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ENGLISH AS AN INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE. Part 2 CULTURE IN TEACHING/LEARNING ENGLISH AS AN INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE. Sandra Lee McKay: Teaching English as an International Language. Susie Dent: Words of the Year. INTRODUCTION. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



  • Sandra Lee McKay: Teaching English as an International LanguageSusie Dent: Words of the Year

  • INTRODUCTIONThe use of cultural content in EIL teaching is problematic regarding the characteristics of an international language.In the case of English, these are that:as it is an international language, the use of E is no longer connected to the culture of Inner Circle countries...one of the primary functions of E, as is the case with any international language, is to enable speakers to share their ideas and cultures.

  • Culture learningCulture learning is a social process and, in reference to EIL, understanding ones own culture in relation to that of others is paramount.

  • THE ROLE OF CULTURE Culture in language teaching/learning has traditionally provided cultural information. Such information tipically includes:the aesthetic sense in which the literature film, and music of a target language country are examined;the sociological sense in which the customs and institutions of this country are ecplained;the semantic sense in which how a cultures conceptual system is embodied in a languge is investigated;the pragmatic sense in which how cultural norms influence what language is appropirate for which context is examined.

  • A SPHERE OF INTERCULTURALITYThis line of thought promotes the idea that the learning of culture is more than just the transfer of information btw cultures. Rather learning about a culture requires that an individual CONSIDERS his or her OWN CULTURE in RELATION TO ANOTHER. Hence, th process of learning about another culture entails a reflection on ones own culture as well as the target culture.

  • TO ESTABLISH A SPHERE OF INTERCULTURALITY This rquires 2 essential steps.

    First, learners need to acquire knowledge about another culture


    Second, then they need to reflect on how their own culture contrasts with it.


  • Acquiring knowledge about and reflecting on another cultureIn trying to understand another culture, one of first things an individual must do is to put aside what is called NAIVE REALISM - the idea that all people define the real world in pretty much the same way, that love, worship, food, death, and so on all have similar meanings for everyone. In line with this assumption, one goal that should be encouraged when reflecting on another culture is to consider what meaning particular behavior might have for members of that culture, and not to assume that it is the same as the one we have.

  • Teaching culture as difference Teaching culture as difference is also important because of the common use of EIL in cross-cultural encounters.

    The goal of EIL teaching should not be for students to accept the standards of Inner Circle countries, but rather to recognze how particular pragmatic differences might affect their own cross-cultural encounters.

  • Why is culture necessary?Brown, for instance, points out that within scientific writing there are many cultural assumptions and presumpositions regarding the nature of objectivity, the importance of truthfulness in scientific endeavors, and what is appropirate to include or exclude in a scientific report. In all uses of EIL, including ESP (English for Special Purposes), entail some culutral dimension, it would appear that one cannot avoid the issue of culture in the teaching of English.

    So if culture is essential to the teaching of a language, the question is in what ways is it essential?In order to use E for special purposes, an individual needs to acquire the culturally influenced ways of using particular discourse. Culture is necessary because it is really an integral part of the interaction btw language and thought. Culutral patterns, customs, and ways of life are expressed in language: culture-specific world views are reflected in language.

  • LEXICAL INNOVATIONS The question in relation to ELT is which particular culturally influenced uses o E do learners need to acquire? Lexical innovations are occuring in the development of many nativized varieties of E. These innovations often provide a means to describe a cultural aspect of local life. For example:

    luki-luki in Tunisia (Would you like to go on a sightseeing tour?)misi, misi, kopi, kopi in Hong Kong (Miss, would you like to buy a copy of a designer bag?)

  • Lexical items If an international language is one that is de-nationalized, then there is no reason why bilingual users of E need to acquire the localized lexical items of any country other than their own.

    Lexical items that include cultural knowledge exist on a continuum.

    Some need to be acquired because of their frequent use in international context ,

    Others are more restircted to use in a particular locality or country. E.g. the USA : Term such as yellow journalism have emerged from the historical and political development of the country, but because of its local meaning, it is not central to the learning of EIL.On the other hand, there are terms that have emerged from more general western traditions such as Pandoras box and the good Samaritan and are perhaps more relevant to EIL.

  • CULTURAL CONTENT IN WORDS I remember once hearing a statistic that only 1% of all new words ever make it into a dictionary, and wondering what on earth happened to the rest. Many of the new words of a particular time can express often highly complex events and reactions with as much eloquence as any visual representation.

    The prominent themes of these past years include ethical living, a global financial and economic insecurity and the entrenchment of online social networking. All are rapidly generating their own vocabularies.

    Exposure for a new word takes today just a fraction of the time, thanks to the vast possibilities of the Internet and of blogs, chatrooms, texts, and emails. The English language is being opened up beyond all recognition.

    Here are some of the new coins

  • A MODERN-DAY ENGLISH VOCABULARY The majority of words used in English today are of foreign origin, historically from Latin and Greek and in more recent centuries from almost all the languages of Europe. Approximately 5% of all new words in the 20th century came from abroad, and many were from far and exotic countires of the world. In total, over 120 languages are on record as sources of modern-day English vocuabulary.

  • LOAN WORDS The majority of so-called loan words come about as a result of CULTURAL INFLUENCE, and lifestyle terms are paritcularly likely to be picked up.

    Food, sports, fashion, fitness regimes, and health remedies and therapies are all areas where English is currently hoovering up foreign ters most rapidly.

    Recent food imports, for example, include the acai ( a fruit from the Amazon region), the kaiseki (a traditional multi-course Japanese meal),ristretto (a very short shot of espresso coffee).

    When a foreign word comes out of a prominent event its exposure is guaranteed. As a result, it stands an excellent chance of becoming absorbed into our language and naturalized. For example arguido/argida and tsunami.

  • ARGUIDO/ARGUIDAM/FIt is a Portugese term usually translated as named suspect or formal suspect.

    The term has become naturalized in English as a result of the investigation by Portugese police into the disappearance of a 3-year old Madeleine McCann while on holiday in the Algarve, during which the status was invoked upon three people, including hr parents.

  • Words of the year 2008 KNORK (bled of knife + fork)In late 2007 the supermarket chain Sainsburys announced the result of a survey into British eating habits. Our modern lifestyle, apparently, is now so busy that the traditional family meal at the table is all but extinct. Not only that, but because most meals are being consumed on a sofa as a TV meal, our traditional cutlery is no longer cutting the mustard. We are using a fork to do everything on a plate, even if cutting power is clearly lacking. The real knork was invented in 2003 by the American enterpreneour.

  • MOOFERMoofing was coined by a Microsoft worker. He describes moofers, and those who have the courage to employ them as people who understand that work is something you do, not somewhere you go. A moofer is one of the new generation of office workers who are given the flexibility to choose where, when, and how they want to work according to the task in hand.

  • LATTE LIBERALBarak Obama was called a latte liberal because of his perceived attempts to charm the coffee-drinking, left-leaning liberals. This was as opposed to his rival Senator Clinton. The insult came after one union leader called Obama supporters latte-drinking, trust-fund babies.

  • PICNICPICNIC is a term used by IT support personnel to describe someone who calls them to fix a problem with their hard or software, when the problem is in fact due to their inexperience or incompetence: Perhaps the computer was not switched on in the first place?Acronym:Problem In Chair Not In Computer

  • CLEGGOVERThe nickname given to the new Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg following an intervju in GQ magazine, in which he revealed that he had slept with up to 30 women.

  • BOYTOXAccording to statistics published in March 2008, a fifth of all Britons who undergo Botox treatments as an anti-ageing measure are men.

    Boytox joins other terms in the new male grooming lexicon including the back, sack, and crack: a waxing procedure by which a mans body hair is removed from his back, genitals, and between his buttocks, alternatively known as the boyzilian.

  • CHURNALISMA category