Elements of Poetry. Rhyme  The basic definition of rhyme is two words that sound alike. The vowel...

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Transcript of Elements of Poetry. Rhyme  The basic definition of rhyme is two words that sound alike. The vowel...

  • Elements of Poetry

  • RhymeThe basic definition of rhyme is two words that sound alike. The vowel sound of two words is the same, but the initial consonant sound is different. Practice

  • AssonanceIf alliteration occurs at the beginning of a word and rhyme at the end, assonance takes the middle territory. Assonance occurs when the vowel sound within a word matches the same sound in a nearby word, but the surrounding consonant sounds are different. Practice

  • AlliterationAlliteration occurs when the initial sounds of a word, beginning either with a consonant or a vowel, are repeated in close succession.Practice

  • OnomatopoeiaWords that sound like their meaning.

  • RepetitionThe repetition of the same word throughout the poem to emphasize significance.

  • StyleThe way the poem is written. Includes length of meters, number of stanzas along with rhyme techniques and rhythm.

  • MeterMeter is the rhythm established by a poem, and it is usually dependent not only on the number of syllables in a line but also on the way those syllables are accented. Practice

  • ToneThe tone of a poem is roughly equivalent to the mood it creates in the reader.practice

  • MetaphorClosely related to similes, metaphors immediately identify one object or idea with another, in one or more aspects. The meaning of a poem frequently depends on the success of a metaphor. practice

  • SimileThe word like signifies a direct comparison between two things that are alike in a certain way. Usually one of the elements of a simile is concrete and the other abstract. practice

  • IronyAs a figure of speech, irony refers to a difference between the way something appears and what is actually true. practice

  • SymbolA symbol works two ways: It is something itself, and it also suggests something deeper. practice

  • AllegoryAn allegory is a whole world of symbols. Within a narrative form, which can be either in prose or verse, an allegory tells a story that can be read symbolically.practice

  • Denotation & ConnotationDenotation is when you mean what you say, literally. Connotation is created when you mean something else, something that might be initially hidden. The connotative meaning of a word is based on implication, or shared emotional association with a word. practice

  • DictionThe writer's distinctive vocabulary choices and style of expressionpractice

  • SyntaxThe study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences, and which determine their relative grammaticalityThe order of words in a sentencepractice

  • ImageryLanguage which describes something in detail, using words to substitute for and create sensory stimulation, including visual imagery and sound imagery.practice

  • SourcesVirtural Lit Interactive Poetry tutorial http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/elements.htmlPoem of Quotes http://www.poemofquotes.com/articles/elements-of-poetry.phphttp://mrbraiman.home.att.net/lit.htm

  • Practice: RhymeHear the sledges with the bells Silver bells!What a world of merriment their melody foretells!How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle, In the icy air of night!While the stars that oversprinkleAll the heavens, seem to twinkle With a crystalline delight; Keeping time, time, time, In a sort of Runic rhyme,To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells From the bells, bells, bells, bells, Bells, bells, bellsFrom the jingling and the tinkling of the bellsback

  • Practice: AssonanceDazed Dice, Cramped, Grave, FizzleFruit Guitar, Loop, Function, FrumpPurple Dazzle, Pretty, Pale, HurtReek Rickety, Quick, Beat, ScrewReady Set, Water, Seat, Raiseback

  • Practice: AlliterationSometimes snakes slithered past.A majestic mountain was visible in the distance.He hopped about happily.The baker busily kneaded the bread.They stayed up while the moon mounted in the sky.back

  • Practice: MeterI'm hap pi est when most a wayI can bear my soul from its home of clayOn a win dy night when the moon is brightAnd the eye can wan der through worlds of light

    When I am not and none be sideNor earth nor sea nor cloud less skyBut on ly spi rit wan dering wideThrough in fin ite im mens it y.back

  • Practice: ToneSeason of mists and mellow fruitfulness, Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;Conspiring with him how to load and bless With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;To bend with apples the mossed cottage-trees,And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core; To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells With a sweet kernel; to set budding more,And still more, later flowers for the bees,Until they think warm days will never cease, For summer has oer-brimmed their clammy cells.back

  • Practice: MetaphorChoose one:love, hunger, pain, happiness, sleep, desireChose one:9 to 5 job, highway, tv dinner, flower, cloud, hammerThen describe what the metaphor you have created reveals about the referent.back

  • Practice: SimileA relationship like...A professor as interesting as... Her face was like...A force as strong as...A night as long as...A comforting voice like...It made him uneasy, like...A job as appealing as...Her eyes beckoned, like...a tractor trailera dying fisha beer can full of cigarette buttswhen a branch whips your facebeef stewsummer in Dallasa newborn babya ripe peachthe smell of gasolinethe distant starsgolden coinsa field of violently yellow sunflowersback

  • Practice: IronyHe loved the power of a speeding car.Her mother waved enthusiastically from the doorway.He closed the door softly behind him.


  • Practice: SymbolA blind man A doveA river The starsA playA computer screenLightningA mountainback

  • Practice: AllegoryConsider the following story line:back

  • Practice: Denotation & ConnotationShe _____ his favorite T-shirt.After reading her e-mail he waited ten days, then _____ a letter in response.They wandered through the park one _____ day.


  • Practice: DictionShe took an apple from under the tree.back

  • Practice: SyntaxShe took an apple from under the tree.back

  • Practice: ImageryA couple, kissing for the first time (described by an outsider)A city seen from an airplaneA feather floating on a pondback

    Rhyme is perhaps the most recognizable convention of poetry, but its function is often overlooked. Rhyme helps to unify a poem; it also repeats a sound that links one concept to another, thus helping to determine the structure of a poem. When two subsequent lines rhyme, it is likely that they are thematically linked, or that the next set of rhymed lines signifies a slight departure. Especially in modern poetry, for which conventions aren't as rigidly determined as they were during the English Renaissance or in the eighteenth century, rhyme can indicate a poetic theme or the willingness to structure a subject that seems otherwise chaotic. Rhyme works closely with meter in this regard. There are varieties of rhyme: internal rhyme functions within a line of poetry, for example, while the more common end rhyme occurs at the end of the line and at the end of some other line, usually within the same stanza if not in subsequent lines. There are true rhymes (bear, care) and slant rhymes (lying, mine). There are also a number of predetermined rhyme schemes associated with different forms of poetry. Once you have identified a rhyme scheme, examine it closely to determine (1) how rigid it is, (2) how closely it conforms to a predetermined rhyme scheme (such as a sestina), and especially (3) what function it serves. Rhyme in "My Papas Waltz by Theodore Roethke:Identify the rhyme scheme (pattern) and explain how each rhyme contributes to the poem's meaning or unity. "dizzy and easy"These are slant rhymesthat is, inexact rhymesrather than the true rhymes that dominate the rest of the poem, except for lines 5 and 7. The early stanzas of the poem feel looser as a result. "pans, countenance"Like lines 2 and 4, the last words of these lines constitute the only slant rhymes in the poem. As above, the words do rhyme, but in order to hear the rhyme, the ear has to bend the sounds slightly. "shirt, dirt"The second half of the poem is generally tougher, with short, hard-sounding words and true end rhyme. There are no slant rhymes here; the structure is less relaxed, which leaves the reader feeling tense and uneasy1). How does this examination of rhyme change your understanding of how the poem works as a whole?2). Find other examples of rhyme in the poem. What do they contribute to the work?

    Tune" and "June" are rhymes; "tune" and "food" are assonant. The function of assonance is frequently the same as end rhyme or alliteration: All serve to give a sense of continuity or fluidity to the verse. Assonance might be especially effective when rhyme is absent: It gives the poet more flexibility, and it is not typically used as part of a predetermined pattern. Like alliteration, it does not so much determine the structure or form of a poem; rather, it is more ornamental. Assonance in "The Fish by Elizabeth Bishop: Once the reader is attuned to the frequent assonance the poem employs, it becomes easy to hear the beauty in the poem. The language throughout the poem is beautiful, and the assonance serves to highlight that beauty. "He hadn't fought at all./ He hung a grunting weight"Since "The Fish" does not employ end rhyme, the ornamental features of language it does use stand out. In these two short, straightforward lines, the speaker uses assonance twice (fought/all, hung/grunting) in order to call our attention to this feature. "his brown skin hung in strips"Another example of assonan