Effects of Intramuscular Fat Levels on Sensory Characteristics of Duck Breast Meat
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Effects of Intramuscular Fat Levels on SensoryCharacteristics of Duck Breast Meat
P. Chartrin,*1 K. Meteau, H. Juin, M. D. Bernadet, G. Guy, C. Larzul, H. Remignon,#J. Mourot, M. J. Duclos,* and E. Baeza*
*Station de Recherches Avicoles, INRA Tours, 37380 Nouzilly, France; Unite Experimentale sur lElevage Alternatifet la Sante des Monogastriques, INRA Le Magneraud, 17700 Surge`res, France; Unite Experimentale sur les Palmipe`des
a` Foie Gras, INRA Artigue`res, 40280 Benquet, France; Station de Genetique Quantitative et Appliquee, INRA,Domaine de Vilvert, 78352 Jouy en Josas, France; #ENSAT-INP, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France;
and Unite Syste`mes dElevage Nutrition Animale et Humaine, INRA, 35590 St-Gilles, France
ABSTRACT We conducted a study to evaluate the ef-fects of intramuscular fat levels on the sensory characteris-tics of duck breast meat. Combining duck genotypes(Muscovy, Pekin, and their crossbreed hinny and muleducks) and feeding levels (overfeeding between 12 and14 wk of age vs. ad libitum feeding) enabled us to obtaina wide range of lipid levels in breast muscle. The averagevalues were between 2.55 and 6.40 g per 100 g of muscle.Breast muscle from overfed ducks showed higher lipidand lower water levels than breast muscle from ducksfed ad libitum. Muscle from the overfed ducks was alsopaler in color and exhibited greater yellowness and cook-ing loss values. Juiciness was judged lower and flavormore pronounced in overfed ducks. Muscovy ducks ex-hibited higher breast weight and lower lipid levels thanthe other genotypes. At the other extreme, Pekin ducksexhibited the highest lipid levels and the lowest breastweights; values for these criteria were intermediate in
Key words: duck, genotype, lipid, meat, quality
2006 Poultry Science 85:914922
INTRODUCTIONIntramuscular fat (IMF) is involved in determining
meat quality, particularly nutritional and sensory charac-teristics, and conservation ability (Ruiz et al., 2001). Inpoultry meat, it is easy to modulate lipid quality, particu-larly fatty acid profiles, using different lipid sources infeeding diets (Ruiz et al., 2001; Cortinas et al., 2004). Manystudies have analyzed the effects of increased levels ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids on meat quality, mainly fo-cusing on sensory characteristics and consumer accept-ability of cooked meat and processed products and onlipid oxidation during storage of fresh and frozen meat
2006 Poultry Science Association, Inc.Received October 20, 2005.Accepted January 9, 2006.1Corresponding author: email@example.com
hinny and mule ducks. Breast muscle of Muscovy duckswas paler, less red, and more yellow than that of othergenotypes. Breast muscle of Pekin ducks exhibited thelowest values for lightness, yellowness, and energy neces-sary to shear meat, as well as the highest cooking lossvalues, and was judged more tender, juicy and less stringythan that of other genotypes. In contrast, scores for breastmuscle of Muscovy ducks were the lowest for tenderness,juiciness, and flavor, and the highest for stringiness.Breast muscle of hinny and mule ducks scored the highestvalues for redness. Hinny ducks also scored the highestvalues for flavor. Genotype exerted a higher effect on thesensory quality of breast muscle than did feeding levels.Finally, increasing lipid levels in breast muscle increasedlightness, yellowness, cooking loss, tenderness, and fla-vor, with correlation coefficients of 0.49, 0.47, 0.54, 0.43,and 0.28, respectively. However, breast meat color andtenderness were mainly influenced by genotype.
and processed products. Because lipid levels in poultrymeat are low (about 1 to 2% in breast meat of turkeyand chicken; Rabot, 1998), the relationship between lipidlevels and sensory characteristics has received little atten-tion. However, lipid levels are higher in duck meat thanin chicken and turkey meat (Baeza et al., 2000, 2002).
Different genotypes of ducks are used to produce meat,including common ducks such as Pekin ducks (Anas platy-rhynchos), Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), and cross-bred ducks such as mule ducks (crossbreed between acommon female and a Muscovy male; hinny ducks beingthe reverse crossbreed). Overfeeding significantly in-creases lipid levels in duck meat (Zanusso et al., 2003).Using different duck genotypes (Muscovy, Pekin, mule,and hinny) combined with 2 feeding levels (ad libitumvs. overfeeding) Chartrin et al. (2003) were able to obtaina wide range of lipid levels in breast muscle (from 2.26to 7.57%). In the present study, this same model was used
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LIPID CONTENT AND DUCK MEAT QUALITY 915
Table 1. Composition and main characteristics of feed used during rearing and overfeeding periods
Starting Growing Overfeeding1
Composition (g/kg) (0 to 4 wk) (4 to 12 wk) (12 to 14 wk)
Wheat 200.00 254.50 Wheat starch 2.90Corn 357.02 370.48 988.49Sorghum 80.00 Triticale 100.00 Extruded soybean seeds 40.00 15.00 Rapeseed oil meal 30.00 50.00 Soybean meal 184.75 138.75 Sunflower meal 29.00 44.50 Sugarcane molasses 20.00 15.00 Calcium carbonate 13.50 10.00 Dicalcium phosphate 17.75 15.00 Sodium chloride 1.00 1.75 1.45Sodium bicarbonate 2.50 1.50 1.45DL-Methionine 1.88 1.12 Choline-HCl 75% 0.60 0.40 Vitamin and mineral supplement 2.00 2.00 5.71Characteristics2 (g/kg)
ME (MJ/kg) 11.83 11.68 13.92CP 175.10 160.00 82.46Total lipids 30.40 27.40 37.36Lysine 9.20 7.80 Sulfur amino acids 7.70 7.10 Calcium 11.0 9.00 Available phosphorus 4.50 4.00
1Preparation for overfeeding contained corn (25%), corn meal (35%), and water (40%).2Calculated values.
to analyze the influence of IMF levels on the sensoryattributes of duck breast meat. To avoid sex and ageeffects, we reared only males and slaughtered all birdsat 14 wk of age, which is the usual slaughter age foroverfed birds in France. To complete our study, ducklingswere produced using the same sires and dams to evaluategenetic effects on the sensory characteristics of each geno-type. There are few reports to date on genetic effects onmeat quality parameters in poultry. Le Bihan-Duval et
Table 2. Effects of genotype and feeding levels on weight, color, water, and lipid content in breast muscle from 14-wk-old ducks (mean SE)
Color of breast muscle1 Water levels Lipid levels WeightFeeding (g per 100 g (g per 100 g of breast
Genotype level n L* a* b* of meat) of meat) muscle (g)
Overfed 68 42.30 3.23a 13.79 1.32 14.52 2.01a 72.52 1.24b 4.54 1.37a 296 63Ad libitum 77 32.37 2.30b 13.74 1.24 9.37 1.93b 73.84 1.13a 3.00 0.70b 286 73
Feeding level effect P < 0.0001 0.9137 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 0.9505Pekin 31 34.63 5.85d 13.71 1.17ab 10.13 3.07c 72.39 1.13c 4.81 1.44a 196 19dMule 41 36.65 5.50c 14.00 1.08a 11.69 3.23b 73.34 1.05b 3.53 0.98b 303 28bHinny 41 37.65 5.71b 13.97 1.60a 12.21 3.56ab 72.99 1.41b 3.80 1.35b 276 21cMuscovy 32 39.03 5.07a 13.24 0.99b 12.98 2.30a 74.15 1.26a 2.80 0.56c 386 33aGenotype effect P < 0.0001 0.0363 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001 P < 0.0001Pekin Overfed 11 41.51 4.30 13.79 0.99 13.63 2.02b 72.08 1.60cd 6.40 1.21a 201 26
Ad libitum 20 30.85 1.35 13.66 1.28 8.20 1.31d 72.56 0.76cd 3.93 0.48c 193 13Mule Overfed 21 41.18 3.65 14.21 1.16 14.33 2.02ab 72.72 1.03c 4.28 0.78c 306 31
Ad libitum 20 31.90 1.81 13.78 0.97 8.93 1.39d 74.00 0.58b 2.75 0.38de 299 24Hinny Overfed 21 42.89 1.58 14.06 1.55 15.03 1.93a 72.05 1.23d 4.86 1.04b 276 20
Ad libitum 20 32.15 1.93 13.88 1.69 9.24 2.16d 73.97 0.75b 2.69 0.39de 277 24Muscovy Overfed 15 43.63 3.07 12.80 0.92 14.73 2.02ab 73.20 0.90c 3.09 0.53d 380 37
Ad libitum 17 34.97 2.05 13.63 0.89 11.43 1.11c 74.99 0.88a 2.55 0.48e 392 30Feeding level genotype effect 0.2304 0.1690 0.0190 0.0157 P < 0.0001 0.3689
aeSignificant difference between groups for a single criterion.1Color: L* = lightness (values between 0 = black and 100 = white), a* = positive values for redness, b* = positive values for yellowness.
al. (2002) only reported heritability and genetic correla-tions for color parameters (lightness, redness, and yel-lowness), pH values at 15 min and 24 h postmortem,and drip loss in chicken and turkey meat. They obtainedmoderate to high heritability values for meat qualitytraits, demonstrating the applicability of a genetic ap-proach to improve meat quality in poultry. Comparingoverfed Pekin, Muscovy, hinny, and mule ducks, Larzulet al. (2002) found significant additive effects in breast
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CHARTRIN ET AL.916
Figure 1. Frequency distribution of lipid levels (g/100 g of muscle) in breast muscle of 14-wk-old ducks.
meat for postmortem pH values, color parameters, andtoughness after cooking, as well as significant heterosiseffects for color parameters.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects oflipid levels in breast muscle on flavor, color, and tender-ness evaluated by sensory analysis and objective mea-surement of shear force values, cooking loss, and color.Heterosis and maternal effects on these parameters werealso calculated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Animals and Rearing ConditionsAll experimental procedures with birds were in accor-
dance with the French National Guidelines for the careand use of animals for research purposes. Male ducksfrom 4 different genotypes were used: Pekin and Mus-
Table 3. Effects of genotype and feeding levels on cooking loss, shear force and working values in cookedbreast muscle from 14-wk-old ducks (mean SE)