English Grammar - Spoken English Institute - Lucknow

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    English Grammar 1

    Confidence, Fluency & Personality

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    English Grammar 2

    Confidence, Fluency & Personality

    INTRODUCTION TO CDI

    The Career Development Institute was established to achieve the following objectives:

    Youmight have a professional degree ,you might be a good student you might be verygood in the subject knowledge but if you lack communication you will not be able to

    communicate your knowledge to the other person henceforth losing out on the future

    prospects even if you get through it you would not get the desired package.

    Recognizing the importance of English Language Fluency is the success of every career,CDI has introduced a range of programs to enhance English communication skills for

    Individuals. Whether you wish to start learning English as a beginner or whether you are a

    student, Executive, House wife, we have the right learning package for you, based on your

    level.

    CDI teaches English in a very easy way making it as a part of your daily life. The instituteemphasize in teaching British English because it is the most acceptable language over the

    world with the use of correct grammar and neutral accent.

    CDI offers programs catering to various levels of learners from the basics to the advanceslevel.

    Other career Options - In todays work culture every carrier option would require anindividual to be good in communication as well as in interpersonal skills no matter how

    qualified you are in the respected subject of interest.

    Various Job Fields- Information Technology, Management, Retail Industry, Mass

    Communication, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, Fashion design, Allied health, Telecom,

    Hospitality, Banking and Commerce, Army, Infrastructure, Sales and Marketing, Aviation,

    Finance, Legal, Manufacturing and Engineering, Acting and Sports.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Topic Name Page NoTopic No

    1 The Sentence 3 11

    2 Noun 12 18

    3 Adjective 19 30

    4 Articles 31 35

    5 Adverb 36 - 41

    6 Case 42 44

    7 Clauses 44 49

    8 Conjunction 50 51

    9 Determiners 52 52

    10 Gerunds and Infinitives 53 56

    11 Preposition 57

    62

    12 Pronouns 63 65

    13 Direct and Indirect Speech 66 69

    14 Pluralisation Guide 70 71

    15 Punctuation Guide 72 74

    16 Asking Questions 75 80

    17 Spelling Guide 81

    82

    18 Prefixes and Suffixes 83 86

    19 Tenses 87 98

    20 Verb 99 113

    21 Grammar Chants 101 - 102

    22 1000 Most Common Phrases 103 111

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    CHAPTER 1 - THE SENTENCE

    Lets take two Examples

    Sentence No 1 Ram is a Good Boy.

    Sentence No 2 Boy is good Ram.

    Now can you tell which sentence is correct Sentence 1

    or Sentence 2?

    The answer is Sentence 1 because the group of wordsin Sentence 1 in making sense (you can understand)

    So a group of words like this, which makes complete

    sense (you can understand), is called a Sentence.

    A sentence is a group of words which starts with a

    capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question

    mark (?) or exclamation mark (!). A sentence contains

    or implies a predicate and a subject.

    KIND OF SENTENCES- Sentences are of 4 kinds

    Assertive or Declarative Sentence Those which

    make statements or assertions; as,E.g.: Humpty

    Dumpty sat on a wall.

    Interrogative Sentences Those which ask questions;as, E.g. Where do you live?

    Imperative Sentences A sentence that expresses a

    command or an entreaty. E.g. - Be Quite, Stand Up.

    Exclamatory Sentence - A sentence that expresses

    strong feeling. E.g. how cold the night is!

    SUBJECT AND PREDICATE

    When we make a sentence

    - We name some person or thing and- Say something about that person or thing

    In other words, we must have a subject to speak about

    and we must say orpredicate something about that

    subject.

    Hence every sentence has 2 parts

    SentenceLucknow is a Beautiful city.

    SUBJECT PREDICATE

    PARTS OF SPEECH

    Lets take an example

    Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

    Red

    Green

    Yellow

    Blue

    PenViolet

    Purple

    Apple

    Mango

    Banana

    Orange

    SpinachGrapes

    Guava

    January

    April

    July

    September

    DecemberMonday

    June

    Assertive or

    Declarative

    Sentence - They

    make statements

    Imperative

    Sentences -

    Expresses a

    command

    Interrogative

    Sentences -

    Ask Questions

    Exclamatory

    Sentence -

    Expresses strong

    Feeling

    The part which namesa person or thing

    Subject

    The part which tellssomething about thesubject

    Predicate

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    Now can you tell which is the odd word in these

    groups?

    Group 1 Colors - Pen

    Group 2- Fruits - Spinach

    Group 3 - Months - Monday

    By this example we can observe that everything has its

    own category and if something comes in between we

    come to know about it.

    Similarly English Grammar has 8 categories of

    speeches which are also called as Parts of Speech. Lets

    learn them.

    There are 8 parts of Speech -

    1. Noun2. Verb3. Pronoun4. Adjective5. Adverb6. Conjunction7. Interjection8. Articles

    Sentences contain clauses.

    Simple sentences have one clause.

    Compound sentences and complex sentences have two

    or more clauses.

    Sentences can contain subjects and objects.

    The subject in a sentence is generally the person orthing carrying out an action. The object in a sentence is

    involved in an action but does not carry it out, the

    object comes after the verb.

    For example:

    The boy climbed a tree.

    If you want to say more about the subject (the boy) or

    the object (the tree), you can add an adjective.

    For example:

    The young boy climbed a tall tree.

    If you want to say more about how he climbed the tree

    you can use an adverb.

    For example:

    The young boy quickly climbed a tall tree.

    The sentence becomes more interesting as it gives the

    reader or listener more information.

    There are more things you can add to enrich your

    sentence.

    Parts of a sentenceDescription

    Adjective Describes things or people.

    Adverb Alters the meaning of the verb slightly

    Articlea, an - indefinite articles

    the - definite articles

    Conjunction Joins words or sentences together

    InterjectionA short word showing emotion or

    feeling

    Noun Names things

    Preposition Relates one thing to another

    Pronounused instead of a noun to avoid

    repetition

    Proper noun

    (subject)

    The actual names of people or places

    etc.

    Verb Action or doing word

    For example:

    WHAT MAKES A COMPLETE SENTENCE?

    If it helps you, think about a sentence as if it were askeleton, the skeleton contains various bones and these

    bones are put together to form different parts of the

    body. So are sentences formed by words, the words

    http://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/clausetext.htmhttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Simplehttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Compoundhttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Complexhttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Subjectshttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Objecthttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Objecthttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Subjectshttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Complexhttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Compoundhttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/sentencetext.htm#Simplehttp://www.learnenglish.de/grammar/clausetext.htm
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    are the bones and they are put together in different

    ways to form sentences.

    SIMPLE SENTENCES

    A simple sentence contains a single subject and

    predicate. It describes only one thing, idea or question,

    and has only one verb - it contains only an

    independent (main) clause.

    Any independent clause can stand alone as a sentence.

    It has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete

    thought.

    For example:

    Jill reads.Even the addition of adjectives, adverbs, and

    prepositional phrases to a simple sentence does not

    change it into a complex sentence.

    For example:

    The brown dog with the red collar always barksloudly.

    Even if you join several nouns with a conjunction, or

    several verbs with a conjunction, it remains a simple

    sentence.

    For example:

    The dog barked and growled loudly.COMPOUND SENTENCES

    Compound sentences are made up of two or more

    simple sentences combined using a conjunction such

    as and, oror but. They are made up of more than one

    independent clause joined together with a co-

    ordinating conjunction.

    For example:

    "The sun was setting in the we