Entrance to Computer

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CHAPTER ONEBASIC COMPUTER CONCEPTS 1. HISTORY OF COMPUTERS 2. HARDWARE A) CPU (CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT) B) MEMORY i) RAM (random-access memory) ii) ROM (Read-Only Memory) C) PERMANENT DATA STORAGES i) Magnetic Tape ii) Magnetic Disk iii) Hard Disk iv) Floppy Disk v) CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) 4. INPUT DEVICE A) PERIPHERAL B) KEYBOARD C) MOUSE D) SCANNER 5. OUTPUT DEVICE A) MONITOR B) PRINTER 6. SOFTWARE A) SYSTEM SOFTWARE i) Programming Language B) APPLICATION PROGRAM i) Word Processor ii) Spreadsheet iii) Database 5 6 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23

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CHAPTER TWODATA COMMUNICATION AND INTERNET 1. INTERNET HISTORY 2. WHAT IS THE INTERNET? A) WHAT DO PEOPLE ON THE INTERNET? B) WHO RUNS THE INTERNET? C) WHAT IS THE REGIONAL NET? D) WHO RUNS THE REGIONAL? E) WHAT ARE THE BACKBONE NETWORKS? F) WHY IS THERE MORE THAN ONE BACKBONE? G) WHO RUNS THE NSFNET? H) WHO PROVIDES ACCESS OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES ? I) IS THE INTERNET DIFFERENT FROM TELEPHONE NETWORKS ? 3. GETTING CONNECTED A) OPTICAL FIBRE B) MODEM i) TCP/IP Protocol ii) IP Address Internet Protocol iii) Hostname- Domain Name 4. NETWORK A) NETWORK ADDRESS B) WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE OF THE INTERNET? i) Local Area Network ii) Wide Area Networks 5. INTERNET PROTOCOLS A) WHAT IS ELECTRONIC MAIL? i) Understanding an E-mail address ii) Understanding an E-mail message's parts: B) TELNET i) Common Uses of Telnet ii) Basic Telnet commands C) FTP i) File Types ii) Basic FTP Commands: 25 25 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 35 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 40 40 41 42

iiiD) POST OFFICE PROTOCOL (POP) E) GOPHER i) Advantages and disadvantages of Gopher 6. INTERNET SOFTWARE A) ELECTRONIC MAIL SOFTWARES i) Pine ii) Outlook Express, Eudora, Netscape Messenger B) BROWSER i) Netscape Navigator ii) Internet Explorer C) FRONT PAGE, HOT DOG i) What is HTML? ii) Uniform Resource Locator URL iii) Web Page 43 43 44 45 45 45 45 46 46 47 48 48 50 51

CHAPTER THREEMAIN CONCEPTS 1. FOLDER 2. FILE 3. MAIN DOS (DISK OPERATING SYSTEM) COMMANDS A) DIR B) CD C) MD D) RD E) DEL F) UNDELETE G) COPY H) MOVE WINDOWS 95 OPERATING SYSTEM 1. USER INTERFACE 2. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE 3. STARTING WINDOWS 95 4. DESKTOP MANAGER 5. PARTS OF A WINDOW 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 59

iv6. LEAVING WINDOWS 95 7. FORMATTING FLOPPY A 3 59 60

CHAPTER ONEBASIC COMPUTER CONCEPTSA computer is an electronic tool for inputting, processing, storing, manipulating, and retrieving information. It operates by joining hardware to enable people to generate text, automate record keeping, complete various mathematical operations, and communicate the results of these operations to others. Computers are electronic machines that get data, process and returns this data to information. Numbers, letters voice or photographs can be taken as data. Processed data is considered as information. A computer does not create information; it is a tool that helps people handle information and increases our productivity. The basic process which computers use for data processing are: Input Four basic arithmetic process (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) Logical processes Output Memory

Above processes are done by computer hardware. Super computers multiply more than 500 million number pairs in one second. Supercomputers have many processors (which perform the actual computing) the work together to help to solve complex problems. Mainframes are large, expensive, powerful systems Advantage of computers are: Economic machines Dependable

6 Precise Computers can be used in the following fields: Finance Medicine Communication Marketing Libraries Education Commerce And surely in game sector.

1. History of ComputersCalculation was a need from the early days when it was necessary to account to others for individual or group actions, particularly in relation to maintaining inventories (of flocks of sheep) or reconciling finances. Early man counted by means of matching one set of objects with another set (stones and sheep). The operations of addition and subtraction were simply the operations of adding or subtracting groups of objects to the sack of counting stones or pebbles. Early counting tables, named abaci, not only formalized this counting method but also introduced the concept of positional notation that we use today. Somewhere around 3000 BC the first (probably) mechanical counting device was created -- the abacus (By Babylonians). In 1642 another mechanical device was created called the Pascaline (after Blaise Pascal, a famous French mathematician). The Pascaline used gears and wheels ("counting-wheels") to perform the calculations. The interesting thing to note is that the counting-wheel design was used in calculators until the 1960s. The next major breakthrough in computer history revolves around Charles Babbage and his Difference Engine and Analytical Engine. The machines that Charles designed in the early 1800s were not electronic computers as we know them now but they were general

7 purpose computational devices that were designed to be driven by steam. Charles is credited with being the "Father of Computing" due to the fact that his designs were WAY ahead of his time. He did, however, lay the foundation for the modern computer. 1884: The American Institute for Electrical Engineering (AIEE) was founded; the first of the organizations that would eventually merge to form the IEEE in 1963. 1890 The increasing population in the US, and the demands of the data a longer and longer process. It was anticipated that the Congress to ask more questions in each census, was making the processing 1890 census data would not be processed before the 1900 census was due unless something was done to improve the processing methodology. Herman Hollerith won the competition for the delivery of data processing equipment to assist in the processing of the data from the 1890 US Census, and went on to assist in the census processing for many countries around the world. The company he founded, Hollerith Tabulating Company, eventually became one of the three that composed the Calculating-Tabulating-Recording (C-T-R) company in 1914. Calculating-Tabulating-Recording (C-T-R) company in was renamed IBM in 1924. The Hollerith machines were the first to appear on a magazine cover. 1937: While not using the practical technology of the era, Alan Turing developed the idea of a "Universal Machine" capable of executing any describable algorithm, and forming the basis for the concept of "computability". Later that 1946 Eckert and Mauchly, in a patent dispute with the University of Pennsylvania, left the University to establish the first computer company -- Electronic Control Corp. with a plan to build the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC). After many crises they built the BINAC for Northrup Aviation, and were taken over by Remington-Rand before the UNIVAC was completed. 1947: William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain invent the "transfer resistance" device, later to be known as the transistor that will revolutionize the computer and give it the reliability that could not achieved with vacuum tubes. On June 21, 1948 their prototype machine, the "Baby" was operated for the first time; the world truly moved from the domain of calculators to the domain of computers. Williams, Kilburn, and Newman continued to build a full scale machine they designated the

8 Manchester Mark I. The Ferranti Corporation took the design and began a line of computers that were one of the major components of the British Computer Industry. 1949: Just a year after the Manchester Baby machine became the first operating stored program machine in the world, then first large scale, fully functional, stored-program electronic digital computer was developed by Maurice Wilkes and the staff of the Mathematical Laboratory at Cambridge University. It was named EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer); the primary storage system was a set of mercury baths through which generated and regenerated acoustic pulses represented the bits of data. 1950: After five years of work and several different instantiations of the first computer company established by Eckert and Mauchly, the UNIVAC computer was delivered to the Census Bureau, just in time to begin work on the decennial census. 1957: The IBM 305 RAMAC was the first disk memory system. 1960: After three years of work Backus and his colleagues delivered the first FORTRAN program compiler for the IBM 704, and almost immediately the first error message was encountered -- a missing comma in a computed GO TO statement. The unmarked 2000 card deck was received at Westinghouse in Pittsburgh by Herbert Bright who deduced that it was the long expected compiler, and created the first user program -- complete with an error. The world of programming languages had taken a large step upward, from a domain in which only specially trained programmers could complete a project, to a domain in which those with problems could express their own solutions. 1960: Since 1952 Grace Murray Hopper had been developing a series of programming languages that increasingly used natural language-like phrases to express the operations of business data processing. FLOWMATIC was the last of these. Others had also taken on the challenge, including IBM that had produced a language named COMMERCIAL TRANSLATOR. From these bases an industry-wide team -- Conference on Data System Languages (CODASYL) -- led by Joe Wegstein of NBS (now NIST) developed a new language in a very short time and created the first standardized business computer programming language, COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language). For the next 20 years there were more programs written in COBOL than any other single language

9 By 1963 the process of standardization of the elements of