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  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 1/19

    EiffelTowerTourEiffel

    TheEiffelTowerseenfromtheChampdeMars

    LocationwithinParis

    Recordheight

    Tallestintheworldfrom1889to1930[I]

    Generalinformation

    Type ObservationtowerBroadcastingtower

    Location 7tharrondissement,Paris,France

    EiffelTowerFromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    TheEiffelTower(/afltar/EYEflTOWRFrench:TourEiffelFrenchpronunciation:[tufl] listen)isawroughtironlatticetowerontheChampdeMarsinParis,France.ItisnamedaftertheengineerGustaveEiffel,whosecompanydesignedandbuiltthetower.

    Constructedin1889astheentrancetothe1889World'sFair,itwasinitiallycriticizedbysomeofFrance'sleadingartistsandintellectualsforitsdesign,butithasbecomeaglobalculturaliconofFranceandoneofthemostrecognisablestructuresintheworld.[3]TheEiffelToweristhemostvisitedpaidmonumentintheworld6.91millionpeopleascendeditin2015.

    Thetoweris324metres(1,063ft)tall,aboutthesameheightasan81storeybuilding,andthetalleststructureinParis.Itsbaseissquare,measuring125metres(410ft)oneachside.Duringitsconstruction,theEiffelTowersurpassedtheWashingtonMonumenttobecomethetallestmanmadestructureintheworld,atitleitheldfor41yearsuntiltheChryslerBuildinginNewYorkCitywasfinishedin1930.Duetotheadditionofabroadcastingaerialatthetopofthetowerin1957,itisnowtallerthantheChryslerBuildingby5.2metres(17ft).Excludingtransmitters,theEiffelToweristhesecondtalleststructureinFranceaftertheMillauViaduct.

    Thetowerhasthreelevelsforvisitors,withrestaurantsonthefirstandsecondlevels.Thetoplevel'supperplatformis276m(906ft)abovethegroundthehighestobservationdeckaccessibletothepublicintheEuropeanUnion.Ticketscanbepurchasedtoascendbystairsorlift(elevator)tothefirstandsecondlevels.Theclimbfromgroundleveltothefirstlevelisover300steps,asistheclimbfromthefirstleveltothesecond.Althoughthereisastaircasetothetoplevel,itisusuallyonlyaccessiblebylift.

    Contents

    1 History1.1 Origin1.2 Theartists'protest1.3 Construction

    1.3.1 Lifts1.4 Inaugurationandthe1889exposition1.5 Subsequentevents

    2 Design2.1 Material

    Coordinates:485129.6N21740.2E

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 2/19

    Coordinates 485129.6N21740.2E

    Constructionstarted 28January1887

    Completed 15March1889

    Opening 31March1889

    Owner CityofParis,France

    Management Socitd'ExploitationdelaTourEiffel(SETE)

    Height

    Architectural 300m(984ft)[1]

    Tip 324m(1,063ft)[1]

    Topfloor 276m(906ft)[1]

    Technicaldetails

    Floorcount 3[2]

    Lifts/elevators 8[2]

    Designandconstruction

    Architect StephenSauvestre

    Structuralengineer MauriceKoechlinmileNouguier

    Maincontractor CompagniedesEtablissementsEiffel

    References

    I.^EiffelTower(http://www.emporis.com/buildings/110508)atEmporis

    2.1 Material2.2 Windconsiderations2.3 Accommodation2.4 Passengerlifts2.5 Engravednames2.6 Aesthetics2.7 Maintenance

    3 Tourism3.1 Transport3.2 Popularity3.3 Restaurants

    4 Replicas5 Communications

    5.1 FMradio5.2 Digitaltelevision

    6 Illuminationcopyright7 Inpopularculture8 Tallerstructures

    8.1 LatticetowerstallerthantheEiffelTower8.2 StructuresinFrancetallerthantheEiffel

    Tower9 Seealso10 References11 Bibliography12 Externallinks

    History

    Origin

    ThedesignoftheEiffelTowerwastheproductofMauriceKoechlinandmileNouguier,twoseniorengineersworkingfortheCompagniedestablissementsEiffel,afterdiscussionaboutasuitablecentrepiecefortheproposed1889ExpositionUniverselle,aworld'sfairtocelebratethecentennialoftheFrenchRevolution.EiffelopenlyacknowledgedthatinspirationforatowercamefromtheLattingObservatorybuiltinNewYorkCityin1853.[4]InMay1884,workingathome,Koechlinmadeasketchoftheiridea,describedbyhimas"agreatpylon,consistingoffourlatticegirdersstandingapartatthebaseandcomingtogetheratthetop,joinedtogetherbymetaltrussesatregularintervals".[5]Eiffelinitiallyshowedlittleenthusiasm,buthedidapprovefurtherstudy,andthetwoengineersthenaskedStephenSauvestre,theheadofcompany'sarchitecturaldepartment,tocontributetothedesign.Sauvestreaddeddecorativearchestothebaseofthetower,aglasspaviliontothefirstlevel,andotherembellishments.

    ThenewversiongainedEiffel'ssupport:heboughttherightstothepatentonthedesignwhichKoechlin,Nougier,andSauvestrehadtakenout,andthedesignwasexhibitedattheExhibitionofDecorativeArtsintheautumnof1884underthecompanyname.On30March1885,EiffelpresentedhisplanstotheSocitdesIngnieursCivilsafterdiscussingthetechnicalproblemsandemphasisingthepracticalusesofthetower,hefinishedhistalkbysayingthetowerwouldsymbolise,

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 3/19

    FirstdrawingoftheEiffelTowerbyMauriceKoechlinincludingsizecomparisonwithotherParisianlandmarkssuchasNotreDamedeParis,theStatueofLibertyandtheVendmeColumn

    Notonlytheartofthemodernengineer,butalsothecenturyofIndustryandScienceinwhichweareliving,andforwhichthewaywaspreparedbythegreatscientificmovementoftheeighteenthcenturyand by theRevolution of 1789, towhich thismonumentwill be built as an expression of France'sgratitude.[6]

    Littleprogresswasmadeuntil1886,whenJulesGrvywasreelectedaspresidentofFranceanddouardLockroywasappointedasministerfortrade.Abudgetfortheexpositionwaspassedand,on1May,Lockroyannouncedanalterationtothetermsoftheopencompetitionbeingheldforacentrepiecetotheexposition,whicheffectivelymadetheselectionofEiffel'sdesignaforegoneconclusion,asentrieshadtoincludeastudyfora300m(980ft)foursidedmetaltowerontheChampdeMars.[6]On12May,acommissionwassetuptoexamineEiffel'sschemeanditsrivals,which,amonthlater,decidedthatalltheproposalsexceptEiffel'swereeitherimpracticalorlackingindetails.

    Aftersomedebateabouttheexactlocationofthetower,acontractwassignedon8January1887.ThiswassignedbyEiffelactinginhisowncapacityratherthanastherepresentativeofhiscompany,andgrantedhim1.5millionfrancstowardtheconstructioncosts:lessthanaquarteroftheestimated6.5millionfrancs.Eiffelwastoreceiveallincomefromthecommercialexploitationofthetowerduringtheexhibitionandforthenext20years.Helaterestablishedaseparatecompanytomanagethetower,puttinguphalfthenecessarycapitalhimself.[7]

    Theartists'protest

    Theproposedtowerhadbeenasubjectofcontroversy,drawingcriticismfromthosewhodidnotbelieveitwasfeasibleandthosewhoobjectedonartisticgrounds.TheseobjectionswereanexpressionofalongstandingdebateinFranceabouttherelationshipbetweenarchitectureandengineering.ItcametoaheadasworkbeganattheChampdeMars:a"CommitteeofThreeHundred"(onememberforeachmetreofthetower'sheight)wasformed,ledbytheprominentarchitectCharlesGarnierandincludingsomeofthemostimportantfiguresofthearts,such

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 4/19

    CaricatureofGustaveEiffelcomparingtheEiffeltowertothePyramids

    AcalligrambyGuillaumeApollinaire

    asAdolpheBouguereau,GuydeMaupassant,CharlesGounodandJulesMassenet.Apetitioncalled"ArtistsagainsttheEiffelTower"wassenttotheMinisterofWorksandCommissionerfortheExposition,CharlesAlphand,anditwaspublishedbyLeTempson14February1887:

    We,writers,painters, sculptors, architectsandpassionatedevoteesofthe hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protestwith all our strength,withallour indignation in thenameof slightedFrench taste, againsttheerectionofthisuselessandmonstrousEiffelTowerTobringourargumentshome,imagineforamomentagiddy,ridiculoustowerdominatingParis likeagiganticblacksmokestack,crushingunderitsbarbaric bulk Notre Dame, the Tour SaintJacques, the Louvre, theDome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliatedmonumentswilldisappearinthisghastlydream.Andfortwentyyearsweshallseestretchinglikeablotofinkthehatefulshadowofthehatefulcolumnofboltedsheetmetal.[8]

    GustaveEiffelrespondedtothesecriticismsbycomparinghistowertotheEgyptianpyramids:"Mytowerwillbethetallestedificeevererectedbyman.Willitnotalsobegrandioseinitsway?AndwhywouldsomethingadmirableinEgyptbecomehideousandridiculousinParis?"[9]ThesecriticismswerealsodealtwithbydouardLockroyinaletterofsupportwrittentoAlphand,ironicallysaying,[10]"Judgingbythestatelyswelloftherhythms,thebeautyofthemetaphors,theeleganceofitsdelicateandprecisestyle,onecantellthisprotestistheresultofcollaborationofthemostfamouswritersandpoetsofourtime",andheexplainedthattheprotestwasirrelevantsincetheprojecthadbeendecideduponmonthsbefore,andconstructiononthetowerwasalreadyunderway.

    Indeed,GarnierwasamemberoftheTowerCommissionthathadexaminedthevariousproposals,andhadraisednoobjection.Eiffelwassimilarlyunworried,pointingouttoajournalistthatitwasprematuretojudgetheeffectofthetowersolelyonthebasisofthedrawings,thattheChampdeMarswasdistantenough

    fromthemonumentsmentionedintheprotestfortheretobelittleriskofthetoweroverwhelmingthem,andputtingtheaestheticargumentforthetower:"Donotthelawsofnaturalforcesalwaysconformtothesecretlawsofharmony?"[11]

    Someoftheprotesterschangedtheirmindswhenthetowerwasbuiltothersremainedunconvinced.[12]GuydeMaupassantsupposedlyatelunchinthetower'srestauranteverydaybecauseitwastheoneplaceinPariswherethetowerwasnotvisible.[13]

    By1918,ithadbecomeasymbolofParisandofFranceafterGuillaumeApollinairewroteanationalistpoemintheshapeofthetower(acalligram)toexpresshisfeelingsaboutthewaragainstGermany.[14]Today,itiswidelyconsideredtobearemarkablepieceofstructuralart,andisoftenfeaturedinfilmsandliterature.

    Construction

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 5/19

    FoundationsoftheEiffelTower

    Workonthefoundationsstartedon28January1887.[15]Thosefortheeastandsouthlegswerestraightforward,witheachlegrestingonfour2m(6.6ft)concreteslabs,oneforeachoftheprincipalgirdersofeachleg.Thewestandnorthlegs,beingcl