
Detecting selfgating
K. Hieke and M. Ulfward, Phys. Rev. B 62, 16727 (2000).
L. Worschech et. al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3287 (2001).
Leave stem, W1, floating and measure it’s potential while varying branch voltages
Theory then predicts:
Set
When proposing the selfgating effect Wesstrom also proposed ways to experimentally verify its existence. Experiments that followed both in our group as well as in the Wurzburg group found something completely different.
The proposal was to while leaving the stem floating, one should set the voltages connecting the branches equal but opposite in sign. When doing so the stem would always follow the more positive of the two, however the experiments showed the exact opposite. The results were also visible at room temperature as well as for high voltages. So it was quite clear that this was another physical process.
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&L&F &A&CSG_olika_komp_vid_77K.xls
&L&"Arial,Italic"K.Hieke FMI&C&"Arial,Italic"&D &T&R&"Arial,Italic" Page &P
15gr, 120nm
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