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    INTRODUCTION

    In the beginning, all crops for human sustenance were produced and prepared by

    the power of human muscles. Many centuries have passed before the animal power

    muscles was used to relieve that of the human being, further it was reduced with the

    discovery of iron tools. In the beginning the progress was slow, but slowly and slowly it

    has gained momentum. The changes which occurred in the past two decades have so

    tremendously affected human values that one wonders. In facts, there has been more

    faming progress in the last hundred years than in all the previous history of the world.

    Prosperity and economics balance of any country depends upon the ability of its

    farmers to release the maximum number of its labourers and provide more than sufficient

    food for their countryman and this is only possible through agriculture. Agricultural

    engineering is the application of knowledge, techniques and disciplines of various fields

    of engineering to the solution of the problem arising in the fields of agriculture and rural

    living with the rural living with the object of improve agricultural productivity per

    worker. As per international institutions, Agricultural engineering comprises of

    (1) Farm machinery and power,

    (2) Rural structures,

    (3) Soil conservation drainage and irrigation and,

    (4) Rural electricity.

    In fact Agricultural engineering is a very vast subject and only during the second

    and the third five year plans, Agricultural engineering division were added to the

    department of agriculture in states and at the center. They started hiring or selling

    tractors, implement and pumps ect. Many training institutions and workshops have

    started training, and in every state research-cum-testing and training center for

    agricultural implements were established. This has opened a chapter of mechanization in

    this field.After that another era started; with the establishment of many agricultural

    universities, many agricultural engineering collages have come up to produce graduate

    and postgraduate engineers for the country. These units took over research, education and

    extension work from the state departments of agriculture. In almost every stat an agro-

    industry corporation, financed by the Central Ministry of Agriculture department and to

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    expand it. On other hand many factories come up for manufacturing tractors with the

    financial assistance of the Government and private parties. These three dimensional

    progresses quicken the pace of mechanization in the country. To check the pieces of

    tractors and implements the Government has fixed the maximum price with the Bureau of

    Cost account in the Ministry of Finance.

    Now-a-day aviation in Agriculture is becoming very popular in India. At present

    the aeroplanes and helicopters are being used for spraying pesticides, insecticides and

    liquid fertilizers on the crops. It is only possible on very big farms, which are open and

    have no obstruction for the aerial spraying like big trees, electric wires, hill and buildings.

    Electronics is also creeping up slowly in the field of agriculture. Remote control tractor

    have been developed and successfully tasted in some countries. Computers are also now

    helping in many ways and becoming popular day by day. To produce more electricity

    many hydro and automatic projects have been taken up, which will definitely gear up the

    farm mechanization in the country by increasing the irrigation facilities.

    Agricultural Machinery and Implements

    Mechanization in India started with improved land tools and implements operated

    by human power, and then after animal operated implements were designed, which gave

    a big relief to human power. Lot of stress has been given to these tools, implements and

    equipment, during first three Five Year Plans. After that during Fourth and Fifth Five

    Year Plans many improved and sophisticated implements and equipments were designed,

    with the development f tractors, engines and combines. many different types of

    operations like ploughings, harrowing, leveling, sowing, irrigation, interculture,

    application of fertilizes-manures, insecticides, pesticides, harvesting, threshing,

    winnowing, and storing etc. different designs, shapes and sizes of different types

    implements were designed to suit different conditions.India has her own image as far old traditional desi or indigenous implements are

    concerned. These indigenous implements very in shapes, sizes, and constructions from

    state to state. Before importing implements from foreign countries, a survey by I.C.A.R.

    was made to know the different indigenous implements in the country to modify them in

    order to increase their efficiency and thus give to the Indian farmers some thing which is

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    within their means. These implements were modified , fabricated or designed with the

    following views:

    1. It should be simple in construction and operation, so that it can be handled

    easily by illiterate farmers, and can be manufactured or repaired by village level

    mechanics, carpenters and blacksmiths.

    2. It should be less in cost, so as to suit every farmer, rich or poor.

    3. It should be light in weight, so that transportation is easy from village to

    field and also less in draft to suit animals of that area.

    4. It should be fabricated by the material locally available so that farmers

    have no problems for spare parts afterwards.

    The I.C.A.R. had made all the possibilities to facilitate farmer s. Tractor, engines,

    motors and power operated costly implements were supplied to the farmers on hire or

    hire purchase system or on custom bases or on co-operative basis. This created a new

    interest in the farmers, which made the mechanization possible.

    Ploughs

    In India mainly three types of plough are used under primary tillage equipments,

    desi plough, mould board, and disc ploughs of western origin. The plough is a device

    which cuts or tear open the top crust of the soil in the shape of furrow slice, lifts it, breaks

    it, turns or over turns it up side down, there by it buried all the vegetations below the

    furrow slice. The very first operation on the field as primary tillage operation has been

    done by ploughs.

    Desi ploughs

    The desi plough makes a v-shaped furrow and does not turn over the soil. It is

    mostly made of hard wood eg. Babool or Kikar. The depth of ploughing is from 10 to

    20cm and the width from 13 to 18 cm. The depth of the plough can be adjusted by a

    wedge provided in the body of the plough. Repeated and cross ploughings are necessary

    to secure a good tilth. They are also used for making a shallow furrow or depositing seeds

    and to harvest crops such as potatoes, groundnuts and sweet potatoes. Hence, it is a multi-

    purpose implement.

    It has certain advantages like:

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    1. It is a multipurpose plough used for ploughing, sowing, mixing manures,

    interculture in standing crop; and harrowing.

    2. Village level carpenters and blacksmith can repair and make the plough.

    3. It is very cheap and easily available.

    4. It is light in weight; therefore, can be carried from place to place easily.

    5. It can work equally in all types of soils.

    Mould Board Ploughs

    It consists of a share and a mould board of steel. It ploughs a square furrow and

    inverts the soil either completely or partially depending on the curvature given to the

    mould board. The provision of a vertical or horizontal suction to the share tip is

    necessary. In the case of long beam ploughs the beam and handle are made of wood

    whereas in the short beam plough the complete implement is made of metal. Heavy

    mouldboard ploughs are also used for the eradication ofweeds. The shares of the lighter

    ploughs should be made of steel instead of cast iron.

    Ridger ploughs: There are three sizes-the light, medium and heavy. Some of the

    improved ones have an arrangement for adjusting the width of the furrow by changing the

    distance between the 2 mould boards. For vegetable orchards the possession of the ridger

    is a must.

    Surface and Subsoiler plough

    Under this category comes special ploughs named as Chiesel plough, Subsoiler

    plough and Giant plough.

    Chisel plough is having rigid curved or straight shank or standard of nickel- alloy

    heat-treated spring steel. The width varies 1.5 to 13.5m and depth 10 cm to 45.7cm. the

    spacing between shank varies from 30.5 to 91 cm.

    Subsoiler ploughs are built heavier than chisel ploughs working depth ranges

    from 50.8 to 91.4 cm the standard is generally long and narrow with a heavy, wedge like

    point.

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    DISC PLOW

    Disc plows were introduced to reduce friction by making a rolling bottom instead of

    sliding bottom of mould board plow. It has draft without extra weight. It is adopted to the

    conditions where mould board plough cannot work, such as:

    1. Sticky, waxy, gumbo non-scouring soils and soils having a hard pan.

    2. Rough,