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Transcript of Epidemic typhus
- 1. Epidemic Typhus
Alana Dass July4, 2011
- 2. Epidemic Typhuss Structure
Epidemic typhus, or jail-fever,thrive on the parasitic body louse. The bacteria exhibits various forms, all of which are known to be endosymbioticand aerobic organisms.The bacteria itself is known as Rickettsia prowazekii in lab research, and it is an intercellular parasite that serves as the agent of the epidemic typhus. When observed, the bacteria is strikingly similar to the mitochondria found in human cells.
Title: Rickettsia prowazekii
Info: The picture has been sharpened by 100% to highlight the bacteria. Source: http://www.buddycom.com/bacteria/nongram/rickets926.jpg
- 3. Contraction
Concentration camps teemed with these body lice, and many military commanders considered using them as biological weapons during war; that was the extent to how harmful the lice were. When the lice found a human, and started to feed on them, the lice would defecate where they would feed. If the human host scratched the spot where they were bitten, they would rub in the feces, which contained the bacteria. The bacteria would then enter their cell, steal the energy, and multiply.
Title: Typhus Disease
Info: The back of a person who has typhus.
- 4. Symptoms
After contracting Epidemic typhus, one may experience:
Rash that spreads throughout the body
Extremely high (for up to 2 weeks)
Hacking, dry cough
Headache/ Back pain
- 5. Prevention and Treatments
There were no adequate medicinal treatments around the time of World War II and usually consisted of these:
By 1930: a safe vaccination was created by means of grinding the insides of lice that had drank blood. Risky process involved; as the louses bacteria could spread.
By 1938: Herald E. Cox develops an even more efficient and safer method of vaccination utilizing egg yolks.
The vaccination was available at medical clinics to everyone outside of the concentration camps.
- 6. Prevention and Treatments
In 1945, the first effective prevention for typhus carried by fleas is issued. Workers went around distributing and spraying DDT rat poison.
- 7. Biological Aspects
Epidemic Typhus affected the brain (specifically the mental state), the dermis, and bones (particularly joints).
The Rickettsia prowazekii is a parasitic bacterium believed to have probably triggered *endosymbiotic evolution due to its relevant appearance to the mitochondria in our cells.
The bacteria is classified as a part of the Rickettsiaceae Family in the Bacteria Kingdom of the Phylum Proteobacteria; meaning that it is a parasitic bacteria. It is almost identical to the mitochondria and is believed to have evolved with it or derived from it.
*endosymbiosis: the process of evolving with another organism through symbiosis.
- 8. Modern Treatments
Oxygen and intravenous antibiotics are used to combat the disease now.
Tetracycline is the main drug used the intravenous cleansing process.
Info: The chemical structure of the intravenous drug, tetracycline.
- 9. Modern Treatments
Many antibiotic treatments and precautionary vaccinations are used to terminate this disease and/or prevent it.
The medicines used to discontinue the illness include tetracycline, azithromycin, doxycycline, and cholramphenicol; used to treat all types of typhus.
- 10. Thank you.
That was my presentation on Epidemic Typhus.