Eng 114: Sentence

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2. Examples: God is good. Love and patience are both godlike. The heart of man is swayed by various emotions. The girl in the old house felt lonesome everyday last year. The individual owner of land does not create land value. The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. 3. COMPONENTS CLAUSE --> is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate. SUBJECT --> is the word(s) about which something is said. VERB --> is a word that denotes action, state or being. PREDICATE --> word(s) that tells something about the subject. NOUN --> a word that names a person, place, or thing. PHRASE --> is a group of words, containing neither subject nor predicate, which act as a single part of speech. 4. CLASSIFICATION 1) BY STRUCTURE 2) BY PURPOSE 3) MAJOR & MINOR SENTENCES 5. BY STRUCTURE One traditional scheme for classifying English sentences is by the number and types of finite clauses: 1. A Simple Sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clause. 2. A Compound Sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation, or both. 3. A Complex Sentence consists of at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. 4. A Complex-Compound Sentence (or Compound-Complex Sentence) consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause. 6. SIMPLE SENTENCE Examples: 1. Come. 2. Boys like to play in the woods. 3. Gerry and Luis are working in the shop. 4. By the river a tall narra tree grew. 5. Minutes are the gold dust of time. 7. COMPOUND SENTENCE Examples: 1. Food is essential to life, but it should not be the end of existence. 2. I shall go, but you must stay. 3. We knew the password, but we were too tongue-tied to speak. 8. COMPLEX SENTENCE Example: I, who am your friend, will help you. --I will help you is the main clause. It expresses a complete thought and therefore can stand alone. --Who am your friend is the subordinate clause. Even if we put a period at the end of this clause and begin it with a capital letter, still the thought is remains incomplete; so the clause cannot stand alone. 9. BY PURPOSE: Sentences can also be classified based on their purpose: 1. A Declarative Sentence or declaration, the most common type, commonly makes a statement: "I have to go to work. 2. An Interrogative Sentence or question is commonly used to request information "Do I have to go to work?" but sometimes not. 3. An Exclamatory Sentence or exclamation is generally a more emphatic form of statement expressing emotion: "I have to go to work! 4. An Imperative Sentence or command tells someone to do something (and if done strongly may be considered both imperative and exclamatory): "Go to work." or "Go to work!" 10. MAJOR & MINOR SENTENCE 1. MAJOR SENTENCE is a regular sentence; it has a subject and a predicate. For example: "I have a ball." In this sentence one can change the persons: "We have a ball. 2. MINOR SENTENCE is an irregular type of sentence. It does not contain a finite verb. Example: "Mary! "Yes. "Coffee. 11. Other examples sentences: 1. Headings (e.g. the heading of this entry) 2. Stereotyped Expressions ("Hello!") 3. Emotional Expressions ("Wow!") 4. Proverbs 5. This can also include nominal sentences like "The more, the merrier". (These do not contain verbs in order to intensify the meaning around the nouns and are normally found in poetry and catch phrases) 12. SENTENCE LENGTH After a slump of interest, sentence length came to be studied in the 1980s, mostly "with respect to other syntactic phenomena". By some definitions, the average size length of a sentence is given by "no. of words / no. of sentences". The textbook Mathematical linguistics, written by Andrs Kornaiin suggests that in "journalistic prose the median sentence length is above 15 words". The average length of a sentence generally serves as a measure of sentence difficulty or complexity. The general trend is that as the average sentence length increases, the complexity of the sentences also increases. 13. SENTENCE LENGTH In some circumstances "sentence length" is expressed by the number of clauses, while the "clause length" is expressed by the number of phones. Sentence length, as well as word difficulty, are both factors in the readability of a sentence. However, other factors, such as the presence of conjunctions, have been said to "facilitate comprehension considerably". 14. END OF DISCUSSIONS THANK YOU 15. SHORT QUIZ Direction: Identify the correct word. 1.