Elements of Poetry: Structure and Forms ... A FUNNY 5-line poem, written with one couplet (two lines

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Transcript of Elements of Poetry: Structure and Forms ... A FUNNY 5-line poem, written with one couplet (two lines

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    Elements of Poetry:

    Structure and Forms

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     May be short or long.

     Are NOT necessarily complete

    sentences or even complete thoughts!

     The arrangement of lines, spacing,

    and whether or not the lines rhyme in

    some manner, can define the FORM

    of a poem.

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     A group of lines whose rhyme scheme is usually followed throughout the poem.

     A division in poetry like a paragraph in prose.

     Common stanza patterns include couplets, triplets, quatrains, etc.

     Free-verse poems follow no rules regarding where to divide stanzas.

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    And now several forms

    of poetry…

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     Two lines that rhyme.

     A complete idea is usually

    expressed in a couplet, or in a long

    poem made up of many couplets.

     Couplets may be humorous or


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    Couplet continued…

    Twinkle, twinkle little star,

    How I wonder what you are,

    Up above the world so high,

    Like a diamond in the sky.

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    Narrative Poems

     Tell a story. It is a story told in verse, by a speaker or narrator.

     There is a plot … something happens; because of this, something else happens.

     Can be true or fictional.

     Poems vary in treatment of character and setting.

     Forms of narrative poetry include:

     ballad

     epic

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    Narrative Poems: Ballad

     A narrative, rhyming poem or song.

     Characterized by short stanzas and simple words, usually telling a heroic and/or tragic story (although some are humorous).

     Can be long.

     Usually rich with imagery (emotionally charged visual images).

     Originated from folk songs that told exciting or dramatic stories.

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    Ballad continued…

    Example from John Henry, a traditional American ballad in ten stanzas.

    When John Henry was a tiny little baby

    Sitting on his mama’s knee,

    He picked up a hammer and a little piece of steel

    Saying, “Hammer’s going to be the death of me, Lord, Lord,

    Hammer’s going to be the death of me.”

    John Henry was a man just six feet high.

    Nearly two feet and a half across his chest.

    He’d hammer with a nine-pound hammer all day

    And never get tired and want to rest. Lord, Lord,

    And never get tired and want to rest.

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    Narrative Poems: Epic

     Very long narrative (story) poem that tells of the adventures of a hero.

     Purpose is to help the reader understand the past and be inspired to choose good over evil.

     Usually focuses on the heroism of one person who is a symbol of strength, virtue, and courage in the face of conflict.

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    Narrative Poems: Epic continued

     Some are VERY long – for example,

    The Odyssey by Homer, (written as 12

    books) has over 6,213 lines in the first

    half alone!

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    Lyric Poetry

     Always expresses some emotion.

     Poems are shorter than epic poems.

     Tend to express the personal feelings

    of one speaker (often the poet).

     Give you a feeling that they could be


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    Lyric Poetry: Sonnet

     Most sonnets are in a fixed form of 14

    lines of 10 syllables, usually written in

    iambic pentameter.

     The theme of the poem is summed up

    in the last two lines.

     Can be about any subject, but usually

    are about love and/or philosophy.

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    Lyric Poetry: Sonnet continued…

    Example from Sonnet 18 by Shakespeare:

    Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate:

    Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

    And summer's lease hath all too short a date:

    Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

    And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;

    And every fair from fair sometime declines,

    By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd;

    But thy eternal summer shall not fade

    Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;

    Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,

    When in eternal lines to time thou growest:

    So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,

    So long lives this and this gives life to thee.

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    Lyric Poetry: Ode

     A tribute to someone or something.

     Often uses exalted language in praise

    or celebration.

     Can be serious or humorous.

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    Lyric Poetry: Ode continued…

    Example from Ode to Pablo's Tennis Shoes by Gary Soto

    They wait under Pablo's bed,

    Rain-beaten, sun-beaten,

    A scuff of green

    At their tips

    From when he fell

    In the school yard.

    He fell leaping for a football

    That sailed his way.

    But Pablo fell and got up,

    Green on his shoes,

    With the football

    Out of reach.

    Now it's night.

    Pablo is in bed listening

    To his mother laughing

    to the Mexican novelas on


    His shoes, twin pets

    That snuggle his toes,

    Are under the bed.

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     to express grief or mourning for someone

    who has died

     somber, serious, ending on a peaceful


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    Elegy for Anne Frank by Jessica Smith

    You blossomed and grew

    between the quiet gray walls

    of your attic home.

    A sidewalk-surrounded flower

    pushed up through the cracks,

    petals straining for

    the light, but your

    roots held you down.

    In the dim light of your room

    you made family trees,

    the continuing lives

    comforting you in ways

    your mother could not.

    While concentration camps

    built bonfires with the

    bones of your neighbors,

    you dreamed of the sun and

    the love you’d find when the doors

    of your prison were unlocked.

    When I took your short life from your diary,

    I could feel your heartbeat

    pulse with my own,

    and every breath you took

    went into my own lungs,

    every desire you felt,

    I felt, too.

    Your life was held by four silent years,

    surrounding you as the four walls did.

    And before the last bomb fell,

    destroying the last of your love and light,

    you died.

    And I am thankful.

    Elegy example…

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     A FUNNY 5-line poem, written with one

    couplet (two lines of poetry that rhyme) and one triplet (three lines of poetry that rhyme).

     Always follows the same pattern.

     The rhyme scheme (pattern) is – a a b b a.

     The last line contains the “punchline” or “heart

    of the joke”.

     Often contain hyperbole, onomatopoeia,

    idioms, and other figurative language.

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    Limerick continued…

     You will soon hear the distinctive beat pattern

    of all limericks.

     eg: “A fly and a flea in a flue

    Were caught, so what could they do?

    Said the fly, “Let us flee.”

    “Let us fly,” said the flea.

    So they flew through a flaw in the flue.”

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    Limerick continued…

    By Edward Lear, who made limericks very popular.

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    Free Verse

     Is just that – free!

     Lines of poetry written without rules; no

    regular beat or rhyme.

     Unrhymed poetry.

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     A Japanese form of poetry; one line of five

    syllables; one line of seven syllables; and a

    final line of five syllables.

     Fragments (not usually complete sentences)

     About everyday things; written in the present


     Much is left unsaid.

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    Haiku continued…


    Little sparrow child

    plays in the road. “Oh, watch out!

    Watch out! Horse tramps by!”

    Soft, summer twilight,

    suddenly a sound; Frog leaps

    in the old pond – Splash!

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     A Cinquain is a poem that resembles a diamond.

     It has 5 lines and begins with one word.

     The 2nd line has two adjectives that describe that word.

     The 3rd , three verbs.

     The 4th line is a phrase that goes deeper into the topic.

     The 5th line gives either a synonym for the first word, or a word that encompasses the whole poem.

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    Smart, Outgoing

    Loving, playing, Laughing

    Always in for some fun


    “Tucson Rain”

    The smell