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    WEEK 1

    (PARTS OF SPEECH/

    WORD CLASSES)

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    PARTS OF SPEECH

    Words are often named according to how they are used in sentences. These names for the words arecalled their parts of speech. The eight parts of speech in English are:

    nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

    Nouns

    1. The names of persons, places, things, feelings,or ideas.Nouns usually answer the

    questions whoor what.

    2. Nouns are often preceded by "noun markers," the words a, an,and the. The word answering "who

    or what" asked after a noun marker will be a noun.

    3. Nouns usually form a plural by adding an s. If you are unsure if a word is a noun, try adding s tomean more than one. If it works, the word is probably a noun.

    4. Word endings -ance, -ancy, -ence, -ice, -ion, -ity, -ment, -ness, and -ure usually form nouns.

    Verbs

    1. Verbs are words which show action or doing. All sentences must have at least one verb.

    2. A few verbs, called "linking verbs," express that someone or something exists or isa certain

    way. Memorize them: be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being.They are always verbs.

    3. Verbs change form to show a difference in time. If you change a sentence from present to past, or

    past to present, the words which change are verbs.

    4. Complete verbs may include two or more verbs working together and consisting of a main verb and

    "helping verbs." The only words that can be helping verbs are:

    can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must-- (always helping verbs)

    have, has, had, do, does, did,be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being-- (helping or main)

    5. The endings -ify and -ize usually form verbs; -ing or -ed endings are common verb forms.

    6. Check verbs by fitting them in one of the following: He or she _______. They _______.

    Adjectives

    1. Adjectives are words which describe only nouns. They tell what kind?or how many?

    2. The noun markers a, an,and the are always adjectives.

    3. Adjectives pile up in front of nouns. For example: the big, red, flashy car. All underlined words are

    adjectives describing the noun car.

    4. Adjectives may also follow a linking verb and describe the subject of a sentence. For example: The

    car is big, red, and flashy.

    5. The word endings -able, -ful, - ible, - ical, -ious, -ive, -y usually form adjectives.

    Pronouns

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    1. Pronouns are words which take the place of nouns to keep from repeating the nouns over and over

    in a sentence or paragraph.

    2. The most common pronouns are: I, he, we, she, they, me, him, us, her, them, it, this, that, who,

    which, what.

    3. One form of pronoun shows possession or ownership. These possessive pronouns work likeadjectives, describing nouns. They include the words my, mine, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs,

    your, yours, its,and whose.Note that theydont use apostrophes.

    Prepositions

    1. Prepositions are common words which begin prepositionalphrases (groups of words which work

    together).Prepositional phrases always start with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun, and

    the entire phrase describes other words.

    2. Most prepositions indicate time, place, or position.

    3. The most common prepositions are: at, to, with, from, for, of, on, in, into, onto,between, under, over,against,and around.Your textbook has a more complete list of prepositions.

    Conjunctions

    1. Conjunctions are words which hookwords, phrases, or sentences.

    2. The most common conjunctions are: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

    Other common conjunctions are: because, when, while, as, since, although, whenever.

    Check your textbook for a more complete list of these "subordinating conjunctions."

    Adverbs

    1. Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives,or other adverbs. They answer the questions: how, when,

    where, why,or under what conditions.

    2. A number of words are always adverbs. They include: not, very, often, here, almost, always,never, there,and too.

    3. Adverbs very often end with -ly. However, be careful: notallwords ending in -lyare adverbs.

    Interjections

    1. Words which express emotion or are "fillers" in sentences, but which serve little other function are

    called interjections.

    For example: The underlined words in each of these sentences are interjections.

    Oh, I am surprised. Ouch! I hit my hand. Yes, I am here.

    Remember:The part of speech is determined by how a word is used in a sentence.The same

    word may be a noun, verb, adjective, preposition, or conjunction according to how it is used.

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    Nouns and Pronouns

    Nouns represent people, places, things, activities,

    emotions, and ideas.

    (1) a person

    actor

    (2) a place

    Nicaragua

    (3) a thing

    pliers

    (4) an emotion

    love

    (5) an idea

    idea

    Count NounsandNoncount Nouns

    ronouns represent nouns: I, you, he, she, it, we,

    and they are....

    Subject Pronouns

    Singular Plural

    I We

    You You

    He

    TheyShe

    It

    I am a teacher.

    Noun: teacher

    Pronoun: I

    You are a student.

    Noun: student

    Pronoun: You

    He is a guitarplayer

    Noun: player

    Pronoun: He

    She is a mother.

    Noun: mother.

    Pronoun: she

    It is a radio.

    Noun: radio

    Pronoun: It

    http://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Blue%20Level/B19%20Count%20and%20Noncount%20Nouns.htmlhttp://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Blue%20Level/B19%20Count%20and%20Noncount%20Nouns.htmlhttp://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Blue%20Level/B19%20Count%20and%20Noncount%20Nouns.htmlhttp://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Blue%20Level/B19%20Count%20and%20Noncount%20Nouns.htmlhttp://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Blue%20Level/B19%20Count%20and%20Noncount%20Nouns.htmlhttp://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Blue%20Level/B19%20Count%20and%20Noncount%20Nouns.htmlhttp://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Blue%20Level/B19%20Count%20and%20Noncount%20Nouns.htmlhttp://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Blue%20Level/B19%20Count%20and%20Noncount%20Nouns.htmlhttp://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Blue%20Level/B19%20Count%20and%20Noncount%20Nouns.html
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    We are people.

    Noun: people

    Pronoun: We

    (I + You) = We

    I

    +

    you

    You are students.

    Noun: Students

    Pronoun: You

    Note: "You" can be

    singular or plural

    They are a family.

    Noun: family

    Pronoun: They

    "They" is always plural.

    It can be used for

    people or things.

    They are

    wooden chairs.

    Noun: chairs

    Pronoun: They

    "They" is a plural

    pronoun for the chairs.

    There are also....

    Object Pronouns

    Singular Plural

    me us

    you you

    him

    themher

    It

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    WEEK 2

    (PARTS OF SPEECH/

    WORD CLASSES)

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    Adverbs / Adjectives / Linking Verbs

    Adverbs

    FORM

    [adjective + ly]

    There are also irregular adverbs such as "well" and "fast."

    USE 1

    Adverbs can be used to modify verbs.

    Examples:

    John walked quickly towards the door.

    Sally sat silently waiting for somebody else to speak first.

    USE 2

    Adverbs can be used to modify adjectives.

    Examples:

    The redwood tree was impressively tall.

    The blouse was outrageously expensive.

    USE 3

    Adverbs can be used to modify other adverbs.

    Examples:

    She spoke extremely confidently.

    The cheetah ran incredibly quickly.

    Adjectives

    FORM

    There are many different adjective endings including "-ive,"

    "-ous," "-y," "-ful," "-ent" and many others. "Attractive,"

    "envious," "lazy," "beautiful," and "intelligent" are alladjectives.

    USE 1

    Adjectives can be used to modify nouns.

    Examples:

    Jack drives a big car.

    Sally writes beautiful poems.

    USE 2

    Adjectives often follow linking verbs (described below).

    Examples:

    Max is tall.

    Sandra seems mad.

    Linking Verbs

    LIST

    to appear

    to be

    to become

    to feel

    to get

    to go

    to grow

    to look

    to prove

    to remain

    to seem

    to smell

    to sound

    to stay

    to taste

    to turn

    USE

    The linking verbs above are often followed by adjectivesinstead of adverbs. In such situations, the adjective

    describes the subject of the sentence rather than the verb.

    Study the examples below to learn the difference.

    Examples:

    Mary seemed sad. Correct

    Mary seemed sadly. Not Correct

    The cake tastes good. Correct

    The cake tastes well. Not Correct

    The train is slow. Correct

    The train is slowly. Not Correct

    James grew tired. Correct

    Sarah remained calm. Correct

    The milk went bad. Correct

    The seas turned rough. Correct

    The negotiations proved pointless. Correct

    IMPORTANT

    The verbs in the list above are not always used as linking

    verbs. Compare the examples below.

    Examples:

    Sally grew angry.

    "ANGRY"DESCRIBES SALLY.IN THIS SENTENCE,"TO GROW"IS

    BEING USED AS A LINKING VERB MEANING "TO BECOME."

    The plant grew quickly.

    "QUICKLY"DOES NOT DESCRIBE THE PLANT, IT DESCRIBES THE

    MANNER IN WHICH IT GROWS.IN THIS SENTENCE,"TO GROW"IS

    NOT BEING U