Entrep Theories

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    Entrepreneurship is an evolved thing . With theadvancement of science and technology it has undergonemetamorphosis change and emerged as a critical input forsocio-economic development. Various writers havedeveloped various theories on entrepreneurship andpopularized the concept among the common people. Thetheories propounded by them can be categorized as

    under-Sociological theoriesEconomic theoriesCultural theories

    Psychological theories

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    Sociological Theories

    The following theories explain how sociological factors acceleratethe growth of entrepreneurs:1-Theory of religious beliefs2- Theory of social change

    Theory of religious beliefs

    Max Weber has propounded the theory of religious belief.According to him, entrepreneurship is a function ofreligious beliefs and impact of religion shapes theentrepreneurial culture. He emphasized that

    entrepreneurial energies are exogenous supplied by meansof religious beliefs. The important elements of Weber stheory are discussed further-

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    1- Spirit of Capitalism-in the Weberian theory, spirit of capitalism is highlighted. We allknow that capitalism is an economic system in which economicfreedom and private enterprise are glorified, so also theentrepreneurial culture.2- Adventurous Spirit- Weber also made a distinction between spirit of capitalism andadventurous spirit. According to him, the former is influenced by thestrict discipline whereas the latter is affected by free force of impulse.Entrepreneurship culture is influenced by both these factors.3- Protestant ethic- according to Max Weber the spirit of capitalism can be grown onlywhen the mental attitude in the society is favorable to capitalism

    4 -Inducement of profit- Weber introduced the new businessman into the picture of tranquilroutine. The spirit of capitalism intertwined with the motive of profitresulted in creation of greater number of business enterprises.

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    Historic shift as a factor of initiating change- Hagen in hisbook, How Economic Growth Begins, depicts historic shift as thecrucial force which has brought about social change technologicalprogress thereby leading to the emergence of entrepreneurial class

    from different castes and communities. Withdrawal of status respects as the mechanism forrigorous entrepreneurial activity-Closely consistent with the historic shift it is the social group thatplunges into rigorous entrepreneurship which experiences the

    status withdrawal or withdrawal of status respects.Hence, Hagens creative personality is the admixture of

    Schumpeters innovation and McClellands high need forachievement.

    But Hagens analysis fails to give policy measures forbackward countries which are striving for economic developmentas he identifies status withdrawal as the causal factor in theemergence of creative personality. Hagens thesis of disadvantagedminority groups has its own limitations. There are manydisadvantaged minority groups in India which have not supplied agood number of entrepreneurs.

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    ECONOMIC THEORIESEntrepreneurship and economic development are interdependent.Economic development takes place when a countrys real rationalincome increases overall period of time wherein the role ofentrepreneurs is an integral part.

    Schumpeter s Theory of Innovation Schumpeter s theory of entrepreneurship is a pioneering work ofeconomic development. Development in his sense, implies that carrying out of new combination of entrepreneurship is basically a creativeactivity. According to Schumpeter an entrepreneur is one who perceivesthe opportunities to innovate, i.e. to carry out new combinations orenterprise. In his views, the concept of new combination leading toinnovation covers the following 5 cases-1- The introduction of new goods, that is the one with which consumersare not yet familiar, of a new quality.2- The introduction of new method of production3- The opening of new market4- the conquest of new source of supply of raw material5-The carrying out of new organization

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    In view of the above, Schumpeterian theory ofentrepreneurship has got the following features-1- Distinction between invention and innovationSchumpeter makes a distinction between innovation and

    invention. Invention means creation of new things andinnovation means application of new things onto practical use2- emphasis on entrepreneurial function- Schumpeter has givenemphasis on the role of entrepreneurial functions in economicdevelopment in his views, development means basictransformation of the economy that is brought about byentrepreneurial functions.3- presentation of disequilibrium situation throughentrepreneurial activity-the entrepreneurial activity representsa disequilibrium situation, a dynamic phenomenon and a breakfrom the routine or a circular flow or tendency towardsequilibrium.4- entrepreneurs dream and the will to find a private kingdom -the motives of creating things and applying these things intopractice inspire the entrepreneur to undertake innovation.

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    5- Schumpeter remained silent about as to why some economics hadmore entrepreneurial talent than others.However, despite the above criticisms, Schumpeterian theory isregarded as one of the best theories in the history of entrepreneurial

    development. CULTURAL THEORIESAdvocates of cultural theories point out that entrepreneurship is theproduct of culture. Entrepreneurial talents come from cultural valuesand cultural system embedded into the cultural environment.

    Hoselitz s Theory Hoselitz explains that the supply of entrepreneurship is governed bycultural factors, and culturally minority groups are the spark-plugs ofentrepreneurial and economic development in many countries,entrepreneurs have emerged from a particular socio-economic class. Heemphasized the role of culturally marginally groups like Jews and theGreeks in medieval Europe, the Chinese in south Africa and Indian ineast Africa in promoting economic development.

    Psychological TheoriesPsychological theories center's around the psychological characteristicof the individual in a society. Psychological characteristics affect the

    supply of entrepreneurs in the society.

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    DRUCKER ON ENTREPRENEURSHIPPeter F. Drucker opined that an entrepreneur is one who always searches forchange, responds to it and exploits it as an opportunity . he laid emphasis ontwo important factors innovation and resource- that led to emergence ofentrepreneurship. According to him, innovation is the real hub ofentrepreneurship which creates resource. A thing is regarded as resourcewhen its economic value is recognized. For example, mineral oil wasconsidered worthless until the discovery of its use. Similarly, purchasing power was considered an important resource by an American innovative

    entrepreneur who invented installment buying.According to Drucker, successful entrepreneurship involves thefollowing things-Value and satisfaction obtained from resource by the consumer are increasedNew values are createdMaterial is converted into a resource or existing resources are combined in a

    new or more productive configurationEntrepreneurship is the practice which has a knowledge base.Entrepreneurship is not confined to big businesses and economicinstitutions, it is equally important to small business and non-economicinstitutionsEntrepreneurship behavior rather than personality trait is more important to

    enhance entrepreneurshipThe foundation of entrepreneurship lies in concept and theory rather than in

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    Thus, Drucker has given his views thatan entrepreneur needs not be acapitalist or an owner. A banker whomobilizes others money and allocates itin areas of higher yield is very much anentrepreneur though he is not the ownerof the money.