Engineering surveying, 5...ition w. schofield

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An important book for knowledge of all types of engineering surveys Engineering Surveying. Sixth Edition. W. Schofield. Former Principal Lecturer, Kingston University. M. Breach. Principal Lecturer, Nottingham Trent University.

Transcript of Engineering surveying, 5...ition w. schofield

  • Engineering Surveying
  • This book is dedicated to my late wife Jean and my daughter Zo
  • Engineering Surveying Theory and Examination Problems for Students Fifth Edition W. Schofield Principal Lecturer, Kingston University OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW DELHI
  • Butterworth-Heinemann Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041 A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group First published 1972 Second edition 1978 Third edition 1984 Fourth edition 1993 Reprinted 1995, 1997, 1998 Fifth edition 2001 W. Schofield 1972, 1978, 1984, 1993, 1998, 2001 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1P 9HE. Applications for the copyright holders written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publishers British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Schofield, W. (Wilfred) Engineering surveying: theory and examination problems for students. 5th ed. 1 Surveying I Title 526.9024624 Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data Schofield, W. (Wilfred) Engineering surveying: theory and examination problems for students/W. Schofield. 5th ed. p. cm. ISBN 0 7506 4987 9 (pbk.) 1 Surveying I Title. TA545.S263 2001 526.902462dc21 ISBN 0 7506 4987 9 Typeset in Replika Press Pvt Ltd. 100% EOU, Delhi 110 040, (India) Printed and bound in Great Britain
  • Contents Preface to fifth edition vii Preface to fourth edition ix Acknowledgements xi 1 Basic concepts of surveying 1 Definition Basic measurements Control networks Locating position Locating topographic detail Computer systems DGM CAD GIS Vector/raster Topology Laser scanner Summary Units of measurement Significant figures Rounding off numbers Errors in measurement Indices of precision Weight Rejection of outliers Combination of errors 2 Vertical control 43 Introduction Levelling Definitions Curvature and refraction Equipment Instrument adjustment Principle of levelling Sources of error Closure tolerances Error distribution Levelling applications Reciprocal levelling Precise levelling Digital levelling Trigonometrical levelling Stadia tacheometry 3 Distance 117 Tapes Field work Distance adjustment Errors in taping Accuracies Electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) Measuring principles Meteorological corrections Geometrical reductions Errors and calibration Other error sources Instrument specifications Developments in EDM Optical distance measurement (ODM) 4 Angles 178 The theodolite Instrumental errors Instrument adjustment Field procedure Measuring angles Sources of error 5 Position 208 Introduction Reference ellipsoid Coordinate systems Local systems Computation on the ellipsoid Datum transformations Orthomorphic projection Ordnance Survey National Grid Practical applications The Universal Transverse Mercator Projection (UTM) Plane rectangular coordinates 6 Control surveys 252 Traversing Triangulation Trilateration Triangulateration Inertial surveying 7 Satellite positioning 307 Introduction GPS segments GPS receivers Satellite orbits Basic principle of position fixing Differencing data GPS field procedures Error sources GPS survey planning Transformation between reference systems Datums Other satellite systems Applications
  • 8 Curves 347 Circular curves Setting out curves Compound and reverse curves Short and/or small- radius curves Transition curves Setting-out data Cubic spiral and cubic parabola Curve transitional throughout The osculating circle Vertical curves 9 Earthworks 420 Areas Partition of land Cross-sections Dip and strike Volumes Mass-haul diagrams 10 Setting out (dimensional control) 464 Protection and referencing Basic setting-out procedures using coordinates Technique for setting out a direction Use of grids Setting out buildings Controlling verticality Controlling grading excavation Rotating lasers Laser hazards Route location Underground surveying Gyro-theodolite Line and level Responsibility on site Responsibility of the setting-out engineer Index 517 vi Contents
  • Preface to the fourth edition This book was originally intended to combine volumes 1 and 2 of Engineering Surveying, 3rd and 2nd editions respectively. However, the technological developments since the last publication date (1984) have been so far-reaching as to warrant the complete rewriting, modernizing and production of an entirely new book. Foremost among these developments are the modern total stations, including the automatic self- seeking instruments; completely automated, field to finish survey systems; digital levels; land/ geographic information systems (L/GIS) for the managing of any spatially based information or activity; inertial survey systems (ISS); and three-dimensional position fixing by satellites (GPS). In order to include all this new material and still limit the size of the book a conscious decision was made to delete those topics, namely photogrammetry, hydrography and field astronomy, more adequately covered by specialist texts. In spite of the very impressive developments which render engineering surveying one of the most technologically advanced subjects, the material is arranged to introduce the reader to elementary procedures and instrumentation, giving a clear understanding of the basic concept of measurement as applied to the capture, processing and presentation of spatial data. Chapters 1 and 4 deal with the basic principles of surveying, vertical control, and linear and angular measurement, in order to permit the student early access to the associated equipment. Chapter 5 deals with coordinate systems and reference datums necessary for an understanding of satellite position fixing and an appreciation of the various forms in which spatial data can be presented to an L/GIS. Chapter 6 deals with control surveys, paying particular attention to GPS, which even in its present incomplete stage has had a revolutionary impact on all aspects of surveying. Chapter 7 deals with elementary, least squares data processing and provides an introduction to more advanced texts on this topic. Chapters 8 to 10 cover in detail those areas (curves, earthworks and general setting out on site) of specific interest to the engineer and engineering surveyor. Each chapter contains a section of Worked Examples, carefully chosen to clearly illustrate the concepts involved. Student exercises, complete with answers, are supplied for private study. The book is aimed specifically at students of surveying, civil, mining and municipal engineering and should also prove valuable for the continuing education of professionals in these fields. W. Schofield
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  • Preface to the fifth edition Since the publication of the fourth edition of this book, major changes have occurred in the following areas: surveying instrumentation, particularly Robotic Total Stations withAutomatic Target Recognition, reflectorless distance measurement, etc., resulting in turnkey packages for machine guidance and deformation monitoring. In addition there has been the development of a new instrument and technique known as laser scanning GIS, making it a very prominent and important part of geomatic engineering satellite positioning, with major improvements to the GPS system, the continuance of the GLONASS system, and a proposal for a European system called GALILEO national and international co-ordinate systems and datums as a result of the increasing use of satellite systems. All these changes have been dealt with in detail, the importance of satellite systems being evidenced by a new chapter devoted entirely to this topic. In order to include all this new material and still retain a economical size for the book, it was necessary but regrettable to delete the chapter on Least Squares Estimation. This decision was based on a survey by the publishers that showed this important topic was not included in the majority of engineering courses. It can, however, still be referred to in the fourth edition or in specialised texts, if required. All the above new material has been fully expounded in the text, while still retaining the many worked examples which have always been a feature of the book. It is hoped that this new edition will still be of benefit to all students and practitioners of those branches of engineering which contain a study and application of engineering surveying. W. Schofield February 2001
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  • Acknowledgements The author wishes to acknowledge and thank all those bodies and individuals who contributed in any way to the formation of this book. For much of the illustrative material thanks are due to Intergraph (UK) Ltd, Leica (UK) Ltd, Trimble (UK) L