Emotion & Motivation Chapter 9 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under...
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- Emotion & Motivation Chapter 9 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-205-37181-7
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- Emotions made up of subjective feelings, behavioral expressions, and physiological activity Three primary functions 1. prepare us for action 2. shape future behavior 3. regulate social interactions What Do Our Emotions Do For Us?
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- How many emotions are there? Counting the emotions (Paul Ekman -7)
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- Universal Expressions of Emotion Even members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to them. Infants are able to read parental expressions. Facial expression can generate same expressions in others (*mood contagion)
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- Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted U Inverted U function Describes the relationship between arousal and performance Performance LowHigh Low High Arousal Level
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- Where Do Our Emotions Come From? Emotions may result from an interaction of biological, mental, and social/cultural processes *Emotion Debate Cognition vs. Physiological Response
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- Persistent Issues in the Psychology of Emotion James-Lange theory An emotion-provoking stimulus produces a physical response that, in turn, produces an emotion (facial expression hypothesis) Two-factor theory (Schachter) Emotion results from the cognitive appraisal of both (1) physical arousal and (2) emotion provoking stimulus
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- Two-factor Theory of Emotion Physiological arousal Sweaty palms Increased heart rate rapid breathing Cognitive Label Attribute source of arousal to a cause To have an emotion, both factors are required (Adrenaline Shot & Bridge Studies)
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- Persistent Issues in the Psychology of Emotion
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- The Brain and Emotion The amygdala. Responsible for assessing threat. Damage to the amygdala results in abnormality to process fear. Left prefrontal cortex Involved in motivation to approach others. Damage to this area results in loss of joy. Right prefrontal cortex Involved in withdrawal and escape. Damage to the area results in excessive mania and euphoria.
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- Hormones and Emotion When experiencing an intense emotion, 2 hormones are released. Epinephrine Norepinephrine Results in increased alertness and arousal. At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control emotionally.
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- Detecting Deception Deception cues Do lie detectors really work? Polygraph Device that records the graphs of many measures of physical arousal; often called a lie detector really an arousal detector
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- Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie? Polygraph testing- a utonomic nervous system arousal. Typical measures: Galvanic Skin Response Pulse, blood pressure Breathing Fidgeting
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- Polygraph Tests Empirical support is weak and conflicting. Test is inadmissible in most courts. It is illegal to use for most job screening. Many government agencies continue to use for screening.
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- Attributions and Emotions Perceptions and attributions are involved in emotions. How one reacts to an event depends on how he or she explains it. For example, how one reacts to being ignored or winning the silver instead of the gold medal. Philosophy of life is also influential.
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- The Rules of Emotional Regulation Display Rules When, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or when they should be squelched. Body Language The nonverbal signals of body movement, posture and gaze that people constantly express. Emotion Work. Acting out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create the right emotion for the occasion.
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- Expressiveness In North America women: Smile more than men. Gaze at listeners more. Have more emotionally expressive faces. Use more expressive body movements. Touch others more. Acknowledge weakness and emotions more. Compare to women, men only express anger to strangers more.
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- Emotion Work and Gender. Women work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are happy. Men work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and unemotional. Why? Gender roles and status.
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- Why are you attending college? Motivation All processes involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities Chapter 12 Motivation: What Makes Us Act as We Do?
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- How Psychologists Use the Concept of Motivation Connects observable behavior to internal states Accounts for variability in behavior Explains perseverance despite adversity Relates biology to behavior
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- Types of Motivation Drive Biologically instigated motivation (Homeostasis) Motive Internal mechanism that directs behavior (learned rather that biologically based) -(example: incentives)
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- Current findings on Weight Research suggests that heavy people are no more and no less emotionally disturbed than average weight people. Heaviness is not always caused by overeating. Identical twins weigh and gain weight similarly. The complexity of mechanisms governing appetite and weight explains why appetite suppressing drugs fail in the long run.
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- Biology vs. Culture & Learning? set point: metabolism, biological mechanism, genetic influence Cultural beliefs? (social class, ethnicity, historical changes) What is attractive? Eating & Motivation
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- Ideal vs. Real Body Image Which image is ideal for your sex? Which comes closest to your own body?
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- The Environment and Obesity Environmental factors related to weight gain: Increased abundance of low-cost, high fat meals. eating high calorie food on the run energy saving devices The speed and conveniences of driving The preference for watching television or videos instead of exercising.
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- Eating Disorders Some Scary Eating Disorder Stats : - 42% of 1st-3rd grade girls want to be thinner. -81% of 10 year olds are afraid of being fat. -51% of 9 and 10 year old girls feel better about themselves if they are on a diet. - Obesity -Anorexia & Bulimia
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- Influences on Eating Disorders Presence of extremely slim television stars. Biological set points which conflict with cultural standard. Conflict between desire to achieve and perception of parents messages about a womans place. Increase in male responsiveness to cultural expectations may be related to their desire to be more manly.
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- The Psychology of Love The need for affiliation The motive to associate with other people, as by seeking friends, companionship, or love. Predictors of love. Proximity Similarity
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- The Competent Animal: Motives to Achieve (achievement motivation: TAT) Persistent, superior students, prefer moderately difficult tasks (& tasks that rely on effort not luck) fear of failure, need feedback on performance
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- The Importance of Goals Goals improve motivation when: The goal is specific The goal is challenging but achievable The goal is framed in terms of approach goals instead of avoidance goals Approach goals = getting what is wanted. Avoidance goals = avoiding unpleasant experiences.
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- Expectations and Self efficacy Self-fulfilling prophecy Self-Efficacy belief that one is capable of producing desired results
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- Theories of Motivation Cognitive theories Social learning theory Locus of control Internal vs. External Those who buy lottery tickets and smoke cigarettes have an external locus of control. Why?
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- Maslows Humanistic Theory Needs hierarchy The notion that needs occur in priority order
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- Social Comparison & Procrastination We seek information about performance (appearance, success, possessions, etc.) Procrastination: opposite of motivation -rationalization -self-handicapping -dangerous system/future problems