Eiffel Tower

of 19/19
7/3/2016 Eiffel Tower Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 1/19 Eiffel Tower Tour Eiffel The Eiffel Tower seen from the Champ de Mars Location within Paris Record height Tallest in the world from 1889 to 1930 [I] General information Type Observation tower Broadcasting tower Location 7th arrondissement, Paris, France Eiffel Tower From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Eiffel Tower (/ ˈaɪfәl ˈtaʊәr/ EYEfәl TOWR; French: Tour Eiffel French pronunciation: [tuʁɛfɛl] listen) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Constructed in 1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was initially criticized by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world. [3] The Eiffel Tower is the mostvisited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015. The tower is 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81storey building, and the tallest structure in Paris. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres (410 ft) on each side. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the tallest manmade structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930. Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 5.2 metres (17 ft). Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the secondtallest structure in France after the Millau Viaduct. The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second levels. The top level's upper platform is 276 m (906 ft) above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift (elevator) to the first and second levels. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second. Although there is a staircase to the top level, it is usually only accessible by lift. Contents 1 History 1.1 Origin 1.2 The artists' protest 1.3 Construction 1.3.1 Lifts 1.4 Inauguration and the 1889 exposition 1.5 Subsequent events 2 Design 2.1 Material Coordinates: 48°51′29.6″N 2°17′40.2″E
  • date post

    07-Jul-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    216
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

description

nup

Transcript of Eiffel Tower

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 1/19

    EiffelTowerTourEiffel

    TheEiffelTowerseenfromtheChampdeMars

    LocationwithinParis

    Recordheight

    Tallestintheworldfrom1889to1930[I]

    Generalinformation

    Type ObservationtowerBroadcastingtower

    Location 7tharrondissement,Paris,France

    EiffelTowerFromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    TheEiffelTower(/afltar/EYEflTOWRFrench:TourEiffelFrenchpronunciation:[tufl] listen)isawroughtironlatticetowerontheChampdeMarsinParis,France.ItisnamedaftertheengineerGustaveEiffel,whosecompanydesignedandbuiltthetower.

    Constructedin1889astheentrancetothe1889World'sFair,itwasinitiallycriticizedbysomeofFrance'sleadingartistsandintellectualsforitsdesign,butithasbecomeaglobalculturaliconofFranceandoneofthemostrecognisablestructuresintheworld.[3]TheEiffelToweristhemostvisitedpaidmonumentintheworld6.91millionpeopleascendeditin2015.

    Thetoweris324metres(1,063ft)tall,aboutthesameheightasan81storeybuilding,andthetalleststructureinParis.Itsbaseissquare,measuring125metres(410ft)oneachside.Duringitsconstruction,theEiffelTowersurpassedtheWashingtonMonumenttobecomethetallestmanmadestructureintheworld,atitleitheldfor41yearsuntiltheChryslerBuildinginNewYorkCitywasfinishedin1930.Duetotheadditionofabroadcastingaerialatthetopofthetowerin1957,itisnowtallerthantheChryslerBuildingby5.2metres(17ft).Excludingtransmitters,theEiffelToweristhesecondtalleststructureinFranceaftertheMillauViaduct.

    Thetowerhasthreelevelsforvisitors,withrestaurantsonthefirstandsecondlevels.Thetoplevel'supperplatformis276m(906ft)abovethegroundthehighestobservationdeckaccessibletothepublicintheEuropeanUnion.Ticketscanbepurchasedtoascendbystairsorlift(elevator)tothefirstandsecondlevels.Theclimbfromgroundleveltothefirstlevelisover300steps,asistheclimbfromthefirstleveltothesecond.Althoughthereisastaircasetothetoplevel,itisusuallyonlyaccessiblebylift.

    Contents

    1 History1.1 Origin1.2 Theartists'protest1.3 Construction

    1.3.1 Lifts1.4 Inaugurationandthe1889exposition1.5 Subsequentevents

    2 Design2.1 Material

    Coordinates:485129.6N21740.2E

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 2/19

    Coordinates 485129.6N21740.2E

    Constructionstarted 28January1887

    Completed 15March1889

    Opening 31March1889

    Owner CityofParis,France

    Management Socitd'ExploitationdelaTourEiffel(SETE)

    Height

    Architectural 300m(984ft)[1]

    Tip 324m(1,063ft)[1]

    Topfloor 276m(906ft)[1]

    Technicaldetails

    Floorcount 3[2]

    Lifts/elevators 8[2]

    Designandconstruction

    Architect StephenSauvestre

    Structuralengineer MauriceKoechlinmileNouguier

    Maincontractor CompagniedesEtablissementsEiffel

    References

    I.^EiffelTower(http://www.emporis.com/buildings/110508)atEmporis

    2.1 Material2.2 Windconsiderations2.3 Accommodation2.4 Passengerlifts2.5 Engravednames2.6 Aesthetics2.7 Maintenance

    3 Tourism3.1 Transport3.2 Popularity3.3 Restaurants

    4 Replicas5 Communications

    5.1 FMradio5.2 Digitaltelevision

    6 Illuminationcopyright7 Inpopularculture8 Tallerstructures

    8.1 LatticetowerstallerthantheEiffelTower8.2 StructuresinFrancetallerthantheEiffel

    Tower9 Seealso10 References11 Bibliography12 Externallinks

    History

    Origin

    ThedesignoftheEiffelTowerwastheproductofMauriceKoechlinandmileNouguier,twoseniorengineersworkingfortheCompagniedestablissementsEiffel,afterdiscussionaboutasuitablecentrepiecefortheproposed1889ExpositionUniverselle,aworld'sfairtocelebratethecentennialoftheFrenchRevolution.EiffelopenlyacknowledgedthatinspirationforatowercamefromtheLattingObservatorybuiltinNewYorkCityin1853.[4]InMay1884,workingathome,Koechlinmadeasketchoftheiridea,describedbyhimas"agreatpylon,consistingoffourlatticegirdersstandingapartatthebaseandcomingtogetheratthetop,joinedtogetherbymetaltrussesatregularintervals".[5]Eiffelinitiallyshowedlittleenthusiasm,buthedidapprovefurtherstudy,andthetwoengineersthenaskedStephenSauvestre,theheadofcompany'sarchitecturaldepartment,tocontributetothedesign.Sauvestreaddeddecorativearchestothebaseofthetower,aglasspaviliontothefirstlevel,andotherembellishments.

    ThenewversiongainedEiffel'ssupport:heboughttherightstothepatentonthedesignwhichKoechlin,Nougier,andSauvestrehadtakenout,andthedesignwasexhibitedattheExhibitionofDecorativeArtsintheautumnof1884underthecompanyname.On30March1885,EiffelpresentedhisplanstotheSocitdesIngnieursCivilsafterdiscussingthetechnicalproblemsandemphasisingthepracticalusesofthetower,hefinishedhistalkbysayingthetowerwouldsymbolise,

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 3/19

    FirstdrawingoftheEiffelTowerbyMauriceKoechlinincludingsizecomparisonwithotherParisianlandmarkssuchasNotreDamedeParis,theStatueofLibertyandtheVendmeColumn

    Notonlytheartofthemodernengineer,butalsothecenturyofIndustryandScienceinwhichweareliving,andforwhichthewaywaspreparedbythegreatscientificmovementoftheeighteenthcenturyand by theRevolution of 1789, towhich thismonumentwill be built as an expression of France'sgratitude.[6]

    Littleprogresswasmadeuntil1886,whenJulesGrvywasreelectedaspresidentofFranceanddouardLockroywasappointedasministerfortrade.Abudgetfortheexpositionwaspassedand,on1May,Lockroyannouncedanalterationtothetermsoftheopencompetitionbeingheldforacentrepiecetotheexposition,whicheffectivelymadetheselectionofEiffel'sdesignaforegoneconclusion,asentrieshadtoincludeastudyfora300m(980ft)foursidedmetaltowerontheChampdeMars.[6]On12May,acommissionwassetuptoexamineEiffel'sschemeanditsrivals,which,amonthlater,decidedthatalltheproposalsexceptEiffel'swereeitherimpracticalorlackingindetails.

    Aftersomedebateabouttheexactlocationofthetower,acontractwassignedon8January1887.ThiswassignedbyEiffelactinginhisowncapacityratherthanastherepresentativeofhiscompany,andgrantedhim1.5millionfrancstowardtheconstructioncosts:lessthanaquarteroftheestimated6.5millionfrancs.Eiffelwastoreceiveallincomefromthecommercialexploitationofthetowerduringtheexhibitionandforthenext20years.Helaterestablishedaseparatecompanytomanagethetower,puttinguphalfthenecessarycapitalhimself.[7]

    Theartists'protest

    Theproposedtowerhadbeenasubjectofcontroversy,drawingcriticismfromthosewhodidnotbelieveitwasfeasibleandthosewhoobjectedonartisticgrounds.TheseobjectionswereanexpressionofalongstandingdebateinFranceabouttherelationshipbetweenarchitectureandengineering.ItcametoaheadasworkbeganattheChampdeMars:a"CommitteeofThreeHundred"(onememberforeachmetreofthetower'sheight)wasformed,ledbytheprominentarchitectCharlesGarnierandincludingsomeofthemostimportantfiguresofthearts,such

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 4/19

    CaricatureofGustaveEiffelcomparingtheEiffeltowertothePyramids

    AcalligrambyGuillaumeApollinaire

    asAdolpheBouguereau,GuydeMaupassant,CharlesGounodandJulesMassenet.Apetitioncalled"ArtistsagainsttheEiffelTower"wassenttotheMinisterofWorksandCommissionerfortheExposition,CharlesAlphand,anditwaspublishedbyLeTempson14February1887:

    We,writers,painters, sculptors, architectsandpassionatedevoteesofthe hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protestwith all our strength,withallour indignation in thenameof slightedFrench taste, againsttheerectionofthisuselessandmonstrousEiffelTowerTobringourargumentshome,imagineforamomentagiddy,ridiculoustowerdominatingParis likeagiganticblacksmokestack,crushingunderitsbarbaric bulk Notre Dame, the Tour SaintJacques, the Louvre, theDome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliatedmonumentswilldisappearinthisghastlydream.Andfortwentyyearsweshallseestretchinglikeablotofinkthehatefulshadowofthehatefulcolumnofboltedsheetmetal.[8]

    GustaveEiffelrespondedtothesecriticismsbycomparinghistowertotheEgyptianpyramids:"Mytowerwillbethetallestedificeevererectedbyman.Willitnotalsobegrandioseinitsway?AndwhywouldsomethingadmirableinEgyptbecomehideousandridiculousinParis?"[9]ThesecriticismswerealsodealtwithbydouardLockroyinaletterofsupportwrittentoAlphand,ironicallysaying,[10]"Judgingbythestatelyswelloftherhythms,thebeautyofthemetaphors,theeleganceofitsdelicateandprecisestyle,onecantellthisprotestistheresultofcollaborationofthemostfamouswritersandpoetsofourtime",andheexplainedthattheprotestwasirrelevantsincetheprojecthadbeendecideduponmonthsbefore,andconstructiononthetowerwasalreadyunderway.

    Indeed,GarnierwasamemberoftheTowerCommissionthathadexaminedthevariousproposals,andhadraisednoobjection.Eiffelwassimilarlyunworried,pointingouttoajournalistthatitwasprematuretojudgetheeffectofthetowersolelyonthebasisofthedrawings,thattheChampdeMarswasdistantenough

    fromthemonumentsmentionedintheprotestfortheretobelittleriskofthetoweroverwhelmingthem,andputtingtheaestheticargumentforthetower:"Donotthelawsofnaturalforcesalwaysconformtothesecretlawsofharmony?"[11]

    Someoftheprotesterschangedtheirmindswhenthetowerwasbuiltothersremainedunconvinced.[12]GuydeMaupassantsupposedlyatelunchinthetower'srestauranteverydaybecauseitwastheoneplaceinPariswherethetowerwasnotvisible.[13]

    By1918,ithadbecomeasymbolofParisandofFranceafterGuillaumeApollinairewroteanationalistpoemintheshapeofthetower(acalligram)toexpresshisfeelingsaboutthewaragainstGermany.[14]Today,itiswidelyconsideredtobearemarkablepieceofstructuralart,andisoftenfeaturedinfilmsandliterature.

    Construction

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 5/19

    FoundationsoftheEiffelTower

    Workonthefoundationsstartedon28January1887.[15]Thosefortheeastandsouthlegswerestraightforward,witheachlegrestingonfour2m(6.6ft)concreteslabs,oneforeachoftheprincipalgirdersofeachleg.Thewestandnorthlegs,beingclosertotheriverSeine,weremorecomplicated:eachslabneededtwopilesinstalledbyusingcompressedaircaissons15m(49ft)longand6m(20ft)indiameterdriventoadepthof22m(72ft)[16]tosupporttheconcreteslabs,whichwere6m(20ft)thick.Eachoftheseslabssupportedablockoflimestonewithaninclinedtoptobearasupportingshoefortheironwork.

    Eachshoewasanchoredtothestoneworkbyapairofbolts10cm(4in)indiameterand7.5m(25ft)long.Thefoundationswerecompletedon30June,andtheerectionoftheironworkbegan.Thevisibleworkonsitewascomplementedbytheenormousamountofexactingpreparatoryworkthattookplacebehindthescenes:thedrawingofficeproduced1,700generaldrawingsand3,629detaileddrawingsofthe18,038differentpartsneeded.[17]Thetaskofdrawingthecomponentswascomplicatedbythecomplexanglesinvolvedinthedesignandthedegreeofprecisionrequired:thepositionofrivetholeswasspecifiedtowithin0.1mm(0.0039in)andanglesworkedouttoonesecondofarc.Thefinishedcomponents,somealreadyrivetedtogetherintosubassemblies,arrivedonhorsedrawncartsfromafactoryinthenearbyParisiansuburbofLevalloisPerretandwerefirstboltedtogether,withtheboltsbeingreplacedwithrivetsasconstructionprogressed.Nodrillingorshapingwasdoneonsite:ifanypartdidnotfit,itwassentbacktothefactoryforalteration.Inall,18,038pieceswerejoinedtogetherusing2.5millionrivets.[15]

    Atfirstthelegswereconstructedascantilevers,butabouthalfwaytothefirstlevel,constructionwaspausedinordertocreateasubstantialtimberscaffold.Thisrenewedconcernsaboutthestructuralintegrityofthetower,andsensationalheadlinessuchas"EiffelSuicide!"and"GustaveEiffelHasGoneMad:HeHasBeenConfinedinanAsylum"appearedinthetabloidpress.[18]Atthisstage,asmall"creeper"cranedesignedtomoveupthetowerwasinstalledineachleg.Theymadeuseoftheguidesfortheliftswhichweretobefittedinthefourlegs.ThecriticalstageofjoiningthelegsatthefirstlevelwascompletedbytheendofMarch1888.[15]Althoughthemetalworkhadbeenpreparedwiththeutmostattentiontodetail,provisionhadbeenmadetocarryoutsmalladjustmentsinordertopreciselyalignthelegshydraulicjackswerefittedtotheshoesatthebaseofeachleg,capableofexertingaforceof800tonnes,andthelegswereintentionallyconstructedataslightlysteeperanglethannecessary,beingsupportedbysandboxesonthescaffold.Althoughconstructioninvolved300onsiteemployees,[15]onlyonepersondiedthankstoEiffel'sstringentsafetyprecautionsandtheuseofmovablegangways,guardrailsandscreens.

    Thestartoftheerectionofthemetalwork.

    7December1887:Constructionofthelegs

    withscaffolding.

    20March1888:Completionofthefirst

    level.

    15May1888:Startofconstructiononthe

    secondstage.

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 6/19

    TheRoux,Combaluzier&Lepapeliftsduringconstruction.Notethedrivesprocketsandchainintheforeground

    TheOtisliftsoriginallyfittedinthenorthandsouthlegs

    21August1888:

    Completionofthesecond

    level.

    26December1888:

    Constructionoftheupperstage.

    15March1889:

    Constructionofthecupola.

    Lifts

    EquippingthetowerwithadequateandsafepassengerliftswasamajorconcernofthegovernmentcommissionoverseeingtheExposition.Althoughsomevisitorscouldbeexpectedtoclimbtothefirstlevel,oreventhesecond,liftsclearlyhadtobethemainmeansofascent.[19]

    Constructingliftstoreachthefirstlevelwasrelativelystraightforward:thelegswerewideenoughatthebottomandsonearlystraightthattheycouldcontainastraighttrack,andacontractwasgiventotheFrenchcompanyRoux,Combaluzier&Lepapefortwoliftstobefittedintheeastandwestlegs.[20]Roux,Combaluzier&Lepapeusedapairofendlesschainswithrigid,articulatedlinkstowhichthecarwasattached.Leadweightsonsomelinksoftheupperorreturnsectionsofthechainscounterbalancedmostofthecar'sweight.Thecarwaspushedupfrombelow,notpulledupfromabove:topreventthechainbuckling,itwasenclosedinaconduit.Atthebottomoftherun,thechainspassedaround3.9m(12ft10in)diametersprockets.Smallersprocketsatthetopguidedthechains.[20]

    Installingliftstothesecondlevelwasmoreofachallengebecauseastraighttrackwasimpossible.NoFrenchcompanywantedtoundertakethework.TheEuropeanbranchofOtisBrothers&Companysubmittedaproposalbutthiswasrejected:thefair'scharterruledouttheuseofanyforeignmaterialintheconstructionofthetower.ThedeadlineforbidswasextendedbutstillnoFrenchcompaniesputthemselvesforward,andeventuallythecontractwasgiventoOtisinJuly1887.[21]Otiswereconfidenttheywouldeventuallybegiventhecontractandhadalreadystartedcreatingdesigns.

    Thecarwasdividedintotwosuperimposedcompartments,eachholding25passengers,withtheliftoperatoroccupyinganexteriorplatformonthefirstlevel.Motivepowerwasprovidedbyaninclinedhydraulicram12.67m(41ft7in)longand96.5cm(38.0in)indiameterinthetowerlegwithastrokeof10.83m(35ft6in):thismovedacarriagecarryingsixsheaves.Fivefixedsheavesweremountedhigheruptheleg,producinganarrangementsimilartoablockandtacklebutactinginreverse,multiplyingthestrokeofthepistonratherthantheforcegenerated.Thehydraulicpressureinthedrivingcylinderwasproducedbyalargeopenreservoir

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 7/19

    GeneralviewoftheExpositionUniverselle

    onthesecondlevel.Afterbeingexhaustedfromthecylinder,thewaterwaspumpedbackuptothereservoirbytwopumpsinthemachineryroomatthebaseofthesouthleg.Thisreservoiralsoprovidedpowertotheliftstothefirstlevel.

    TheoriginalliftsforthejourneybetweenthesecondandthirdlevelsweresuppliedbyLonEdoux.Apairof81m(266ft)hydraulicramsweremountedonthesecondlevel,reachingnearlyhalfwayuptothethirdlevel.Oneliftcarwasmountedontopoftheserams:cablesranfromthetopofthiscaruptosheavesonthethirdlevelandbackdowntoasecondcar.Eachcaronlytravelledhalfthedistancebetweenthesecondandthirdlevelsandpassengerswererequiredtochangeliftshalfwaybymeansofashortgangway.The10toncarseachheld65passengers.[22]

    Inaugurationandthe1889exposition

    ThemainstructuralworkwascompletedattheendofMarch1889and,on31March,Eiffelcelebratedbyleadingagroupofgovernmentofficials,accompaniedbyrepresentativesofthepress,tothetopofthetower.[12]Becausetheliftswerenotyetinoperation,theascentwasmadebyfoot,andtookoveranhour,withEiffelstoppingfrequentlytoexplainvariousfeatures.Mostofthepartychosetostopatthelowerlevels,butafew,includingthestructuralengineer,mileNouguier,theheadofconstruction,JeanCompagnon,thePresidentoftheCityCouncil,andreportersfromLeFigaroandLeMondeIllustr,completedtheascent.At2:35pm,EiffelhoistedalargeTricolourtotheaccompanimentofa25gunsalutefiredatthefirstlevel.[23]

    Therewasstillworktobedone,particularlyontheliftsandfacilities,andthetowerwasnotopenedtothepublicuntilninedaysaftertheopeningoftheexpositionon6Mayeventhen,theliftshadnotbeencompleted.Thetowerwasaninstantsuccesswiththepublic,andnearly30,000visitorsmadethe1,710stepclimbtothetopbeforetheliftsenteredserviceon26May.[24]Ticketscost2francsforthefirstlevel,3forthesecond,and5forthetop,withhalfpriceadmissiononSundays,[25]andbytheendoftheexhibitiontherehadbeen1,896,987visitors.[3]

    Afterdark,thetowerwaslitbyhundredsofgaslamps,andabeaconsentoutthreebeamsofred,whiteandbluelight.Twosearchlightsmountedonacircularrailwereusedtoilluminatevariousbuildingsoftheexposition.Thedailyopeningandclosingoftheexpositionwereannouncedbyacannonatthetop.

    Onthesecondlevel,theFrenchnewspaperLeFigarohadanofficeandaprintingpress,whereaspecialsouveniredition,LeFigarodelaTour,wasmade.Therewasalsoaptisserie.

    Atthetop,therewasapostofficewherevisitorscouldsendlettersandpostcardsasamementooftheirvisit.Graffitistswerealsocateredfor:sheetsofpaperweremountedonthewallseachdayforvisitorstorecordtheirimpressionsofthetower.GustaveEiffeldescribedsomeoftheresponsesasvraimentcurieuse("trulycurious").[26]

    FamousvisitorstothetowerincludedthePrinceofWales,SarahBernhardt,"BuffaloBill"Cody(hisWildWestshowwasanattractionattheexposition)andThomasEdison.[24]EiffelinvitedEdisontohisprivateapartmentatthetopofthetower,whereEdisonpresentedhimwithoneofhisphonographs,anewinventionandoneofthemanyhighlightsoftheexposition.[27]Edisonsignedtheguestbookwiththismessage:

    To M Eiffel the Engineer the brave builder of so gigantic and original specimen of modernEngineering from onewho has the greatest respect and admiration for all Engineers including theGreatEngineertheBonDieu,ThomasEdison.

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 8/19

    Illuminationofthetoweratnightduringtheexposition

    PanoramicviewduringascentoftheEiffelTowerbytheLumirebrothers,1898

    FranzReichelt'spreparationsandjumpfromtheEiffelTower

    Eiffelhadapermitforthetowertostandfor20years.Itwastobedismantledin1909,whenitsownershipwouldreverttotheCityofParis.TheCityhadplannedtotearitdown(partoftheoriginalcontestrulesfordesigningatowerwasthatitshouldbeeasytodismantle)butasthetowerprovedtobevaluableforcommunicationpurposes,itwasallowedtoremainaftertheexpiryofthepermit.

    Eiffelmadeuseofhisapartmentatthetopofthetowertocarryoutmeteorologicalobservations,andalsousedthetowertoperformexperimentsontheactionofairresistanceonfallingbodies.[28]

    Subsequentevents

    Forthe1900ExpositionUniverselle,theliftsintheeastandwestlegswerereplacedbyliftsrunningasfarasthesecondlevelconstructedbytheFrenchfirmFivesLille.Thesehadacompensatingmechanismtokeepthefloorlevelastheangleofascent

    changedatthefirstlevel,andweredrivenbyasimilarhydraulicmechanismtotheOtislifts,althoughthiswassituatedatthebaseofthetower.Hydraulicpressurewasprovidedbypressurisedaccumulatorslocatednearthismechanism.[21]Atthesametimetheliftinthenorthpillarwasremovedandreplacedbyastaircasetothefirstlevel.Thelayoutofbothfirstandsecondlevelswasmodified,withthespaceavailableforvisitorsonthesecondlevel.Theoriginalliftinthesouthpillarwasremoved13yearslater.

    On19October1901,AlbertoSantosDumont,flyinghisNo.6airship,wona100,000francprizeofferedbyHenriDeutschdelaMeurtheforthefirstpersontomakeaflightfromSt.CloudtotheEiffelTowerandbackinlessthanhalfanhour.[29]

    ManyinnovationstookplaceattheEiffelTowerintheearly20thcentury.In1910,FatherTheodorWulfmeasuredradiantenergyatthetopandbottomofthetower.Hefoundmoreatthetopthanexpected,incidentallydiscoveringwhatareknowntodayascosmicrays.[30]Justtwoyearslater,on4February1912,AustriantailorFranzReicheltdiedafterjumpingfromthefirstlevelofthetower(aheightof57metres)todemonstratehisparachutedesign.[31]In1914,attheoutbreakofWorldWarI,aradiotransmitterlocatedinthetowerjammedGermanradiocommunications,seriouslyhinderingtheiradvanceonParisandcontributingtotheAlliedvictoryattheFirstBattleoftheMarne.[32]From1925to1934,illuminatedsignsforCitronadornedthreeofthetower'ssides,makingitthetallestadvertisingspaceintheworldatthetime.InApril1935,thetowerwasusedtomakeexperimentallowresolutiontelevisiontransmissions,usingashortwavetransmitterof200wattspower.On17November,animproved180linetransmitterwasinstalled.[33]

    Ontwoseparatebutrelatedoccasionsin1925,theconartistVictorLustig"sold"thetowerforscrapmetal.[34]Ayearlater,inFebruary1926,pilotLeonColletwaskilledtryingtoflyunderthetower.Hisaircraftbecameentangledinanaerialbelongingtoawirelessstation.[35]On2May1929,abustofGustaveEiffelbyAntoine

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 9/19

    AmericansoldierswatchtheFrenchflagflyingontheEiffelTower,c.25August1944

    BaseoftheEiffelTower

    Bourdellewasunveiledatthebaseofthenorthleg.[36]In1930,thetowerlostthetitleoftheworld'stalleststructurewhentheChryslerBuildinginNewYorkCitywascompleted.[37]In1938,thedecorativearcadearoundthefirstlevelwasremoved.[38]

    UpontheGermanoccupationofParisin1940,theliftcableswerecutbytheFrench.Thetowerwasclosedtothepublicduringtheoccupationandtheliftswerenotrepaireduntil1946.[39]In1940,Germansoldiershadtoclimbthetowertohoisttheswastika,buttheflagwassolargeitblewawayjustafewhourslater,andwasreplacedbyasmallerone.WhenvisitingParis,Hitlerchosetostayontheground.InAugust1944,whentheAllieswerenearingParis,HitlerorderedGeneralDietrichvonCholtitz,themilitarygovernorofParis,todemolishthetoweralongwiththerestofthecity.VonCholtitzdisobeyedtheorder.[40]On25June,beforetheGermanshadbeendrivenoutofParis,theNaziflagwasreplacedwithaTricolourbytwomenfromtheFrenchNavalMuseum,whonarrowlybeatthreemenledbyLucienSarniguet,whohadloweredtheTricolouron13June1940whenParisfelltotheGermans.[39]

    On3January1956,afirestartedinthetelevisiontransmitter,damagingthetopofthetower.Repairstookayear,andin1957,thepresentradioaerialwasaddedtothetop.[41]In1964,theEiffelTowerwasofficiallydeclaredtobeahistoricalmonumentbytheMinisterofCulturalAffairs,AndrMalraux.[42]Ayearlater,due

    toincreasingvisitornumbers,anadditionalliftsystemwasinstalledinthenorthpillar.

    Accordingtointerviews,in1967,MontrealMayorJeanDrapeaunegotiatedasecretagreementwithCharlesdeGaulleforthetowertobedismantledandtemporarilyrelocatedtoMontrealtoserveasalandmarkandtouristattractionduringExpo67.TheplanwasallegedlyvetoedbythecompanyoperatingthetoweroutoffearthattheFrenchgovernmentcouldrefusepermissionforthetowertoberestoredinitsoriginallocation.[43]

    In1982,theoriginalliftsbetweenthesecondandthirdlevelswerereplacedafter97yearsinservice.ThesehadbeenclosedtothepublicbetweenNovemberandMarchbecausethewaterinthehydraulicdrivetendedtofreeze.Thenewcarsoperateinpairs,withonecounterbalancingtheother,andperformthejourneyinonestage,reducingthejourneytimefromeightminutestolessthantwominutes.Atthesametime,twonewemergencystaircaseswereinstalled,replacingtheoriginalspiralstaircases.In1983,thesouthpillarwasfittedwithanelectricallydrivenOtislifttoservetheJulesVernerestaurant.TheFivesLilleliftsintheeastandwestlegs,fittedin1899,wereextensivelyrefurbishedin1986.Thecarswerereplaced,andacomputersystemwasinstalledtocompletelyautomatethelifts.Themotivepowerwasmovedfromthewaterhydraulicsystemtoanewelectricallydrivenoilfilledhydraulicsystem,andtheoriginalwaterhydraulicswereretainedsolelyasacounterbalancesystem.[44]Aserviceliftwasaddedtothesouthpillarformovingsmallloadsandmaintenancepersonnelthreeyearslater.

    On31March1984,RobertMoriartyflewaBeechcraftBonanzaunderthetower.[45]In1987,A.J.HackettmadeoneofhisfirstbungeejumpsfromthetopoftheEiffelTower,usingaspecialcordhehadhelpeddevelop.Hackettwasarrestedbythepolice.[46]On27October1991,ThierryDevaux,alongwithmountainguideHervCalvayrac,

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 10/19

    ThetoweristhefocalpointofNewYear'sEvecelebrationsinParis.

    TheEiffelTowerfrombelow

    performedaseriesofacrobaticfigureswhilebungeejumpingfromthesecondfloorofthetower.[47]FacingtheChampdeMars,Devauxusedanelectricwinchbetweenfigurestogobackuptothesecondfloor.Whenfiremenarrived,hestoppedafterthesixthjump.

    On31December1999,forits"CountdowntotheYear2000"celebration,flashinglightsandhighpoweredsearchlightswereinstalledonthetower.Fireworksweresetoffalloverit.Anexhibitionaboveacafeteriaonthefirstfloorcommemoratesthisevent.ThesearchlightsontopofthetowermadeitabeaconinParis'snightsky,and20,000flashingbulbsgavethetowerasparklyappearanceforfiveminuteseveryhouronthehour.[48]

    On31December2000,thelightssparkledblueforseveralnightstoheraldthenewmillennium.Thesparklylightingcontinuedfor18monthsuntilJuly2001.Thesparklinglightswereturnedonagainon21June2003,andthedisplaywasplannedtolastfor10yearsbeforetheyneededreplacing.[49]

    Thetowerreceivedits200,000,000thgueston28November2002.[50]Thetowerhasoperatedatitsmaximumcapacityofabout7millionvisitorssince2003.[51]In2004,theEiffelTowerbeganhostingaseasonalicerinkonthefirstlevel.[52]Aglassfloorwasinstalledonthefirstlevelduringthe2014refurbishment.[53]

    Design

    Material

    Thepuddlediron(wroughtiron)oftheEiffelTowerweighs7,300tons,[54]andtheadditionoflifts,shopsandantennaehavebroughtthetotalweighttoapproximately10,100tons.[55]Asademonstrationoftheeconomyofdesign,ifthe7,300tonsofmetalinthestructureweremelteddown,itwouldfillthesquarebase,125metres(410ft)oneachside,toadepthofonly6.25cm(2.46in)assumingthedensityofthemetaltobe7.8tonspercubicmetre.[56]Additionally,acubicboxsurroundingthetower(324mx125mx125m)wouldcontain6,200tonsofair,weighingalmostasmuchastheironitself.Dependingontheambienttemperature,thetopofthetowermayshiftawayfromthesunbyupto18cm(7in)duetothermalexpansionofthemetalonthesidefacingthesun.[57]

    Windconsiderations

    Whenitwasbuilt,manywereshockedbythetower'sdaringform.Eiffelwasaccusedoftryingtocreatesomethingartisticwithnoregardtotheprinciplesofengineering.However,Eiffelandhisteamexperiencedbridgebuildersunderstoodtheimportanceofwindforces,andknewthatiftheyweregoingtobuildthetalleststructureintheworld,theyhadtobesureitcouldwithstandthem.InaninterviewwiththenewspaperLeTempspublishedon14February1887,Eiffelsaid:

    Isitnottruethattheveryconditionswhichgivestrengthalsoconformtothehiddenrulesofharmony?NowtowhatphenomenondidIhavetogiveprimaryconcernindesigningtheTower?Itwaswindresistance. Well then! I hold that the curvature of the monument's four outer edges, which is as

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 11/19

    GustaveEiffel'sapartment

    mathematicalcalculationdictateditshouldbewillgiveagreatimpressionofstrengthandbeauty,foritwillrevealtotheeyesoftheobservertheboldnessofthedesignasawhole.[58]

    Heusedgraphicalmethodstodeterminethestrengthofthetowerandempiricalevidencetoaccountfortheeffectsofwind,ratherthanamathematicalformula.Closeexaminationofthetowerrevealsabasicallyexponentialshape.[59]Allpartsofthetowerwereoverdesignedtoensuremaximumresistancetowindforces.Thetophalfwasevenassumedtohavenogapsinthelatticework.[60]Intheyearssinceitwascompleted,engineershaveputforwardvariousmathematicalhypothesesinanattempttoexplainthesuccessofthedesign.Themostrecent,devisedin2004afterletterssentbyEiffeltotheFrenchSocietyofCivilEngineersin1885weretranslatedintoEnglish,isdescribedasanonlinearintegralequationbasedoncounteractingthewindpressureonanypointofthetowerwiththetensionbetweentheconstructionelementsatthatpoint.[59]

    TheEiffelTowerswaysbyupto9centimetres(3.5in)inthewind.[61]

    Accommodation

    Whenoriginallybuilt,thefirstlevelcontainedthreerestaurantsoneFrench,oneRussianandoneFlemishandan"AngloAmericanBar".Aftertheexpositionclosed,theFlemishrestaurantwasconvertedtoa250seattheatre.Apromenade2.6metre(8ft6in)wideranaroundtheoutsideofthefirstlevel.Atthetop,therewerelaboratoriesforvariousexperiments,andasmallapartmentreservedforGustaveEiffeltoentertainguests,whichisnowopentothepublic,completewithperioddecorationsandlifelikemannequinsofEiffelandsomeofhisnotableguests.[62]

    InMay2016,anapartmentwascreatedonthefirstleveltoaccommodatefourcompetitionwinnersduringtheUEFAEuro2016footballtournamentinParisinJune.Theapartmenthasakitchen,twobedrooms,alounge,andviewsofParislandmarksincludingtheSeine,theSacreCoeur,andtheArcdeTriomphe.[63]

    Passengerlifts

    Thearrangementoftheliftshasbeenchangedseveraltimesduringthetower'shistory.Giventheelasticityofthecablesandthetimetakentoalignthecarswiththelandings,eachlift,innormalservice,takesanaverageof8minutesand50secondstodotheroundtrip,spendinganaverageof1minuteand15secondsateachlevel.Theaveragejourneytimebetweenlevelsis1minute.Theoriginalhydraulicmechanismisonpublicdisplayinasmallmuseumatthebaseoftheeastandwestlegs.Becausethemechanismrequiresfrequentlubricationandmaintenance,publicaccessisoftenrestricted.Theropemechanismofthenorthtowercanbeseenasvisitorsexitthelift.

    Engravednames

    GustaveEiffelengravedonthetowerthenamesof72Frenchscientists,engineersandmathematiciansinrecognitionoftheircontributionstothebuildingofthetower.Eiffelchosethis"invocationofscience"becauseofhisconcernovertheartists'protest.Atthebeginningofthe20thcentury,theengravingswerepaintedover,buttheywererestoredin198687bytheSocitNouvelled'exploitationdelaTourEiffel,acompanyoperatingthetower.

    Aesthetics

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 12/19

    Namesengravedonthetower

    Thetowerispaintedinthreeshades:lighteratthetop,gettingprogressivelydarkertowardsthebottomtoperfectlycomplementtheParisiansky.[64]Itwasoriginallyreddishbrownthischangedin1968toabronzecolourknownas"EiffelTowerBrown".[65]

    Theonlynonstructuralelementsarethefourdecorativegrillworkarches,addedinSauvestre'ssketches,whichservedtomakethetowerlookmoresubstantialandtomakeamoreimpressiveentrancetotheexposition.[66]

    OneofthegreatHollywoodmovieclichsisthattheviewfromaParisianwindowalwaysincludesthetower.Inreality,sincezoningrestrictionslimittheheightofmostbuildingsinParistosevenstoreys,onlyasmallnumberoftallbuildingshaveaclearviewofthetower.

    Maintenance

    Maintenanceofthetowerincludesapplying60tonsofpainteverysevenyearstopreventitfromrusting.Thetowerhasbeencompletelyrepaintedatleast19timessinceitwasbuilt.Leadpaintwasstillbeingusedasrecentlyas2001whenthepracticewasstoppedoutofconcernfortheenvironment.[49]

    PanoramaofParisanditssuburbsfromthetopoftheEiffelTower

    Tourism

    Transport

    ThenearestParisMtrostationisBirHakeimandthenearestRERstationisChampdeMarsTourEiffel.[67]ThetoweritselfislocatedattheintersectionofthequaiBranlyandthePontd'Ina.

    Popularity

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 13/19

    Numberofvisitorsperyearbetween1889and2004

    ReplicaattheParisLasVegasHotel,Nevada,UnitedStates

    TheEiffelTowerseenfromtheruedeMonttessuy

    Morethan250millionpeoplehavevisitedthetowersinceitwascompletedin1889.[3]In2015,therewere6.91millionvisitors.[68]Thetoweristhemostvisitedpaidmonumentintheworld.[69]Anaverageof25,000peopleascendthetowereverydaywhichcanresultinlongqueues.[70]Ticketscanbepurchasedonlinetoavoidthelongqueues.

    Restaurants

    Thetowerhastworestaurants:Le58TourEiffelonthefirstlevel,andLeJulesVerne,agourmetrestaurantwithitsownliftonthesecondlevel.ThisrestauranthasonestarintheMichelinRedGuide.ItisrunbythemultiMichelinstarchefAlainDucasse[71]andowesitsnametothefamoussciencefictionwriterJulesVerne.

    Replicas

    Asoneofthemosticoniclandmarksintheworld,theEiffelTowerhasbeentheinspirationforthecreationofmanyreplicasandsimilartowers.AnearlyexampleisBlackpoolTowerinEngland.ThemayorofBlackpool,SirJohnBickerstaffe,wassoimpressedonseeingtheEiffelToweratthe1889expositionthathecommissionedasimilartowertobebuiltinhistown.Itopenedin1894andis158metres(518ft)tall.[72]TokyoTowerinJapan,builtasacommunicationstowerin1958,wasalsoinspiredbytheEiffelTower.[73]

    TherearevariousscalemodelsofthetowerintheUnitedStates,includingahalfscaleversionattheParisLasVegas,Nevada,oneinParis,Texasbuiltin1993,andtwo1:3scalemodelsatKingsIsland,Ohio,andKingsDominion,Virginia,amusementparksopenedin1972and1975respectively.Two1:3scalemodelscanbefoundinChina,oneinDurango,MexicothatwasdonatedbythelocalFrenchcommunity,andseveralacrossEurope.[74]

    In2011,theTVshowPricingthePricelessontheNationalGeographicChannelspeculatedthatafullsizereplicaofthetowerwouldcostapproximatelyUS$480milliontobuild.[75]

    Communications

    Thetowerhasbeenusedformakingradiotransmissionssincethebeginningofthe20thcentury.Untilthe1950s,setsofaerialwiresranfromthecupolatoanchorsontheAvenuedeSuffrenandChampdeMars.Thesewereconnectedtolongwavetransmittersinsmallbunkers.In1909,apermanentundergroundradiocentrewasbuiltnearthesouthpillar,whichstillexiststoday.On20November1913,theParisObservatory,usingtheEiffelTowerasanaerial,exchangedwirelesssignalswiththeUnitedStatesNavalObservatory,whichusedanaerialinArlington,Virginia.TheobjectofthetransmissionswastomeasurethedifferenceinlongitudebetweenParisandWashington,D.C.[76]Today,radioanddigitaltelevisionsignalsaretransmittedfromtheEiffelTower.

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 14/19

    TheEiffelTowerilluminatedinthecoloursoftheFrenchflagin2015

    FMradio

    Frequency kW Service87.8MHz 10 FranceInter89.0MHz 10 RFIParis89.9MHz 6 TSFJazz90.4MHz 10 Nostalgie90.9MHz 4 ChanteFrance

    Digitaltelevision

    Atelevisionantennawasfirstinstalledonthetowerin1957,increasingitsheightby18.7m(61.4ft).Workcarriedoutin2000addedafurther5.3m(17.4ft),givingthecurrentheightof324m(1,063ft).[49]AnaloguetelevisionsignalsfromtheEiffelTowerceasedon8March2011.

    Frequency VHF UHF kW Service182.25MHz 6 100 Canal+479.25MHz 22 500 France2503.25MHz 25 500 TF1527.25MHz 28 500 France3543.25MHz 30 100 France5567.25MHz 33 100 M6

    Illuminationcopyright

    Thetoweranditsimagehavelongbeeninthepublicdomain.[77]InJune1990,however,aFrenchcourtruledthataspeciallightingdisplayonthetowerin1989tomarkthetower's100thanniversarywasan"originalvisualcreation"protectedbycopyright.TheCourtofCassation,France'sjudicialcourtoflastresort,upheldtherulinginMarch1992.[78]TheSocitd'ExploitationdelaTourEiffel(SETE)nowconsidersanyilluminationofthetowertobeaseparateworkofartthatfallsundercopyright.[79]Asaresult,itisillegaltopublishcontemporaryphotographsofthelittoweratnightwithoutpermissioninFranceandsomeothercountries.[80]

    Theimpositionofcopyrighthasbeencontroversial.TheDirectorofDocumentationforwhatwasthencalledtheSocitNouvelled'exploitationdelaTourEiffel(SNTE),StphaneDieu,commentedin2005:"Itisreallyjustawaytomanagecommercialuseoftheimage,sothatitisn'tusedinways[ofwhich]wedon'tapprove".[81]SNTEmadeover1millionfromcopyrightfeesin2002.[82]However,itcouldalsobeusedtoprohibitthepublicationoftouristphotographsofthetoweratnight,aswellashinderingnonprofitandsemicommercialpublicationofimagesofthetower.[77]

    Frenchdoctrineandjurisprudenceallowspicturesincorporatingacopyrightedworkaslongastheirpresenceisincidentaloraccessorytothesubjectbeingrepresented,[83]areasoningakintothedeminimisrule.Therefore,SETEmaybeunabletoclaimcopyrightonphotographsofPariswhichhappentoincludethelittower.

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 15/19

    Inpopularculture

    Asagloballandmark,theEiffelTowerisfeaturedinfilms,videogamesandTVshows.

    Inacommitmentceremonyin2007,ErikaEiffel,anAmericanwoman,"married"theEiffelTowerherrelationshipwiththetowerhasbeenthesubjectofextensiveglobalpublicity.[84]

    Tallerstructures

    Althoughitwastheworld'stalleststructurewhencompletedin1889,theEiffelTowerhaslostitsstandingbothasthetallestlatticetowerandasthetalleststructureinFrance.

    LatticetowerstallerthantheEiffelTower

    Name Pinnacleheight Year Country Town Remarks

    TokyoSkytree 634m(2,080ft) 2011 Japan Tokyo

    KievTVTower 385m(1,263ft) 1973 Ukraine Kiev

    TashkentTower 375m(1,230ft) 1985 Uzbekistan Tashkent

    PylonsofZhoushanIslandOverheadPowerlineTie

    370m(1,210ft) 2009 China Jiangyin

    Twotowerstallestelectricitypylonsintheworld

    PylonsofYangtzeRiverCrossing 347m(1,138ft) 2003 China Jiangyin Twotowers

    DragonTower 336m(1,102ft) 2000 China Harbin

    TokyoTower 333m(1,093ft) 1958 Japan Tokyo

    WITITVTower 329m(1,079ft) 1962 U.S.Shorewood,Wisconsin

    WSBTVTower 328m(1,076ft) 1957 U.S.Atlanta,Georgia

    StructuresinFrancetallerthantheEiffelTower

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 16/19

    Name Pinnacleheight YearStructure

    type Town Remarks

    LongwavetransmitterAllouis

    350m(1,150ft) 1974

    Guyedmast Allouis

    HWUtransmitter 350m(1,150ft) ?Guyedmast Rosnay MilitaryVLFtransmittermultiplemasts

    ViaducdeMillau 343m(1,125ft) 2004Bridgepillar Millau

    TVMastNiortMaisonnay

    330m(1,080ft) 1978

    Guyedmast Niort

    TransmitterLeMansMayet

    342m(1,122ft) 1993

    Guyedmast Mayet

    LaReginetransmitter 330m(1,080ft) 1973Guyedmast Saissac MilitaryVLFtransmitter

    TransmitterRoumoules

    330m(1,080ft) 1974

    Guyedmast Roumoules

    Sparetransmissionmastforlongwaveinsulatedagainstground

    Seealso

    ListoftallestbuildingsandstructuresintheParisregionListoftallestbuildingsandstructuresintheworldListoftallestfreestandingstructuresintheworldListoftallesttowersintheworld

    References1.EiffelTower(http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building.php?building_id=9410)atCTBUHSkyscraperDatabase2.EiffelTower(http://www.emporis.com/buildings/110508)atEmporis3.SETE."TheEiffelTowerataglance".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved15April2016.4.EngineeringNewsandAmericanRailwayJournal22.G.H.Frost.1889.p.482.5.Harvie,p.78.6.Loyrette,p.116.7.Loyrette,p.121.8.Loyrette,p.174.9.PaulSouriauManonSouriau(1983).TheAestheticsofMovement.UniversityofMassachusettsPress.p.100.ISBN0

    870234129.10.Harvie,p.99.11.Loyrette,p.176.12."TheEiffelTower(http://find.galegroup.com/ttda/infomark.do?&source=gale&prodId=TTDA&userGroupName=wes_ttd

    a&tabID=T003&docPage=article&searchType=&docId=CS84463745&type=multipage&contentSet=LTO&version=1.0)"(News).TheTimes(London).Monday,1April1889.(32661),colB,p.5.

    13.JillJonnes(2009).Eiffel'sTower:AndtheWorld'sFairwhereBuffaloBillBeguiledParis,theArtistsQuarreled,andThomasEdisonBecameaCount.Viking.pp.16364.ISBN9780670020607.

    14.GuillaumeApollinaire(1980).AnneHydeGreet,ed.Calligrammes:PoemsofPeaceandWar(19131916).UniversityofCaliforniaPress.pp.411414.ISBN9780520019683.

    15.SETE."OriginsandconstructionoftheEiffelTower".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved1January2014.16.Loyrette,p.123.17.Loyrette,p.148.18.Harvie,p.110.19.Vogel,pp.2021.20.Vogel,p.28.

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 17/19

    21.Vogel,pp.2324.22.Eiffel,Gustave(1900).LaTourdeTroisCentsMtres(inFrench).Paris:SocitdesimprimeriesLemercier.pp.1713.23.Harvie,pp.12223.24.SETE."TheEiffelTowerduringthe1889ExpositionUniverselle".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved16April

    2016.25.Harvie,pp.14445.26.Eiffel,Gustave(1900).LaTourdeTroisCentsMtres.Paris:Lemercier.p.335.27.JillJonnes."ThomasEdisonattheEiffelTower".WondersandMarvels.Retrieved2January2014.28.Watson,p.829.29."M.SantosDumont'sBalloon"(News).TheTimes(London).Monday,21October1901.(36591),colA,p.4.30.TheodorWulf.PhysikalischeZeitschrift.ContainsresultsofthefourdaylongobservationdonebyTheodorWulfatthe

    topoftheEiffelTowerin1910.31."L'inventeurd'unparachuteselancedeletourEiffelets'crasesurlesol".LePetitParisien(inFrench).5February

    1912.p.1.Retrieved26November2009.32.BarbaraWertheimTuchman(1994).August1914.Papermac.p.236.ISBN9780333305164.33.StephenHerbert(2004).AHistoryofEarlyTelevision2.Taylor&Francis.p.40.ISBN9780415326674.34.PiersLetcher(2003).EccentricFrance:TheBradtGuidetoMad,MagicalandMarvellousFrance.BradtTravelGuides.

    p.105.ISBN9781841620688.35."Anairtragedy".TheSundayTimes(Perth,WA).28February1926.Retrieved2January2012.36.Harriss,p.178.37.ClaudiaRothPierpont(18November2002)."TheSilverSpire:Howtwomen'sdreamschangedtheskylineofNew

    York".TheNewYorker.Archivedfromtheoriginalon27February2012.38.Harriss,p.195.39.Harriss,pp.18084.40.CarloD'Este(2003).Eisenhower:ASoldier'sLife.HenryHoltandCompany.p.574.ISBN9780805056877.41.SETE."Themajorevents".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved13March2014.42.Harriss,p.215.43.NickAufderMaur(15September1980)."HowthiscitynearlygottheEiffelTower".TheMontrealGazette.Retrieved

    29May2013.44.SETE."TheEiffelTower'slifts".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved15April2016.45.RobertJ.Moriarty."ABonanzainParis".Air&SpaceMagazine.Retrieved4April2008.46.JanoGibson(27February2007)."Extremebidtostretchbungyrecord".SydneyMorningHerald.Retrieved24May

    2010.47.ThierryDevaux."EiffelTower1991".Retrieved16April2016.48.SETE."TheEiffelTower'silluminations".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved31May2014.49.SETE."AllyouneedtoknowabouttheEiffelTower"(PDF).OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved15April2016.50."TheEiffelTower".France.com.23October2003.Retrieved16April2016.51.DenisCosnard(21April2014)."EiffelTowerrenovationworkaimstotakeprofitstonewheights".TheGuardian.

    Retrieved14April2016.52.DarwinPorterDanforthPrinceG.McDonaldH.MastriniS.MarkerA.PrinczC.BnfalvyA.KutorN.LakosS.

    RowanKelleher(2006).Frommer'sEurope(9thed.).Wiley.p.318.ISBN9780471922650.53."EiffelTowergetsglassfloorinrefurbishmentproject".BBCNews.6October2014.Retrieved6October2014.54.DavidA.Hanser(2006).ArchitectureofFrance.GreenwoodPublishingGroup.p.66.ISBN9780313319020.55.DKEyewitnessTravelGuide:Europe.DorlingKindersley.2012.p.163.ISBN9781409385776.56.Harriss,p.60.57.Harriss,p.231.58.SETE."DebateandcontroversysurroundingtheEiffelTower".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved2January2013.59."ElegantshapeofEiffelTowersolvedmathematicallybyUniversityofColoradoprofessor".ScienceDaily.7January

    2005.Retrieved24May2010.60.Watson,p.807.61.SETE."FAQ:History/Technical".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved16April2016.62.CaitlinMorton(31May2015)."ThereisasecretapartmentatthetopoftheEiffelTower".ArchitecturalDigest.Conde

    Nast.Retrieved30June2015.63.MaryPapenfuss(20May2016)."TouristshavethechancetogetanEiffeloftheviewbystayingintheTowerfora

    night".InternationalBusinessTimes.Retrieved21May2016.64.SETE."TheEiffelTowergetsbeautified"(PDF).OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved8November2015.65.SETE."PaintingtheEiffelTower".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved8November2015.

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 18/19

    Bibliography

    Chanson,Hubert(2009)."HydraulicengineeringlegendsListedontheEiffelTower".InJerryR.Rogers.GreatRiversHistory:ProceedingsandInvitedPapersfortheEWRICongressandGreatRiversHistorySymposium.AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers.ISBN9780784410325.Frmy,Dominique(1989).QuiddelatourEiffel.R.Laffont.ISBN9782221064887.TheEngineer:TheParisExhibition.XLVII.London:OfficeforAdvertisementsandPublication.3May1889.Harriss,Joseph(1975).TheEiffelTower:SymbolofanAge.London:PaulElek.ISBN0236400363.Harvie,DavidI.(2006).Eiffel:TheGeniusWhoReinventedHimself.Stroud,Gloucestershire:Sutton.ISBN0750933097.Jonnes,Jill(2009).Eiffel'sTower:TheThrillingStoryBehindParis'sBelovedMonument.Penguin.ISBN9781101052518.Loyrette,Henri(1985).Eiffel,unIngenieuretSonOeuvre.Rizzoli.ISBN9780847806317.Mused'Orsay(1989).1889:laTourEiffeletl'ExpositionUniverselle.EditionsdelaRuniondesMusesNationaux,MinistredelaCulture,delaCommunication,desGrandsTravauxetduBicentenaire.ISBN9782711822447.Vogel,RobertM.(1961)."ElevatorSystemsoftheEiffelTower,1889".UnitedStatesNationalMuseumBulletin(Washington,D.C.:SmithsonianInstitution)228:2021.Watson,William(1892).ParisUniversalExposition:CivilEngineering,PublicWorks,andArchitecture.Washington,D.C.:GovernmentPublishingOffice.

    Externallinks

    66."History:DevelopmentofclearspanbuildingsExhibitionbuildings".ArchitecturalTeachingResource.TataSteelEurope,Ltd.Archivedfromtheoriginalon5October2013.Retrieved4January2014.

    67.SETE."GettingtotheEiffelTower".OfficialEiffelTowerwebsite.Retrieved16April2016.68."NumberofEiffelTowervisitorsfallsinwakeofParisattacks".France24.20January2016.Retrieved15April2016.69.JeanMichelNormand(23July2007)."TourEiffeletsouvenirsdeParis".LeMonde.France.Retrieved24May2010.70."EiffelTowerreopenstotouristsafterrareclosurefor2daystrike".AssociatedPress.FoxNews.27June2013.

    Retrieved16April2016.71.DaliWiederhoft."EiffelTower:Sightseeing,restaurants,links,transit".BonjourParis.Archivedfromtheoriginalon6

    January2014.72."TheBlackpoolTower".HistoryExtra.Retrieved6March2014.73."TheredandwhiteEiffelTowerofTokyo".KLM.Retrieved16April2016.74.ToddvanLuling(19August2013)."ThemostlegitEiffelTowerreplicasyoudidn'tknowexisted".HuffpostTravel.

    Retrieved16April2016.75."EiffelTower".PricingthePriceless.Season1.Episode3.9May2011.NationalGeographicChannel(Australia).76."Paristimebywireless".TheNewYorkTimes.22November1913.p.1.77.SteveSchlackman(16November2014)."DonightphotosoftheEiffelTowerviolatecopyright?".ArtLawJournal.

    Retrieved15April2016.78."Courdecassation3mars1992,JusLuminumnJ523975"(inFrench).JusLuminum.Archivedfromtheoriginalon16

    November2009.79.JimmyWales(3July2015)."Ifyouwanttokeepsharingphotosforfree,readthis".TheGuardian.Retrieved15April

    2016.80.HughMorris(24June2015)."Freedomofpanorama:EUproposalcouldmeanholidaysnapsbreachcopyright".The

    Telegraph.Retrieved15April2016.81."EiffelTower:Repossessed".FastCompany.2February2005.Retrieved15April2016.82.JamesArnold(16May2003)."ArethingslookingupfortheEiffelTower?".BBCNews.Retrieved16April2016.83.NotionsFondamentalesDuDroitD'auteur(inFrench).WorldIntellectualPropertyOrganization.2002.p.277.

    ISBN9789280510133."Lareprsentationd'uneuvresituedansunlieupublicn'estlicitequelorsqu'elleestaccessoireparrapportausujetprincipalreprsentoutrait"

    84.SarahBoesveld(20August2009)."Inanimateattachment:Loveobjects".TheGlobeandMail(Canada).Retrieved4May2010.

  • 7/3/2016 EiffelTowerWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower 19/19

    WikimediaCommonshasmediarelatedtoEiffelTower.

    Wikisourcehasthetextofthe1911EncyclopdiaBritannicaarticleEiffelTower.

    Officialwebsite(http://www.toureiffel.paris/)oftheEiffelTowerEiffelTower(http://structurae.net/structures/data/index.cfm?ID=s0000021)atStructuraeSketchesandplansofthetower'sconstruction(http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article2033956/IntricatesketchesEnglishstudentParisshowingbuildingEiffelTowerdisplayedtime.html)atMailOnlineImagesofthe2014refurbishment(http://www.archdaily.com/577005/eiffeltowersfirstfloorrefurbushmentagencemoattiriviere/548a41e5e58ece0d79000052portada_mr_eiffel_0914_79jpg)atArchDailyHistoryoftransmittersattheEiffelTower(http://dspt.club.fr/tour_eiffel.htm)byPierreDessapt(French)

    Records

    PrecededbyWashingtonMonument

    World'stalleststructure18891931

    300.24m

    SucceededbyChryslerBuilding

    Retrievedfrom"https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eiffel_Tower&oldid=727737316"

    Categories: EiffelTower Buildingsandstructuresinthe7tharrondissementofParisFormerworld'stallestbuildings HistoricCivilEngineeringLandmarks LandmarksinFranceMichelinGuidestarredrestaurantsinFrance ObservationtowersinFrance SkyscrapersinParisTowerscompletedin1889 VisitorattractionsinParis World'sfairarchitectureinFrance

    Thispagewaslastmodifiedon30June2016,at23:02.TextisavailableundertheCreativeCommonsAttributionShareAlikeLicenseadditionaltermsmayapply.Byusingthissite,youagreetotheTermsofUseandPrivacyPolicy.WikipediaisaregisteredtrademarkoftheWikimediaFoundation,Inc.,anonprofitorganization.