Emotion is Multifaceted Emotion refers to the mix of: 1. Physiological Arousal 2. Expressive...

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Transcript of Emotion is Multifaceted Emotion refers to the mix of: 1. Physiological Arousal 2. Expressive...

  • Emotion is Multifaceted Emotion refers to the mix of:1. Physiological Arousal2. Expressive Behaviors (how you react to the physiological arousal)3. Conscious Experience (how you cognitively interpret environment)

  • Theories of EmotionDoes your heart pound because you are afraid... or are you afraid because you feel your heart pounding?

  • EmotionWilliam James and Carl Lange came up with the James-Lange Theory of Emotion.We feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress.The body changes and our mind recognizes the feeling.

  • Support for James-LangeSubjects report feeling more sad when viewing scenes of war, sickness, and starvation if their sad face muscles are activated.They also find comic strips funnier if their happy face muscles are activated.This is called the facial feedback effect

  • Criticism of James-Lange

  • Cannon-Bard Theory of EmotionSay James-Lange theory is full of crap.Similar physiological changes = drastically different emotional states.Physiological change & cognitive appraisal occur at same timeThalamus (routes to multiple places)

  • Cannon-BardTheory of EmotionThe Physiological Response and the Emotion are experienced at the SAME TIME

  • Think Two cannons firing at the same time.Physiological change (heart rate, breathing)Emotion

  • Two-Factor Theory of EmotionMost complete theoryThey happen at the same time butPeople who are already physiologically aroused experience more intense emotions than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli.

    Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience.

  • Schachter Two-Factory Theory

  • If you are in a falling vehicle heading toward the ground at 60 mph, your autonomic reaction would include heart racing and screaming. But if your cognitive appraisal says you are on a rollercoaster, then you have the emotion of fun.

  • Must Cognition Precede all Emotions?

    Some pathways, especially ones involving amygdala (fear), bypass cortical areas involved in thinking.Certain likes, dislikes, and fears do ignore conscious thinking.

  • Experiencing EmotionAdaptation-Level Phenomenontendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level brightness of lights volume of sound level of income defined by our prior experienceThis is why winning the lottery would only make us happy for a short while. Once the novelty of having all that money wears off, we adapt to this new level of wealth (or achievement, etc.)

    Relative Deprivation pony exampleperception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself

  • The Concept of HappinessFeel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon: you will be helpful more often if you are in a good mood.

    Subjective Well Being: most common measurement of happiness, satisfaction, and quality of life. Looks at physical as well as economic indicators.

  • Facial Expressions Are UniversalNo matter what part of the world you are from, facial expressions indicating 6 basic emotions tend to be universal.

  • Context Affects Interpretation of Facial Expressions

  • Microexpressions Universal Expressions Paul Ekman

  • Stress & Health

  • Stress Can Be Harmful or Helpful Depending on Your Stress Appraisal

  • Seyles General Adaptation SyndromeDescribes our response to a stressful event.Three stagesAlarmResistanceExhaustion

  • Perceived Controls Effect on Health and StressStressful events are especially harmful if they are perceived as negative and uncontrollable. Those who feel stressful events are beyond their control are also more susceptible to illness and disease.

  • The Rat With No Control Over the Shocks Develops Ulcers