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    1.0 INTRODUCTION

    The Eiffel Tower(French: La Tour Eiffel) is an iron lattice towerlocated on

    the Champ de Mars in Paris, named after the engineerGustave Eiffel, whose company

    designed and built the tower. The tower is erected in 1889 as the entrance arch to the 1889

    World's Fair, it has become both a global cultural icon ofFrance and one of the most

    recognizable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest structure in Paris and the most-

    visited paid monument in the world. The third level observatory's upper platform is at 279.11

    m the highest accessible to public in the European Union and the highest in Europe as long as

    the platform of the Ostankino Tower, at 360 m, remains closed as a result of the fire of

    August 2000.

    The tower stands 320 metres (1,050 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey

    building. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to

    assume the title of the tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years, until

    the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930. However, because of the addition,

    in 1957, of the antenna atop the Eiffel Tower, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building. Not

    including broadcast antennas, it is the second-tallest structure in France, after the Millau

    Viaduct.

    ALEXANDRE GUSTAVE EIFFEL

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_languagehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lattice_towerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Champ_de_Marshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parishttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Eiffelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_Universelle_(1889)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_Universelle_(1889)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_iconhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_buildings_and_structures_in_the_Paris_regionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Unionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostankino_Towerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_Monumenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysler_Buildinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Cityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antenna_(radio)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_structures_in_Francehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millau_Viaducthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millau_Viaducthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millau_Viaducthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millau_Viaducthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_structures_in_Francehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antenna_(radio)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Cityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysler_Buildinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_Monumenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostankino_Towerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Unionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tallest_buildings_and_structures_in_the_Paris_regionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_iconhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_Universelle_(1889)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_Universelle_(1889)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Eiffelhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parishttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Champ_de_Marshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lattice_towerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_language
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    Key Figures

    Annual Visitors : almost 7 million, 75% of whom are foreigners

    Tall : 324 metres (with its antennas)

    Weight : 7,300 tonnes of metallic framework, and a total weight of 10,100 tonnes

    Number Of Metallic Parts : 18,000 metallic parts joined by 2,500,000 rivets

    Height Of Each Floor :1st floor: 57m; 2nd floor: 115m; 3rd floor: 276m

    Lighting : 336 projectors (sodium lamps)Sparkling Lights : 20,000 bulbs (5,000 on each side) glitter for 5 minutes every hour on thehour, from nightfall until 1a.m.

    Number Of Antennas : 120 antennas

    Number Of Steps On The East Staircase Until The Top : 1,665 steps

    Number Of Lifts : From the ground floor up to the 2nd floor: 5 (1 on the eastern pillar, 1 onthe western pillar, 1 on the northern pillar, 1 private lift on the southern pillar leading to the

    "Jules Verne" restaurant, and 1 goods lift on the southern pillar). From the 2nd floor up to thetop: 2 sets of 2 Duo-lifts.

    Kilometers Travelled By The Lift : The combined distance travelled of the lift cabins is103,000 km a year (2.5 times the circumference of the Earth).

    Surface To Be Painted :250,000 m2 of surface to be painted during each painting campaign,every 7 years. 60 tonnes of paint are needed

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    1.1 HISTORY

    1.1.1 ORIGIN

    The design of the Eiffel Tower was originated by Maurice Koechlin and mile

    Nouguier, two senior engineers who worked for the Compagnie des Establissments Eiffel

    after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle,

    aWorld's Fairwhich would celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution. In May 1884

    Koechlin, working at his home, he made an outline drawing of their scheme, described by

    him as "a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming

    together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals". Initially Eiffel

    himself showed little enthusiasm, but he did sanction further study of the project, and the two

    engineers then asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of company's architectural department, to

    contribute to the design. Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base, a glass pavilion to the

    first level and other embellishments. This enhanced version gained Eiffel's support, and he

    bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier and Sauvestre had

    taken out, and the design was exhibited at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of

    1884 under the company name. On 30 March 1885 Eiffel read a paper on the project to the

    Socit des Inginieurs Civils: after discussing the technical problems and emphasising the

    practical uses of the tower, he finished his talk by saying that the tower would symbolize.

    "Not only the art of the modern engineer, but also the century of Industry and Science

    in which we are living, and for which the way was prepared by the great scientific movement

    of the eighteenth century and by the Revolution of 1789, to which this monument will be

    built as an expression of France's gratitude."

    Little happened until the beginning of 1886, when Jules Grvy was re-elected as

    President and douard Lockroy was appointed as Minister for Trade. A budget for the

    Exposition was passed and on 1 May Lockroy announced an alteration to the terms of the

    open competition which was being held for a centerpiece for the exposition, which effectively

    made the choice of Eiffel's design a foregone conclusion: all entries had to include a study for

    a 300 m (980 ft) four-sided metal tower on the Champ de Mars. On 12 May a commission

    was set up to examine Eiffel's scheme and its rivals and on 12 June it presented its decision,

    which was that all the proposals except Eiffel's were either impractical or insufficiently

    worked out. After some debate about the exact site for the tower, a contract was finally

    signed on 8 January 1887. This was signed by Eiffel acting in his own capacity rather than as

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Koechlinhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_Universelle_(1889)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World%27s_Fairhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolutionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Sauvestrehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Gr%C3%A9vyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard_Lockroyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard_Lockroyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jules_Gr%C3%A9vyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Sauvestrehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolutionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World%27s_Fairhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_Universelle_(1889)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Koechlin
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    the representative of his company, and granted him one and a half million francs toward the

    construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated cost of six and a half million francs.

    Eiffel was to receive all income from the commercial exploitation of the tower during the

    exhibition and for the following twenty years. Eiffel later established a separate company to

    manage the tower, putting up half the necessary capital himself.

    First drawing of the Eiffel Tower by Maurice Koechlin

    1.2 THE "ARTISTS PROTEST"

    The projected tower had been a subject of some controversy, attracting criticism both

    from those who did not believe that it was feasible and also from those who objected on

    artistic grounds. Their objections were an expression of a longstanding debate about

    relationship between architecture and engineering. This came to a head as work began at theChamp de Mars: A "Committee of Three Hundred" (one member for each metre of the

    tower's height) was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including

    some of the most important figures of the French arts establishment, including Adolphe

    Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet: a petition was sent to

    Charles Alphand, the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, and was

    pub