Environments Museum and Critical Storage 2014 ... Outline I. Introduction I. Human comfort vs...

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  • Museum and Critical Storage Environments

    By David Brooks, P.E.

    McGuire Engineers

    dbrooks@mepcinc.com

    2014 YEA CONFERENCE SPECIALTY ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN MARCH 25, 2014

  • Outline I. Introduction

    I. Human comfort vs artifact preservation II. Types of facilities

    III. Types of archives

    II. Psychometrics I. Relative humidity demystified

    II. Moisture and its role in archival preservation III. Stabilizing temperature and relative humidity

    III. Case Studies I. A major natural history museum

    II. A commercial critical storage facility

    ASHRAE 2014 Specialty Environmental Design Conference Museum and Critical Storage Environments

  • Museums and Critical Environments Introduction - Human Comfort vs Artifact Preservation

    Comfort – condition of mind that expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment

    Preservation – all action taken to retard deterioration of an object

    ASHRAE 2014 Specialty Environmental Design Conference Museum and Critical Storage Environments

  • Museums and Critical Environments Introduction - Human Comfort vs Artifact Preservation

    ASHRAE 2014 Specialty Environmental Design Conference Museum and Critical Storage Environments

    Human Comfort (Pink)

    Magnetic Tape and Books (Grey)

    Average Library or Museum (Yellow)

    Art Storage (Red)

    Archival Books (Blue)

    Archival Museums (Green)

    Fur-Bearing Animal Storage (Purple)

  • Museums and Critical Environments Introduction - Human Comfort vs Artifact Preservation

    Q: What has the greatest impact on preservation?

    • Temperature?

    • Relative Humidity?

    ASHRAE 2014 Specialty Environmental Design Conference Museum and Critical Storage Environments

    A: Relative Humidity and its fluctuation

    Inappropriate levels of relative humidity or widely fluctuating relative humidities are implicated in the deterioration of almost every kind of object, organic or inorganic…

  • Museums and Critical Environments Introduction – Types of Facilities

    • Museums • Exhibits • Artifacts

    • Storage

    • Restoration

    • Processing

    • Storage • Public and Private Libraries • National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) • Private documents and materials storage

    ASHRAE 2014 Specialty Environmental Design Conference Museum and Critical Storage Environments

  • Museums and Critical Environments Introduction – Types of Archives

    ASHRAE 2014 Specialty Environmental Design Conference Museum and Critical Storage Environments

    Industry Standards for Information Management Environmental Requirements

    Record Type Record Term

    Length

    Storage Environment Facility Type

    Temperature F Temperature C Humidity RH

    Source of Industry Standard

    Min Max Tolerable daily changes within

    limits +/- Min Max

    Tolerable daily changes within

    limits +/- Min Max Tolerable daily changes within limits +/-

    Paper

    Short 10 years

    Record Center Vault

    55% 2007 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications 21.13

    Long >50 years

    Record Center Vault

    57 64 ± 2 14 18 ± 1 35% 50% ± 3% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B

    Medical Records - Xray

    Short Record Center or RMS Facility

    none 77 25 20% 50% NARA Resources - Managing X-Ray Films as Federal Records.pdf Assuming acetate or polyester based film. ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    Medium Record Center

    Vault none 70 25 21 20% 50% ± 15%

    Long Record Center

    Vault none 45 ± 4 none 7 ± 2 20% 50% ± 15%

    Geological Samples

    Short Record Center

    Medium Record Center

    Vault

    Long Record Center

    Vault

    Federal Paper Records

    Short CFR Facility CFR refers to the following withdrawn standards. (1) ANSI/PIMA IT9.11 (incorporated by reference, see § 1234.3); (2) ANSI/NAPM IT9.23 (incorporated by reference, see §§ 1234.3); (3) ANSI/PIMA IT9.25 (incorporated by reference, see § 1234.3); (4) ANSI/NAPM IT9.20 (incorporated by reference, see § 1234.3); (5) ANSI/NAPM IT9.18 (incorporated by reference, see §. 1234.3). It has been assumed that the superseding standards ISO 18911, ISO 18920 and ISO 18923 are the current references. While not directly referenced, it appears that ISO 11799:2003 Annex B is the most applicable standard.

    Medium CFR Facility

    Long CFR Facility 57 64 ± 2 14 18 ± 1 35% 50% ± 3%

    Microforms

    Short DP Vault

    Medium DP Vault

    Long DP Vault

    none 36 ± 4 none 2 ± 2 20% 50% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    none 41 ± 4 none 5 ± 2 20% 40% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    none 45 ± 4 none 7 ± 2 20% 30% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    Black & White Film

    Silver gelatin on cellulose

    acetate base

    Short F&S Record

    Center

    Medium F&S Vault

    Long F&S Vault none 45 ± 4 none 7 ± 2 20% 30% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    Black & White Film

    Silver gelatin or silver dye bleach

    on polyester base

    Short F&S Record

    Center

    Medium F&S Vault

    Long F&S Vault none 70 ± 4 none 21 ± 2 20% 50% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    Photographic Paper Prints - Black & White

    Short

    Medium none 77 ± 9 none 25 ± 5 20% 50% ± 10% ISO 18920:2000 7.2

    Long none 64 ± 4 none 18 ± 2 30% 50% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B

    Photographic Paper Prints -

    Color

    Short

    Medium

    Long none 36 ± 4 none 2 ± 2 30% 40% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B

    Color Film

    Short F&S Record

    Center

    Medium F&S Vault

    Long F&S Vault

    none 14 ± 4 none -10 ± 2 20% 50% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    none 27 ± 4 none -3 ± 2 20% 40% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    none 36 ± 4 none 2 ± 2 20% 30% ± 5% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    Audio/Video - Analog Acetate

    Short F&S Record

    Center

    Medium F&S Vault

    Long F&S Vault none 27 ± 4 none -3 ± 2 20% 40% ± 5% ISO 18934:2006, ISO 189

    Audio/Video - Analog

    Polyester

    Short F&S Record

    Center

    Medium F&S Vault 46 73 ± 5 8 23 ± 3 20% 50% ± 10% ISO18923: 2000

    Long F&S Vault

    46 73 ± 4 8 23 ± 2 15% 20% ± 5% ISO18923: 2000, ISO 18934:2006: For extended-term storage ISO18923: 2000 recommends a temperature range between 11°C and 23°C and a related range of RH levels between 20% and 50%. In practice, the maximum temperature (23°C) must be associated with the lowest RH (20% RH) for suitable storage, and vice versa.

    46 63 ± 4 8 17 ± 2 15% 30% ± 5%

    46 52 ± 4 8 11 ± 2 15% 50% ± 5%

    Digital Magnetic Tape Polyester

    Short

    Medium D.P. Vault 46 73 ± 4 8 23 ± 2 15% 50% ± 10% ISO18923: 2000

    Long D.P. Vault

    46 73 ± 4 8 23 ± 2 15% 20% ± 5% ISO18923: 2000, ISO 18934:2006: For extended-term storage ISO18923: 2000 recommends a temperature range between 11°C and 23°C and a related range of RH levels between 20% and 50%. In practice, the maximum temperature (23°C) must be associated with the lowest RH (20% RH) for suitable storage, and vice versa.

    46 63 ± 4 8 17 ± 2 15% 30% ± 5%

    46 52 ± 4 8 11 ± 2 15% 50% ± 5%

    Digital Storage - Computer Systems

    N/A Data Centers 68 77 ± 5 20 25 ± 3 40.0% 55%

    Thermal Guidelines For Data Processing Environments, ASHRAE 2004 It should be noted that requirements vary by manufacturer and by specific equipment model.

    Industry Standards for Information Management Environmental Requirements

    Record Type Record

    Term Length

    Storage Environment Facility Type

    Temperature F Temperature C Humidity RH

    Source of Industry Standard

    Min Max Tolerable daily changes within

    limits +/- Min Max

    Tolerable daily changes within

    limits +/- Min Max Tolerable daily changes within limits +/-

    Paper

    Short 10 years

    Record Center Vault 55% 2007 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Applications 21.13

    Long >50 years

    Record Center Vault 57 64 ± 2 14 18 ± 1 35% 50% ± 3% ISO 11799:2003 Annex B

    Medical Records - Xray

    Short Record Center or

    RMS Facility none 77 25 20% 50%

    NARA Resources - Managing X-Ray Films as Federal Records.pdf Assuming acetate or polyester based film. ISO 11799:2003 Annex B; ISO 18911:2000 7.1.1

    Medium Record Center Vault none 70 25 21 20% 50% ± 15%

    Long Record Center Vault none 45 ± 4 none 7 ± 2 20% 50% ± 15%

  • Museums and Critical Environments Psychometrics – Relative Humidity Demystified

    ASHRAE 2014 Specialty Environmental Design Conference Museum and Critical Storage Environments

    Wick

    Thermometer

    Slide rule to determine RH

  • Museums and Critical Environments Psychometrics – Moisture and Preservation