Effective Communication in Management and Business Seminar 2 Avoiding plagiarism: effective use of...

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Effective Communication in Management and Business Seminar 2 Avoiding plagiarism: effective use of quotation, citation, reference & bibliography Slide 2 Discuss these points What is a quotation? citation? reference? bibliography? Slide 3 Initial considerations How often should you use quotations How long should they be? If they are included within your own sentence structure If they are set apart from the text as independent quotations Slide 4 Often overlooked considerations What else do you need to think about if you include a quotation in your work? What essential information does a reference need? Slide 5 Using quotations Key questions in quoting should be how often should I use quotations and how long should they be? For the first question there are no strict guidelines, and in many cases we are able to paraphrase rather than use direct quotations. Slide 6 Well written, so why change it? There are quotations in every subject that are just so well known and so succinctly written (or controversial) that it is almost impossible to paraphrase them. In many cases we use quotes like this as a basis for exemplification, summary, review or argument. Slide 7 In linguistics, for example Linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener, in a completely homogeneous speech community, who knows its language perfectly and is unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions as memory limitations, distractions, shifts of attention and interest, and errors (random or characteristic) in applying his knowledge of the language in actual performance. (Chomsky, 1965: 3, in Hymes, 1971) Slide 8 Do we even quote it at all? This quote is so well-known that it has commonly been reduced to such statements as Chomskyan thought the Chomskyan dichotomy and other such referents that tell everybody who knows his theory that there is no need to fully redefine what would take a whole book to argue. Slide 9 Quick task Look at the bibliography at the end of this paper to find the reference for Chomsky. Which book was this citation taken from? Slide 10 Where did I find Chomsky? Brumfit, C. & Johnson, K. (Eds.) (1979). The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Oxford: OUP. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass: MIT. In Hymes, D. (1971). Hymes, D. (1971). On Communicative Competence. In Brumfit, C. & Johnson, K. (Eds.) (1979). Morgan, J. (1996). A Definition of Communicative Competence. Unpublished MA assignment, University of Surrey. Morgan J. (2004). Affordances and Effectivities in Creating an Interactive Learning Infrastructure. [On-line] http://users.aber.ac.uk/jpm/rt/oet04.jmorgan1.doc (Accessed 17/11/04). Turabian, K.L. (1987). A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations (Fifth Edition). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Slide 11 How long should quotations be? when set inside the sentence structure? less than three lines when set apart from the text? three to five lines seven may be OK, but you should think about paraphrasing Slide 12 Example for use of short quotes The assignation of signs coming before the formal relation of signs to one another (Morris, 1938: 6), means that Chomskys ideal speaker-listener in a completely homogeneous speech community (1965: 3, in Hymes, 1971) at least has a functional framework in which to use his inherent rule-based creativity, meaning more importantly, that performance factors are the essential study of linguists (Morgan, 1996) Slide 13 Check the reference What kind of source did this reference come from? Is it OK to use such a reference? What other forms of reference should you avoid? Slide 14 Brumfit, C. & Johnson, K. (Eds.) (1979). The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Oxford: OUP. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass: MIT. In Hymes, D. (1971). Hymes, D. (1971). On Communicative Competence. In Brumfit, C. & Johnson, K. (Eds.) (1979). Morgan, J. (1996). A Definition of Communicative Competence. Unpublished MA assignment, University of Surrey. Morgan J. (2004). Affordances and Effectivities in Creating an Interactive Learning Infrastructure. [On-line] http://users.aber.ac.uk/jpm/rt/oet04.jmorgan1.doc (Accessed 17/11/04). Turabian, K.L. (1987). A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations (Fifth Edition). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Slide 15 Why is it wise to avoid? The web Where are the sources coming from? Are they reliable? Who wrote them? What kind of organisation do they work for? Or is it an independent interest site? How do you know its not plagiarised? Slide 16 Bibliographies The Harvard Referencing System Unless you are asked to reference in a specific style, the Harvard System is probably the most widely used system available. Slide 17 Books: 1 st format Surname, initial/s. (Editor where appropriate) (date). Title of Book: And Subtitles where Appropriate (including 2nd or 3rd Edition, etc.). City of publication: Publishers name (may be abbreviated). Brumfit, C. & Johnson, K. (Eds.) (1979). The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Oxford: OUP. Slide 18 Books: 2 nd format Surname, initial/s. (Editor where appropriate) (date). Title of Book: And Subtitles where Appropriate (including 2nd or 3rd Edition, etc.). City of publication: Publishers name (may be abbreviated). Brumfit, C. & Johnson, K. (Eds.) (1979). The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Oxford: OUP. Slide 19 Articles in books Surname, initial/s. (date). Title of Article: And Subtitles where Appropriate. In Surname, initial/s. (Editor where appropriate) (date). Hymes, D. (1971) On Communicative Competence. In Brumfit, C. & Johnson, K. (Eds.) (1979). Slide 20 Journal papers Surname, initials. (date). Title of Article: And Subtitles where Appropriate. Journal Title Edition: page numbers. Sheldon, L.E. (1998). Evaluating ELT Textbooks and Materials. ELT Journal 42/4: 237-46. Slide 21 Internet Surname, initials. (date). Title of article: And Subtitles where Appropriate. [On-line]. URL (date accessed). Morkes, J. & Nielsen, J. (1997). Concise, SCANNABLE and Objective: How to Write for the Web. [On-line]. http://www.useit.com/papers/webwriting/writin g.html (accessed 1/1/2000). http://www.useit.com/papers/webwriting/writin g.html Slide 22 Internet and published source Many internet resources do not indicate a specific author, especially if the source is a government document or some other public information report or organisational guidelines, etc. The next example uses such a reference, where the organisation acts as the authors name. Slide 23 Example Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1997) Take Charge of your Diabetes (2nd Edition). Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. [Also available on-line]. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/ddt/ddthome (accessed 1/1/2000). http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/ddt/ddthome Slide 24 If you cant find Authors name Name of organisation Date of publication Title of article Location of organisation Dont use it Slide 25 Bibliography Brumfit, C. & Johnson, K. (Eds.) (1979). The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. Oxford: OUP. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax. Cambridge, Mass: MIT. In Hymes, D. (1971). Hymes, D. (1971). On Communicative Competence. In Brumfit, C. & Johnson, K. (Eds.) (1979). Morgan, J. (1996). A Definition of Communicative Competence. Unpublished MA assignment, University of Surrey. Morgan J. (2004). Affordances and Effectivities in Creating an Interactive Learning Infrastructure. [On-line] http://users.aber.ac.uk/jpm/rt/oet04.jmorgan1.doc (Accessed 17/11/04). Turabian, K.L. (1987). A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations (Fifth Edition). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.