Env.waste Mgmt

download Env.waste Mgmt

of 51

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Env.waste Mgmt

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    1/51

    Waste Management

    BYASWATI A

    ROLL NO: 510

    AYSHA ASHARAF

    ROLL NO: 511

    BIMS

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    2/51

    INTRODUCTION Since the beginning, human kind has been

    generating waste.

    It could be in the form of :

    Bones

    Other parts of animals they slaughter

    Wood

    With the progress of ciili!ation the wastegenerated became of a more comple"

    nature.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    3/51

    #t the end of $%thcentury&Industrialreolution' there was rise in the world of

    consumers.

    (he increase in population andurbani!ation was also largely responsible

    for the increase in solid waste.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    4/51

    What are Wastes

    Waste &also known as rubbish, trash, refuse,

    garbage,junk, litter, and ort' is unwanted or

    useless materials. In biology, waste is any of

    the many unwanted substances or to"ins that

    are e"pelled from liing organisms, metabolic

    waste) such as urea and sweat.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    5/51

    Base! C"n#ent$"n De%$n$t$"n "% Wastes

    *substances or ob+ects which are disposed

    of or are intended to be disposed of or are

    reuired to be disposed of by the proisions

    of the law-

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    6/51

    D$s&"sa! means

    *any operation which may lead to resource

    recoery, recycling, reclamation, direct re

    use or alternatie uses nne" I/B of the

    Basel conention'-

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    7/51

    '$n(s "% Wastes

    S"!$( )astes: wastes in solid forms, domestic,

    commercial and industrial wastes

    Examples: plastics, Styrofoam containers,

    bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trash

    L$*+$( Wastes: wastes in liquid form

    Examples: domestic washings, chemicals,

    oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing

    industries and other sources

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    8/51

    C!ass$%$,at$"n "% Wastes a,,"r($ng

    t" the$r -r"&ert$es

    Bio-degradable :can be degraded &paper, wood, fruits and

    others'

    Non-biodegradable :

    cannot be degraded &plastics, bottles,

    old machines , cans, Styrofoam containers

    and others'

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    9/51

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    10/51

    C!ass$%$,at$"n "% Wastes a,,"r($ng t"

    the$r .%%e,ts "n H+man Hea!th an( the.n#$r"nment

    a!ardous wastes :

    Substances unsafe to use commercially,

    industrially, agriculturally, or economicallyand hae any of the following propertiesignitability, corrosiity, reactiity 0to"icity.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    11/51

    a!ardous Waste

    19

    # solid waste, or acombination of solid wastes,

    which because of its:

    uantity,

    concentration,

    physical,

    chemical,

    infectious characteristics may

    pose a ha!ard to human health

    or the enironment.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    12/51

    PPT048-01 18

    N"#E:

    #ll ha!ardous wastes are solid wastes1ot all solid wastes are ha!ardous waste

    $roperties of ha!ardous wastes

    Based on characteristics

    %gnitabilit& Ignitable wastes create fires under certain

    conditions or are spontaneously combustible, or hae a

    flash point less than 23 45 &$63 47'.

    'orrosi(it& 5orrosie wastes are acids or bases &p8 less

    than or eual to 9 or greater than or eual to $9.' that are

    capable of corroding metal containers, such as storage

    tanks, drums, and barrels.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    13/51

    )eacti(it& ;eactie wastes are unstable under rocedure &(5=>'.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    14/51

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    15/51

    C!ass$%$,at$"n "% )astes a,,"r($ng t"

    the$r "r$g$n an( t/&e

    M+n$,$&a! S"!$( )astes:

    Solid wastes that include household garbage, rubbish,

    construction 0 demolition debris, sanitation residues,

    packaging materials, trade refuges etc. are managed byany municipality.

    B$"me($,a! )astes:

    Solid or liuid wastes including containers,

    intermediate or end products generated during

    diagnosis, treatment 0 research actiities of medical

    sciences.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    16/51

    In(+str$a! )astes:

    =iuid and solid wastes that are generated bymanufacturing 0 processing units of arious industries

    like chemical, petroleum, coal, metal gas, sanitary 0

    paper etc.

    *isher& wastes: Wastes generated due to fisheryactiities. (hese are e"tensiely found in coastal 0

    estuarine areas.

    )adioacti(e wastes: Waste containing radioactie

    materials. ?sually these are byproducts of nuclearprocesses. Sometimes industries that are not directly

    inoled in nuclear actiities, may also produce some

    radioactie wastes, e.g. radioisotopes, chemical sludge

    etc.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    17/51

    E-wastes:

    @lectronic wastes generated from any modern

    establishments. (hey may be described as discarded

    electrical or electronic deices.

    +gricultural wastes:

    Wastes generated from farming actiities. (hese substances

    are mostly biodegradable.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    18/51

    $A

    ources of Wastes

    ouseholds

    'ommerce and %ndustr&

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    19/51

    $%

    +griculture

    *isheries

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    20/51

    SOLID WAST.S

    It is defined as:

    Non-liquid , non-soluble materials

    ranging from municipal garbage to

    industrial wastes that contain complex

    and sometimes ha!ardous substances . Solid wastes also includes:

    Sewage sludge

    #gricultural refuse

    emolition wastes

    Cining residues

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    21/51

    Solid Waste

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    22/51

    S"!$( Waste $n In($a

    D.9 million tonnes of ha!ardous waste

    One S km of additional landfill area eeryyear

    ;s $233 crore for treatment 0 disposal of these wastes

    In addition to this industries discharge about $3 million

    tonnes of high olume low ha!ard waste eery year,

    which is mostly dumped on open low lying land areas.

    Source: Estimate of Ministry of Environment & Forest

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    23/51

    #&pes of solid wastes Broadly there are E types of waste which are as

    follows:

    ousehold waste is generally classified as/unicipal waste.

    %ndustrial wasteas a!ardous waste

    Biomedical waste or ospital waste as%nfectious waste

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    24/51

    /0N%'%$+1 "1%2 W+#E

    Cunicipal solid waste consists of:

    8ousehold waste

    5onstruction and demolition

    Sanitation residueWaste from streets

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    25/51

    +3+)2"0 W+#E

    Industrial and hospital waste is considered

    ha!ardous as they may contain to"icsubstances.

    8a!ardous wastes could be highly to"ic to

    humans, animals and plants . (hey are:5orrosie

    8ighly inflammable or e"plosie

    ;eact when e"posed to certain things.

    @.g. gases

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    26/51

    8ousehold wastes that can be categori!ed

    as ha!ardous waste include:Old batteries

    Shoe polish

    >aint tinsOld medicines

    Cedicine bottles

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    27/51

    8ospital waste contaminated by chemicalsused in hospitals is considered ha!ardous.

    (hese chemicals include formaldehyde and

    phenols, which are used as disinfectants.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    28/51

    In the industrial sector, the ma+or

    generators of ha!ardous waste are themetal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye,

    refining, and rubber goods industries.

    irect e"posure to chemicals in ha!ardous

    waste such as mercury and cyanide can be

    fatal.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    29/51

    "$%#+1 W+#E

    8ospital waste is generated during the

    diagnosis treatment or immuni!ation ofhuman beings or animals.

    It may include wastes like

    Sharps Soiled waste

    isposables

    #natomical waste

    5ultures

    iscarded medicines

    5hemical wastes

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    30/51

    (hese are in the form of disposable

    syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids,human e"creta, etc.

    (his waste is highly infectious and can be a

    serious threat to human health if notmanaged in a scientific and discriminate

    manner.

    It has been roughly estimated that of the 6kg of waste generated in a hospital at least

    $ kg would be infected.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    31/51

    Waste can be ...Waste can be ...

    #oided 0

    reduced5hangeraw

    material

    5hange

    process

    5hange

    technology

    Food

    house

    keepingSerices

    instead

    of products

    5hange

    product

    I.

    ;ecycled

    Withinthe process

    Inside

    the

    company

    @"ternally

    II.

    isposed of

    ;eduction

    of olume

    eto"i

    fication

    Stabili!ation

    @nergetically

    III.

    5orrect

    segrega

    tion

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    32/51

    WAST. MANA.M.NT

    (hree ;s to be followed for waste

    management are:

    )euse

    )ec&cle

    )educe

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    33/51

    )E0E

    o not throw away the soft drink cans or

    the bottles) coer them with homemadepaper or paint on them and use them as

    pencil stands or small ases.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    34/51

    E6

    W+# "012 BE 2"NE %N )E0E

    2onate4Exchange

    - old books

    - old clothes

    - old computers

    - excess building materials

    - old equipment to local organi!ations

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    35/51

    )E'5'1E

    ?se shopping bags made of +ute, which can

    be used oer and oer again.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    36/51

    )ec&cling

    )ec&cling:>rocessing of a waste item into usableforms

    Benefits

    Saes money, raw materials, and land.

    @ncourages indiidual responsibility.

    ;educes pressure on disposal systems.

    Gapan recycles about half of all household

    and commercial wastes. =owers demand for raw resources.

    ;educes energy consumption and air

    pollution.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    37/51

    $lasticBags

    $H of plastic bags are recycled.

    # few years ago a study showed that A million

    pounds of plastic bags are thrown away each

    year. If you dont recycle them, animals can eat them

    and get stuck in their throat and they will

    suffocate.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    38/51

    $aper$aper $ ton of recycled paper can sae $D treesJ

    ;euse paper around the home as scrap paper or

    packing material. @nelopes can also be reused.

    #nother good way to reduce paper is to read the

    news online K this will stop the massie amount

    of trees being cut down for newspapers aloneJ

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    39/51

    Re,/,!$ng n"t a s"!+t$"n t" a!! &r"2!ems3

    ;ecycling is not a solution to managing eery

    kind of waste material

    7or many items recycling technologies are

    unaailable or unsafe

    In some cases, cost of recycling is too high.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    40/51

    )E20'E

    ;educe the generation of unnecessary waste,

    @g . carry your own shopping bag when yougo to the market and pull all your purchases

    directly into it.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    41/51

    6$

    E**E'# "* W+#E %* N"#

    /+N+6E2 W%E15 +ffects our health

    +ffects our socio-economic conditions

    +ffects our coastal and marine en(ironment

    +ffects our climate

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    42/51

    69

    E**E'# "* W+#E7

    66s are accumulating in Earth8s atmosphere as a result ofhuman acti(ities, causing global mean surface air temperatureand subsurface ocean temperature to rise9

    )ising global temperatures are expected to raise sea le(els andchange precipitation and other local climate conditions9

    'hanging regional climates could alter forests, crop &ields,and water supplies9

    #his could also affect human health, animals, and man& t&pes

    of ecos&stems9

    2eserts might expand into existing rangelands, and features ofsome of our national parks might be permanentl& altered9

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    43/51

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    44/51

    +cti(ities that ha(e altered the chemical composition of the

    atmosphere:

    Buildup of 66s primaril& carbon dioxide '";< methane '=; is emitted during agricultural and industrial acti(ities, as well

    as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels9 %n [email protected], the

    0 emitted about one-fifth of total global 66s9

    M h ( % W D$ !

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    45/51

    Meth"(s "% Waste D$s&"sa!

    =andfills

    Incineration

    Source reduction

    5omposting

    ;ecycling

    ( %$!!$

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    46/51

    Lan( %$!!$ng Cost municipal solid

    waste in ?S is depositedin landfills

    Source of groundwater

    pollution 1umber of municipal

    landfills is declining.

    Some closed foriolations,

    1ew landfills are costly

    and often resisted .

    In,$nerat$"n

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    47/51

    In,$nerat$"n

    >rior to $%63,incineration wascommon in 1orth#merica and western

    @urope.

    Cany incinerators were eliminated because of foul odorsand gritty smoke

    5urrently, about $H of ?.S. municipal solid waste isincinerated.

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    48/51

    In,$nerat$"n

    >ros:

    ;educe olume %3H, weight DH

    8eat from burning conerted to electricity

    5ons:

    5reate air pollution

    5oncentrates to"ins in ash

    Core costly than landfills, as long as space

    aailable

    C"m&"st$ng

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    49/51

    C"m&"st$ng

    8arnessing natural

    decomposition totransform organic materialinto compost

    #bout EA33 compostingfacilities currently in usein the ?nited States.

    S R ( t$

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    50/51

    S"+r,e Re(+,t$"n

    Cost fundamental method of reducingwaste is to preent it from being

    produced &Waste >reention'.

    ;educe and reuse K Indiiduals and

    Industry

    Saes natural resources.

    ;educes waste to"icity

    ;educes costs

  • 7/25/2019 Env.waste Mgmt

    51/51