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Emission Scenario Document (ESD) for chemicals used in the electronics industry
ii Science Report – Emission Scenario Document for Chemicals used in the Electronics Industry
The Environment Agency is the leading public body protecting and improving the environment in England and Wales.
It’s our job to make sure that air, land and water are looked after by everyone in today’s society, so that tomorrow’s generations inherit a cleaner, healthier world.
Our work includes tackling flooding and pollution incidents, reducing industry’s impacts on the environment, cleaning up rivers, coastal waters and contaminated land, and improving wildlife habitats.
This report is the result of research commissioned and funded by the Environment Agency’s Science Programme.
Published by: Environment Agency, Rio House, Waterside Drive, Aztec West, Almondsbury, Bristol, BS32 4UD Tel: 01454 624400 Fax: 01454 624409 www.environment-agency.gov.uk ISBN: 978-1-84911-096-9 © Environment Agency – August 2009 All rights reserved. This document may be reproduced with prior permission of the Environment Agency. The views and statements expressed in this report are those of the author alone. The views or statements expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent the views of the Environment Agency and the Environment Agency cannot accept any responsibility for such views or statements. This report is printed on Cyclus Print, a 100% recycled stock, which is 100% post consumer waste and is totally chlorine free. Water used is treated and in most cases returned to source in better condition than removed. Further copies of this summary are available from our publications catalogue: http://publications.environment- agency.gov.uk or our National Customer Contact Centre: T: 08708 506506 E: firstname.lastname@example.org. © Environment Agency.
Author(s): R.J. Wildey; P.R. Fisk, M. Selby, H.E. Barnes Dissemination Status: Publicly available Released to all regions Keywords: ESD, electronics, chemical, emission estimate, emission scenario, environment, release, risk assessment Research Contractor: Peter Fisk Associates Ltd 14 Darenth Close, Herne Bay, Kent CT6 7EX, UK Tel: (+44)(0)208 123 6265 Environment Agency’s Project Manager: Ian Doyle, Chemicals Assessment Unit, Red Kite House, Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BD Product Code: SCHO0809BQWN-E-P
iii Science Report – Emission Scenario Document for Chemicals used in the Electronics Industry
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Head of Science
iv Science Report – Emission Scenario Document for Chemicals used in the Electronics Industry
Executive summary This report constitutes an emission scenario document (ESD) for chemicals used in the electronics industry. It provides information on the sources and release pathways of chemicals during various processing techniques relevant to this varied industry sector, to help estimate releases of chemicals into the environment. Therefore, it will assist in the development of exposure scenarios and risk characterisation and assessment, for example as required by the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of chemicals.
This is a diverse and innovative industry, and many of its important features are described in detail. However, it is not possible to cover every product, process or chemical substance. By grouping them, it should be possible to assess releases for areas not covered explicitly. It is also noted that many chemicals used in the electronics industry are used in other sectors, and indeed, their use in the production of electronic components may be a minor specialist application of such chemicals.
The information in this report should be considered in the context of the situation for which estimates of chemical releases are being made. The document can be used as a framework to identify the information needed, or its recommended approaches can be used together with suggested default values to provide estimates. Where specific information is available, this should be used in preference to the default values. At all times, starting information and results should be critically reviewed to ensure they are valid and appropriate. Worked examples are provided.
Whilst this report may help to provide an estimate of potential chemical releases into the environment, it should not be used as an alternative to more detailed procedures (where these are available) used by industry to estimate emissions from specific processes.
The report also provides information on the regulations affecting the use of chemicals in the electronics industry. Regulations are necessarily complex and not all aspects are covered in this ESD. The full regulations should therefore be consulted.
This ESD has been compiled based on a combination of industry input and extensive research, using existing reports and material in the public domain, expert experience, previous risk assessments, and academic and other material from the Internet. A list of cited references is presented at the end of this document. A particularly useful contribution was made by direct consultation with over forty UK companies and trade organisations operating in various areas of the electronics industry. The assistance of these organisations is gratefully acknowledged. Information was collected during 2005 and was largely provided by industry practitioners with a breadth of knowledge and experience. Published sources are cited where appropriate. In cases where values are based on expert judgment, these are intended to represent a realistic worst case scenario – not the absolute worst possible case, but the worst which might reasonably be expected to occur under normal conditions.
It is impractical (for reasons of readability) to cite support for every statement made in this document, but all have been made on the basis of the research itself. Statements made in Section 3 regarding relative levels of release reflect the opinions of the authors on the basis of research undertaken, together with experience of risk assessment of chemicals for the environment associated with releases from various industrial uses.
v Science Report – Emission Scenario Document for Chemicals used in the Electronics Industry
Acknowledgements The input of the following companies and organisations is gratefully acknowledged. All of the companies named below were consulted directly during the course of the preparation of this ESD, and in some cases meetings and/or site visits were held. Not all of the named companies have made written contributions or been involved with the latest redraft phase.
• Air Products (Chemicals)
• Alltec Uk Limited
• Arch Chemicals
• ASMEC Electronics Limited
• ATMI UK (MLS Europe)
• Axiom Manufacturing
• BI Electronics Limited
• Brecon Ridge
• CJ Circuits
• Compugraphics International Ltd
• Computer Salvage
• Cookson Electronics Assembly
• Custom Interconnect Limited
• Data Display UK Limited
• Data Entry Products Limited
• Data Sound Laboratories
• Display Solutions Limited
• Dow Corning
• Edinburgh Instruments
• Edwards Limited
• Eflow Tool Company
• European Semiconductor Industry Association
• Freescale Semiconductors
• GC Metals Limited
vi Science Report – Emission Scenario Document for Chemicals used in the Electronics Industry
• GSI Group (Laser)
• Hansatech Group
• Harwin PLC
• Henkel Loctite
• HITEK Electronic Materials Limited
• Metron Technology Limited
• Moulded Electronic Components International Limited
• NEC Semiconductors (UK) Limited
• National Semiconductor (UK) Limited
• Newbury Electronics Limited
• Nortel Networks