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  • Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile ResearchVol. 22, June 1997, pp. 84-88

    Effect of different blending methods and blending stages on properties ofMilange yarn

    B K Behera, P K Hari, Seema Bansal & Rahul Singh

    Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 1\0 016, India

    Received 19 July 1996; revised received 13 November 1996; accepted 12 December 1996

    The effect of different blending methods and blending stages on milange yam characteristics has beenstudied. Both dyed and grey fibres with different degrees of opening and cleaning were mixed atblowroomldrawframe stage to improve the varieties of milange yarn. The extent of fibre damage and theuniformity of fibre distribution have also been evaluated. Separate processing of grey and dyed fibres atblowroom and card provides better yam quality with respect to evenness and imperfections. Minimumprocessing of major grey fibres with drawframe blending of dyed component has been suggested to achieveimproved yarn strength. However, blowroom blending has been found to be more beneficial from shadeuniformity point of view. Drawframe blending can be used in special cases for production of fancy milangeyam.

    Keywords: Blowroom mixing, Drawframe mixing, Fibre damage, Milange yam, Relative unevennessindex

    1 IntroductionAmong all the fibres used for apparel manu

    facture, cotton is considered as one of the best fibresdue to its superior physical and mechanical proper-ties such as tensile properties, moisture absorbency,surface characteristics and its compatibility withmany other natural and synthetic fibres':", Thetechnological development has enabled the textileindustry to produce numerous types of yams andfabrics with special appearance by varying structureand product mix'. These special effects in yarns andfabrics can be introduced right from mixing stage inblowroom and more conveniently in subsequentprocesses such as drawframe, ringframe, doublers,sectional warping and final weaving stage. Thespecial effect in yam and fabric could be generatedby selecting the fibre mixture of various propor-tions. Milange refers to a hosiery yam produced -bymixing dyed and undyed cotton fibres (sometimesviscose also). The process for spinning milange yamis yet to be established because of the fact that theimpurity of cotton is not fully extracted at a singleprocess. In addition to this, repetition of mechanicalaction to the fibre may cause damage to fibre whichsubsequently influences yam and fabric properties 4.The present study is aimed at investigating the effect

    of bending methods on properties of milange yamprepared by dyeing the cotton fibre after differentstages such as blowroom, card and combing andthen mixing dyed fibres with grey fibres atblowroom and drawframe. The extent of fibredamage and uniformity of fibre distribution has alsobeen evaluated.

    2 Materials and Methods2.1 Materials

    Cotton fibres (type, F414; effective length, 26mm; and tenacity, 0.289 N/tex were used as suchand after dyeing with Procian M dye at 80C for 90min using HTHP method. 24% dyed and 76% greycotton fibres were used for both drawframe andblowroom mixing.

    2.2 Methods2.2.1 Yam and Fabric Preparation

    Six different yam samples were prepared usinggrey and dyed fibres. In each sample, either 3different blending method or a different blendingstage was introduced. Table 1 shows the spinningsequences for all the yam samples prepared.

    Two drawframe passages in case of blowroornmixing and three drawframe passages for drawframemixing were used.

  • CT-1

    Tab

    le1-

    Se

    quen

    ceof

    yarn

    spin

    ning

    for

    vario

    usbl

    ends

    (T-2

    RAW

    COT'

    l'ON

    +BL

    ENDE

    R~

    DYED +

    PRE

    OPEN

    ERRA

    WCO

    TTON

    \."

    BLOW

    ROOM

    CARD

    ING

    .+

    D.RA

    WFRA

    ME~

    SPEr

    .VFR

    AME

    RI

    NGFR

    AME

    CT-

    4 RAW

    COTT

    ON+

    BLOW

    ROOr

    --l

    CA

    RDIN

    G

    RAW

    COTT

    ON

    BLOH

    ROOM

    toCA

    RDIN

    G DYEDIN

    SLIV

    ER

    PRE

    OPEN

    ER;,

    BLOW

    ROOM

    CARD

    ING ---

    --. DRAWF

    RAME

    SP

    EEDF

    RAME

    RI

    NGFR

    AME

    RAH

    COTT

    ONBL

    OJRO

    OM+

    CAHD

    ING

    DYED

    I~JS

    LIVE

    RFO

    RM

    PR

    EOP

    ENER

    RAW

    '-..~

    BLOW

    ROOM

    CARD

    'NG

    ~DH

    AWFR

    AME

    SPEt

    DFRA

    MEt

    RING

    FRAM

    EC

    T-5

    HAH

    COTT

    ONRA

    WCO

    TTON

    BLOW

    ROOM

    BLOW

    ROOM

    CARJ

    ING

    CAR~

    ING

    COMl

    ING

    COMt

    ING

    DYED

    !IN

    SLIV

    ER;'

    ORM

    PRE

    OPEN

    ER --. BLOWRO

    OM..,

    CARD

    ING

    DR

    AWFH

    AME

    SP

    EEDF

    RAME

    +RI

    NGFR

    AME

    COTT

    ON

    (T-3

    RAH

    COTT

    ONRA

    H

    BLOH

    HOOM

    CA

    RDIN

    G DY

    EDIN

    SLIV

    EH

    PR

    EOP

    ENEH '-.

    'BLO

    WRO

    OM CA

    RDIN

    G +DR

    AWFR

    AME

    +SP

    EEDF

    RAME

    .-RI

    NGFR

    AME

    RAW

    COTT

    ON+

    BLOW

    ROOM

    CARD

    ING

    COMB

    ING

    DYED

    INSL

    IVER

    FORM

    +PR

    EOP

    ENER

    *BL

    OWRO

    OM CA

    RDIN

    G ---

    COTT

    ON

    BLOW

    ll.O

    OM

    CARD

    ING

    FOR~

    /txl m ::t: E ~ ;:, ,...

    CT-

    6 RAW

    COTT

    ONBL

    OWRt

    OOM

    +CA

    RDIN

    G+

    COMB

    ING

    -e i':l ~ ; o 'Tl ~ ? ~ C) m ~ ~

    -.

    DRAW

    FRAM

    F. SP

    EEDF

    RAME

    +RI

    NGFR

    AME

    00 VI

  • 86 INDIAN J. FffiRE TEXT. RES., JUNE 1997

    Plain knitted fabrics were prepared on a circularknitting machine using the above six yam samples.

    2.2.2 Tensile PropertyTensile properties of all the yam samples and the

    fibres extracted from these yam samples weredetermined on Instron tensile tester according toAS1M procedures. Lea CSP of yam sample wasmeasured on a Good Brands lea strength testingmachine.2.2.3 Unevenness and Imperfections

    Yam unevenness and imperfections wereevaluated on UT-3 using standard methods.

    2.2.4 Computer Colour Matching

    An ACS Spectrosensor 11 spectrophotometerinterphased with IBM personal computer was usedto measure colour value (KIS), reflectance value ancwhiteness index. Kubelka-Munk equation, widelyused in colour measurement, relates reflectance (R)to the absorption coefficients (K) and (S) for auniformly coloured sample illuminated withdiffused light.

    KlS = (I-R)/R

    Therefore, the KlS value of dyed sample minusthat of the undyed sample was taken to compare dyeuptake of different samples. This test showscomparative shade variation among differentsamples.

    2.2.5 Relative Unevenness IndexRelative unevenness index (RUI) indicates

    coefficient of colour variation within a sample.Reflectance value was measured at eight differentplaces at a definite wavelength interval of 100mthroughout the visible spectrum (400 om - 700 om)and then the coefficient of colour variation wascalculated.

    3 Results and Discussion3.1 Effect of Blending Methods and Blending Stages3.1.1 Tensile Properties

    Table 2 shows that the values of CSP for samplesCTt, CT2 and CT6 are higher than those for othersamples. The difference in case of CTl and C1:"6issignificant at 99% confidence level; however, thedifference between CTt and Cf4 is significantat 95% confidence level. Simultaneously, the CSPvalues of samples CT3 and CT5 are very low.As the samples Cfl and CT2 are prepared bymixing fibres at blowroom and the raw and dyed

    fibres go through blowroom and card only once,CSP and tenacity of these samples are towards thehigher side. This is due to the fact that there is noexcessive carding action. The CSP values of CT3and CT4 are lower than those of CI'I and CT2because these samples (CT3 and CT4) are cardedtwice and this might have induced fibre damage atcard which is reflected by low CSP value. In case ofCT6, combed slivers of dyed and grey fibres aremixed at drawframe. So, due to combed fibres andsingle carding of combed fibres, CSP of this sampleis high. But in sample CT5, initially the combedsliver is prepared and then this sliver is mixed withdyed sliver at blowroom. Hence, these fibres gothrough the card twice and this might have causedexcessive fibre damage and hence poor yarn CSP. Itmay be inferred that wherever there is a doublecarding action on fibres, a decrease is observed inCSP of yarn presumably due to mechanical damageof fibres which is examined subsequently.

    3.1.2 Yam Evenness and ImperfectionsTable 3 shows that the yam imperfections (thick

    places, thin places and neps) are substantially low incase of CT4 and CT6. In both cases, the respectiveslivers are mixed at drawframe. Opening andcarding of dyed and grey fibres are done separately.Due to dyeing, fibres get clustered and stick to eachother. Opening and carding of dyed fibres becomevery difficult if they are processed with grey fibres.If grey fibres are taken in sliver form (carded orcombed) then processing becomes even more

    Table 2- Tensile properties of yams

    Sample Count CSP Tenacity Strain TPI TMcode Ne N/tex %cn 30.56 1813 0.1120 4.13 22.13 4.09cn 29.32 1714 0.1102 4.60 22.01 4.06CT3 30.96 1563 0.0936 5.06 22.23 4.01CT4 29.30 1674 0.1021 4.76 22.13 4.09CT5 31.21 1526 0.0927 5.12 21.50 3.93CT6 32.54 1826 0.1140 4.13 21.21 3.84

    Table J-Une