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  • Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Utilisation

    Opportunities for Public Schools in Indonesia: A Case Study

    of Baiturrahman Boarding School in West Java

    By

    Muhammad Kasim

    A dissertation submitted to the School of Engineering and Information Technology

    of Murdoch University in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master

    of Science in Renewable Energy

    November 2014

  • Declaration of Authorship

    I hereby declare that this dissertation is my original piece of work that contains my own research

    and have not previously been submitted and published at any university for any degree.

    Muhammad Kasim

    November 2014

  • iii

    Abstract

    The increase in the prices and consumption of electricity has increased the energy bills of many

    public buildings, including public schools and boarding schools. Thus, improving energy

    efficiency and energy conservation by developing methods to promote renewable energy (RE) for

    electricity generation has become increasingly important. The issue of Greenhouse Gases (GHG)

    emissions is also an important consideration in this research.

    This dissertation describes electricity consumption in West Java and Indonesia. In particular, the

    trend in electricity consumption at the Baiturrahman Boarding School has been analysed by

    calculating detailed energy consumption for various appliances and works at the school. An energy

    audit was undertaken, with further specific investigation into water pumping, lighting and

    refrigeration. Consequently, recommendations include replacement of the existing water pump,

    reducing the operational time of the lighting system and regular maintenance of the refrigeration

    to improve the electricity consumption of the school in this case study. Replacing the existing

    pump with a smaller size pump and reducing the hours of operation to 12 hours resulted in

    7.4 MWh electricity or 8.65% of total estimated electricity consumption—a saving of $1,005.21

    with a payback period of 0.5 years.

    An analysis of electricity generation using RE resources was also conducted using RETScreen and

    HOMER software. The possibility of implementing wind, solar PV and micro hydro along with

    grid electricity was considered. This resulted in the recommendation to use 69% micro hydro and

    31% electricity grid to supply the boarding school, in order to meet 100% of load with COE of

    $0.083/kWh, which is almost half of the current electricity rate.

  • iv

    Acknowledgements

    Firstly, thanks to God for all blessings he has given so that I can finish my dissertation on time. Many thank

    to my Supervisor, Dr Samuel Gyamfi, for all thoughts, guidance and advice during the fieldwork and

    writing of my dissertation until its completion. I also thank Dr Trevor Pryor for all his valuable support and

    sharing of knowledge, especially in the software areas. Thanks to the School of Engineering and

    Information Technology, Murdoch University for all the knowledge and experiences that I have gained and

    learnt through my two-year journey, including Dr Jonathan Whale, Dr Sinisa Djordjevic, Mr Adam

    McHugh, Dr Tania Urmee, Dr Justin Wood, among others.

    Thanks to all the team from the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI); Ardath, Ersa, Pudji Irasari and the

    staff at Baiturrahman Boarding School; Mr Iman Abdul Rahman, Mr Rahmad, for all the support during

    the fieldwork and allowing me to conduct my research in the boarding school. All their support made the

    data gathering easier and on schedule. My gratitude also goes to several institutions that have provided

    much support; LIPI for allowing me to pursue my Master’s degree in Australia, Australia Awards for

    sponsoring my Master’s degree, and PSDA Jawa Barat for the hydro data.

    Also, thanks to all friends at Murdoch University. My classmates, Anirudh, Joshua, Thai, Hammer for all

    your support, friendship and sharing during my time in Murdoch, my housemate Ekky Alwy for kindness

    and patience, also to all the Murdoch University Indonesian Student Association family for being my friend

    and my family during my study in Perth, and all people that I cannot mention individually that made this

    journey so wonderful.

    Finally, a big thank to my beloved family, my parents, parents-in-law, brothers and sisters for all their

    support and love, especially my dearest wife and daughters; Nurlia, Farah Rizqy Fadhilah and Syakirah

    Nur Aqilah for being my inspiration, for their limitless love and encouragement during my two-year

    journey.

  • v

    Acronyms and Abbreviations

    APEC Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation

    BSN Badan Standardisasi Nasional (National Standard Bureau)

    CEDRL CANMET Energy Diversification Research Laboratory

    FIT Feed in Tariff

    GHG Greenhouse Gases

    HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

    IDR Indonesian Rupiah

    IEA International Energy Agency

    IP Indonesia Power

    IPP Independent Power Producer

    IRENA International Renewable Energy Annecy

    LED Light Emitting Diode

    LIPI Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (Indonesia Institute of Sciences)

    MEMR Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources

    NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    PJB Pembangkitan Jawa Bali (Java - Bali Power Plant)

    PLN Perusahaan Listrik Negara (National Electricity Company)

    PSDA Pusat Sumber Daya Air (Centre for Water Resources)

    PV Photovoltaic

    SMPT Sekolah Menengah Pertama Terpadu (Integrated Junior High School)

    UNEP United Nation Environment Program

    VAT Value Added Tax

  • vi

    Table of Contents Declaration of Authorship ............................................................................................................................. ii

    Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................ iii

    Acknowledgements ...................................................................................................................................... iv

    Acronyms and Abbreviations ....................................................................................................................... v

    List of Tables ............................................................................................................................................... ix

    List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................... x

    List of Equations .......................................................................................................................................... xi

    Chapter 1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 1

    1.1 Background ......................................................................................................................................... 1

    1.2 Research Objectives ............................................................................................................................ 2

    1.3 Methodology ....................................................................................................................................... 2

    1.4 Dissertation Outline ............................................................................................................................ 5

    Chapter 2 Literature Review ......................................................................................................................... 6

    2.1. Energy Situation in Indonesia ............................................................................................................ 6

    2.1.1 Energy Supply .............................................................................................................................. 6

    2.1.2 Electricity Supply Structure ......................................................................................................... 8

    2.1.3 Energy Demand............................................................................................................................ 9

    2.1.4 Energy Supply Challenges ........................................................................................................... 9

    2.2. Electricity situation in West Java ..................................................................................................... 11

    2.2.1. Electricity Consumption in Schools and Public Buildings ....................................................... 11

    2.2.2 Review of Case Studies .............................................................................................................. 12

    2.3 The Need for Energy Efficiency and Conservation. ......................................................................... 13

    2.4. Energy Audit .............................................................................................