Epidemic typhus

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Transcript of Epidemic typhus

  1. 1. Epidemic Typhus
    Alana Dass July4, 2011
    Group DTyphus
  2. 2. Epidemic Typhuss Structure
    Epidemic typhus, or jail-fever,thrive on the parasitic body louse. The bacteria exhibits various forms, all of which are known to be endosymbioticand aerobic organisms.The bacteria itself is known as Rickettsia prowazekii in lab research, and it is an intercellular parasite that serves as the agent of the epidemic typhus. When observed, the bacteria is strikingly similar to the mitochondria found in human cells.
    Title: Rickettsia prowazekii
    Info: The picture has been sharpened by 100% to highlight the bacteria. Source: http://www.buddycom.com/bacteria/nongram/rickets926.jpg
  3. 3. Contraction
    Concentration camps teemed with these body lice, and many military commanders considered using them as biological weapons during war; that was the extent to how harmful the lice were. When the lice found a human, and started to feed on them, the lice would defecate where they would feed. If the human host scratched the spot where they were bitten, they would rub in the feces, which contained the bacteria. The bacteria would then enter their cell, steal the energy, and multiply.
    Title: Typhus Disease
    Info: The back of a person who has typhus.
    Source: http://www.skincareguide.ca/images/glossary/typhus.jpg
  4. 4. Symptoms
    After contracting Epidemic typhus, one may experience:
    Abdominal pain
    Rash that spreads throughout the body
    Extremely high (for up to 2 weeks)
    Hacking, dry cough
    Headache/ Back pain
    Joint pain
    Nausea/ Vomiting
    Delierium
    Stupor
    (Sources: http://health.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/typhus/overview.html
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhus )
  5. 5. Prevention and Treatments
    There were no adequate medicinal treatments around the time of World War II and usually consisted of these:
    By 1930: a safe vaccination was created by means of grinding the insides of lice that had drank blood. Risky process involved; as the louses bacteria could spread.
    By 1938: Herald E. Cox develops an even more efficient and safer method of vaccination utilizing egg yolks.
    The vaccination was available at medical clinics to everyone outside of the concentration camps.
    Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemic_typhus
  6. 6. Prevention and Treatments
    In 1945, the first effective prevention for typhus carried by fleas is issued. Workers went around distributing and spraying DDT rat poison.
    Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epidemic_typhus
  7. 7. Biological Aspects
    Epidemic Typhus affected the brain (specifically the mental state), the dermis, and bones (particularly joints).
    The Rickettsia prowazekii is a parasitic bacterium believed to have probably triggered *endosymbiotic evolution due to its relevant appearance to the mitochondria in our cells.
    The bacteria is classified as a part of the Rickettsiaceae Family in the Bacteria Kingdom of the Phylum Proteobacteria; meaning that it is a parasitic bacteria. It is almost identical to the mitochondria and is believed to have evolved with it or derived from it.
    *endosymbiosis: the process of evolving with another organism through symbiosis.
    Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rickettsia_prowazekii
  8. 8. Modern Treatments
    Oxygen and intravenous antibiotics are used to combat the disease now.
    Tetracycline is the main drug used the intravenous cleansing process.
    Title: Tetracycline
    Info: The chemical structure of the intravenous drug, tetracycline.
    Sources: http://xray.bmc.uu.se/~kurs/BiostrukfunkX2/practicals/practical_4/practical_4_files/Tetracycline.gif
  9. 9. Modern Treatments
    Many antibiotic treatments and precautionary vaccinations are used to terminate this disease and/or prevent it.
    The medicines used to discontinue the illness include tetracycline, azithromycin, doxycycline, and cholramphenicol; used to treat all types of typhus.
    Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhus
  10. 10. Thank you.
    That was my presentation on Epidemic Typhus.