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  • Embodied Carbon Footprinting Updating the ICE Database: ICE V3.0

    IEMA Webinar, 31st Jan 2019

    Dr Craig Jones Craig.Jones@CircularEcology.com

  • Contents • Introducing embodied carbon

    • Poll – ICE Database

    • Introducing the ICE database

    • Why is embodied carbon important?

    • Poll - EPDs

    • Wider landscape

    • Updating the ICE database

    • Next steps

  • Introducing Embodied Carbon

  • The Beginning - The Cradle

    • Carbon Life Cycle Assessment Starts at the Cradle

    • All inputs must be traced back to The Cradle....

  • From the Cradle…

    The Cradle =

    The earth, or ground Transport

    Material Refining

  • From the Cradle…. …..to (Factory) Gate

    Factories: Fabrication, assembly…etc

    More transport Products

  • ….and to (Construction) Site

    DistributionPackaging

    Construction Site

  • ….On-Site Carbon

    Assembly Activities

    Power

    Waste =

    embodied carbon of waste

    + waste management

  • A Life Cycle Perspective The Life Cycle of a Building

    Extraction of Raw

    Materials Trans. of

    Raw Materials to Manufactur

    er

    Manufacture of Building Materials

    Trans. to Site

    Build

    Operation

    End of Life

  • A Life Cycle Perspective The Life Cycle of a Building

    Extraction of Raw

    Materials Trans. of

    Raw Materials to Manufactur

    er

    Manufacture of Building Materials

    Trans. to Site

    Build

    Operation

    End of Life

    Whole Life

    Embodied

    Carbon

    Material

    Replacements

  • Poll: Have you heard of the ICE Database before?

  • The Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE) – An Embodied Carbon Database

  • The Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE)

    • An embodied energy and carbon

    database for building materials

    • Primarily for Construction Materials

    • Data for over 200 materials

    • Over 20,000 worldwide users

    • BSRIA hardcopy published in January

    2011

    • Free to download from

    www.circularecology.com/ice-database.html

    http://www.circularecology.com/ice-database.html

  • The Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE)

  • Creation of the ICE database

    Embodied

    Energy

    Embodied

    Carbon

    ICE

    Database

    ‘Best’ Embodied

    Energy Coefficients

    Energy

    Breakdown

    Energy

    >>>

    Carbon

    Additional

    Carbon

    Embodied Carbon

    LCI

    Data

    INVENTORY of

    CARBON & ENERGY

    (ICE)

    Applications

    Buildings Products Systems

    Feedback

    Request

    New Features

    Data

    Gaps New

    Data

    Refinement

    Data &

    Literature

    Surveys

    DATA

    LCI

    Reports

    Journals

    Books

    Misc Se le

    ct io

    n

    Cr ite

    ria

    High Quality

    Data

    Low Quality

    IN IT

    IA T

    IO N

    2019 Update: Quality screen introduced here for efficiency

  • Profile of ICE database Users

  • Updating The Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE)

    • ICE database is a free resource – will remain free

    • Still well used

    • However last updated in 2011

    • Data mainly compiled in 2010

    • A lot has changed since 2010/11

    • Very much due an update

    • We have funding to update the ICE database

    • To keep it freely available

  • Updating The Inventory of Carbon & Energy (ICE)

    • The update funded by:

    • Heathrow Airport

    • Rail Safety and Standards Board (RSSB)

    • Environment Agency

  • Why Is Embodied Carbon Important?

  • Embodied V Operational Energy

    Source: RICS Methodology to calculate embodied carbon of materials, 30 years, 2006 regs

    • Varies considerably, but some examples…

  • Embodied V Operational Energy

    Source: RICS Methodology to calculate embodied carbon of materials, 30 years, 2006 regs

  • Increasing Thermal Standards

    Source: RICS Methodology to calculate embodied carbon of materials, 2014

  • PassivHaus semi-detached House • semi-detached

    PassivHaus

    • 93 m2

  • Leadenhall Building

    • 51 storey building in London

  • Case Study: A Primary School

    • Electricity – grid decarbonisation important for operational carbon

    0

    500

    1,000

    1,500

    2,000

    2,500

    3,000

    3,500

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

    T o

    ta l G

    H G

    E m

    is si

    o n

    s -

    tC O

    2 e

    Year after Construction

    Embodied & Operational GHG emissions for a Primary School

    Static electricity GHG projection Dynamic electricity GHG projection Embodied

    Embodied Carbon

    Dymanic Electricity Projection of Operational Carbon

    Margin of Error

  • Poll: EPDs

  • The Wider Landscape

  • What’s Changed Since Last ICE Update

    • EN 15978:2011: Sustainability of construction works — Assessment of environmental performance of buildings — Calculation method

    • EN 15804:2012: Sustainability of construction works — Environmental product declarations — Core rules for the product category of construction products

    • PAS 2050:2011 Version - Product carbon footprint standard from BSI. Linked to Carbon Trust Carbon Reduction Label

    • World Resources Institute: GHG Protocol for Products

    • HM Treasury Infrastructure Carbon Review, 2013

    • PAS 2080 – Carbon Management in Infrastructure, May 2016

    • ISO 14067 – Carbon footprint of products, 2018

  • What’s Changed Since Last ICE Update

    • These new standards generally bring more certainty to

    embodied carbon calculations

    • Have stimulated more studies to be published

    • Far more data is available on embodied carbon of products

    • Including thousands of new Environmental Product

    Declarations (EPDs)

    • The data available today is far better than was previously

    available

  • EPDs

    • EN 15804 EPDs are now an important data source

    • In fact, the main data source

    • They are standardised and offer more than just embodied

    carbon

    • Can contain over 20 environmental impact categories

    • However, a lack of a detailed life cycle assessment (LCA)

    report means understanding the results is challenging

    • Example EPD…

  • EPDs

  • Rise of EPDs • A significant number of Environmental Product Declarations

    (EPDs) are now available

    • Statistics taken from www.constructionlca.co.uk (Jane Anderson, ex. BRE)

    • 2012 = ~500

    • 2014 = ~1,000

    • 2016 = ~3,000

    • 2018 = ~5,500

    • EN 15804 EPDs have been the key data source

    • Positives and negatives of using EPDs

    • In theory, more consistent method and data

    • Disadvantage, lack of transparency compared to full LCA report

    http://www.constructionlca.co.uk/

  • Updating the ICE Database

  • Scope of Update

    • Core scope = Update the key construction materials:

    • Aggregates

    • Aluminium

    • Asphalt

    • Bitumen

    • Bricks

    • Cement

    • Concrete

    • Glass

    • Sand

    • Steel

    • Timber

    • Plastics

    • Other materials only as data and resource allows

    • This covers the vast majority of embodied carbon for most construction projects

  • Progress to Date • Collected over 1,500 datapoints

    • Around 850 datapoints for core materials

    • Lots of data on other materials (but not enough resource to process them at present)

    • Compared to sample size with ICE V2 - 1,774 datapoints, collected between 2004-2010 (excellent increase, time consuming)

    • Predominantly EN 15804 and mainly from EPDs

    • New data:

  • Progress to Date • Have also modelled around 400 extra

    datapoints

    • Mainly for types of cement, mortar and

    concrete.

    • As well as types of brick walls, concrete

    block walls…etc

    • Concrete has many, many different

    blends. Treating is as a generic material

    brings large uncertainty to results…

    • An excel calculator will be released, to

    allow various types of cement, mortar and

    concrete to be modelled, or compared

  • Progress to Date • Example from ICE V2.0, aggregates:

    Values removed, from this example

    Low EE High EE

    General Aggregate 0.083 0.0052 Cradle to Gate 0.05 0.25 Estimated from UK industrial