Energy Efficiency Indicators The importance of energy efficiency...

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  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Energy Efficiency Indicators

    Laila El-Ashmawy

    14 December 2018, Beirut

    IEA

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    What is energy efficiency?

    Is this energy efficiency?

    Consume LESS energy to provide SAME service

    e.g. substitute Incandescent bulbs with LED

    Consume SAME energy to provide MORE service

    e.g. increased production with the same energy

    Warm up:

    Yes / No / Maybe

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    What is energy efficiency?

    Is this energy efficiency?

     Consume LESS energy because of CHANGE in service

    e.g. economic restructuring

     Consume LESS energy and provide LESS service

    e.g. walk or bike instead of drive

    Warm up:

    Yes / No / Maybe

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Overview

    Why developing energy efficiency indicators?

    What information is available from the energy balances?

    What further data are needed to track energy efficiency?

    How to collect these data?

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Why developing energy efficiency

    indicators?

    The importance of energy efficiency

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    The importance of energy efficiency – Multiple benefits

    Source: IEA (2014), Capturing the multiple benefits of energy efficiency, OECD/IEA, Paris.

    Environmental, economic and social

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    The importance of energy efficiency – Emission savings

    Energy efficiency reduced GHG emissions by 4 GtCO2-eq, or 13% of total CO2 emissions in 2016.

    Avoided global GHG emissions from energy efficiency improvements

    Source: IEA (2017), Energy Efficiency Market Report, OECD/IEA, Paris.

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    The importance of energy efficiency – key to set targets and

    monitor impacts

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    The importance of energy efficiency – Untapped potential

    “Currently, 70% of global energy consumption is not subject to mandatory efficiency standards targets”

    Energy consumption covered by efficiency regulations, 2000-2015

    Source: IEA (2016), Energy Efficiency Market Report, OECD/IEA, Paris.

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    What information is available from the

    energy balances?

    Are available data enough to track energy efficiency?

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Most countries collect basic energy statistics…

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    …which can be combined to build energy balances

    ENERGY BALANCE

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    The importance of energy balances

    WORLD ENERGY BALANCE 201

    2

    Supply

    Transformation

    Final

    consumption

    Efficiencies of

    transformation sector

    Shares of energy

    consumption by

    sector

    Energy intensity,

    Self-sufficiency

    ENERGY BALANCE

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    WORLD ENERGY BALANCE 201

    2

    The limitations of energy balances

    What most

    countries collect

    on a regular basis

    is aggregated data

    Coal & Peat Crude Oil Oil Products Gas Nuclear HydroGeoth/SolarComb. Ren.&Waste Electricity Heat Total

    OTHER SECTORS 136.42 0.23 425.87 633.44 - - 14.37 834.05 820.32 145.22 3036.92

    Residential 76.58 - 222.89 418.55 - - 6.98 805.42 395.81 97.97 2024.19

    Commercial (Services) 23.30 - 107.32 173.79 - - 1.15 16.33 338.31 32.47 692.67

    Agriculture/Forestry 9.57 0.02 102.97 5.58 - - 0.16 7.02 36.20 3.36 164.88

    Fishing 0.01 - 5.69 0.02 - - 0.03 - 0.36 0.06 6.17

    Non-specified 26.96 0.21 14.00 35.51 - - 6.05 5.28 49.64 11.36 149.01

    No breakdown by

    end-use:

    - space heating

    - space cooling

    - water heating

    - lighting

    - cooking

    - appliances

    No breakdown

    by end-use

    and

    by service category

    ENERGY BALANCE

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Balances data example

    Road transport is the most consuming.

    How do we track road transport efficiency?

    We need more detailed data:

    - consumption by vehicle type e.g. cars, buses, trucks

    - activity data e.g. distance travelled, passenger/tonne-kilometers

    Data source: IEA (2017), World energy balances.

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Energy balances coupled with macroeconomic data explain

    overall consumption patterns

    Data for IEA 20 (Australia, Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway,

    Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, USA).

    Data source: IEA, Energy efficiency indicators.

    x x+ 5 x+ 10 x+ 15 x+ 20

    ( years)

    Residential energy consumption index (IEA20)

    Aggregated indicators can be useful …

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Data for IEA 20 (Australia, Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway,

    Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, USA).

    * Temperature correction using heating degree days

    Data source: IEA, Energy efficiency indicators.

    x x+ 5 x+ 10 x+ 15 x+ 20

    ( years)

    Residential energy consumption index (IEA20)

    Aggregated indicators

    Disaggregated indicators

    Different message!!!

    We need more disaggregated data to get the full picture

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Understanding aggregated indicators requires attention

    Energy intensity (TFC/GDP) changes (1990-2010)

    Intensity decreased more in country X

    -3.0%

    -2.5%

    -2.0%

    -1.5%

    -1.0%

    -0.5%

    0.0%

    A v

    e ra

    g e

    a n

    n u

    a l

    p e

    rc e

    n t

    c h

    a n

    g e Quiz!!

    Which country has decreased more its

    energy intensity?

    (Country X / Country Y)

    Can we say that Country X has improved

    more in ENERGY EFFICIENCY?

    (Yes / No / Maybe)

    Country X Country Y

    Data source: IEA, Energy efficiency indicators.

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    -3.0%

    -2.5%

    -2.0%

    -1.5%

    -1.0%

    -0.5%

    0.0%

    A v

    e ra

    g e

    a n

    n u

    a l

    p e

    rc e

    n t

    c h

    a n

    g e

    Aggregated indicators are sometimes used inappropriately

    Country X intensity reduction was mostly due to structural changes,

    while country Y improved more in energy efficiency.

    Energy intensity (TFC/GDP) changes (1990-2010)

    Data source: IEA, Energy efficiency indicators.

    Country X Country Y

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    What further data are needed to track

    energy efficiency?

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Energy efficiency indicators: what level of detail?

    End-use

    efficiency indicators

    Process/appliance

    efficiency indicators

    TPES/GDP

    TFC/Population

    ….

    Energy use /ton steel

    Heating /square meter

    Aggregated

    Indicators

    Energy use /# TVs

    data requirement

    Commonly available

    data: Energy Balances

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Energy efficiency indicators: definition

    An efficiency indicator explain how much energy is needed to provide a certain service

    generic

    energy efficiency indicator

    energy consumption

    activity

    3

    2

    0

    3

    5

    0

    3

    7

    0

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Indicators for residential

    energy efficiency

    indicator

    energy

    activity

    For each end-use:

     Space heating*

     Space cooling*

     Water heating

     Cooking

     Lighting

     Appliances (energy use, stock, diffusion)

     Refrigerator

     Freezer

     Dishwasher

     Clothes washer

     Clothes dryer

     TV

     Computers

    * Temperature corrected, using HDD & CDD

    # of dwellings floor area (m²)

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Residential: matching energy and activity

    # of dwellings

    floor area (m²)

    Space

    heating/cooling Water heating

    QUIZ

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Residential: matching energy and activity

    # of dwellings

    floor area (m²)

    QUIZ

    Appliances

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Appliances Appliance stocks

    Residential: matching energy and activity

    floor area (m²)

    QUIZ

  • © OECD/IEA 2018

    Indicators for services

    # of employees Floor area (m²) Value added ($)

    energy efficiency

    indicator

    energy

    activity

    For each end-use:

     Space heating*

     Space cooling*

     Lighting

     Other bu