EDEN IAS 2018-08-16¢  Principal components of Buddhist architecture in India- 1) Stambahs...

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Transcript of EDEN IAS 2018-08-16¢  Principal components of Buddhist architecture in India- 1) Stambahs...



    STEPS -23/07/2018- GS I

    Q1. Analyse the location, distributional pattern and problems associated with the cotton

    textile industry in India. (10)


    Cotton is a non perishable raw material with no weight loss when converted to yarn or textile

    and so proximity to source of raw materials doesn't bring any benefit. The factors that

    determine the location of cotton industry are labour, proximity to markets, energy supply and

    availability of capital or finance. Climate to is a factor as dry climate not suitable for mass

    production as cotton threads break and manually have to be joined again. Government policy

    and credit-insurance mix can also affect location of cotton textile industry.

  • Problems of Cotton Textile Industry:

    Although cotton textile is one of the most important industries of India, it suffers from many

    problems. Some of the burning problems are briefly described as under:

    1. Scarcity of Raw Cotton:-Indian cotton textile industry suffered a lot as a result of partition

    because most of the long staple cotton growing areas went to Pakistan. Although much

    headway has been made to improve the production of raw cotton, its supply has always fallen

    short of the demand. Consequently, much of the long staple cotton requirements are met by

    resorting to imports.

    2. Obsolete Machinery:-Most of the textile mills are old with obsolete machinery. This results

    in low productivity and inferior quality. In the developed countries, the textile machinery

    installed even 10-15 years ago has become outdated and obsolete, whereas in India about 60-

    75 per cent machinery is 25-30 years old.

    3. Erratic Power Supply:-Power supply to most cotton textile mills is erratic and inadequate

    which adversely affects the production.

    4. Low Productivity of Labour:-Labour productivity in India is extremely low as compared to

    some of the advanced countries. On an average a worker in India handles about 2 looms as

    compared to 30 looms in Japan and 60 looms in the USA. If the productivity of an American

    worker is taken as 100, the corresponding figure is 51 for U.K. 33 for Japan and only 13 for


    5. Strikes:-Labour strikes are common in the industrial sector but cotton textile industry suffers

    a lot due to frequent strikes by a labour force. The long drawn strike in 1980 dealt a severe

    below to the organised sector. It took almost 23 years for the Government to realise this and

    introduce legislation for encouraging the organised sector.

    6. Stiff Competition:-Indian cotton mill industry has to face stiff competition from power loom

    and handloom sector, synthetic fibers and from products of other countries.

    7. Sick Mills:-The above factors acting singly or in association with one another have resulted in

    many sick mills. As many as 177 mills have been declared as sick mills. The National Textile

    Corporation set up in 1975 has been striving to avoid sick mills and has taken over the

    administration of 125 sick mills. What is alarming is 483 mills have already been closed.

    8. Exports:-India is a major exporter of cotton textiles. Cotton yarn, cloth and readymade

    garments form important items of Indian exports. Indian garments are well known throughout

    the world for their quality and design and are readily accepted in the world of fashion.

  • Q2. “Buddhist architecture in India is not only a cultural repository but also an infrastructural

    delight”- Comment. (10)


    In India this early Buddhist art was influenced to a large extent by Asoka. He was responsible for

    the construction of several stupas, which are sacred mounds of brick commemorative of the

    Buddha. Asoka also constructed stone pillars symbolizing his creed. These were lofty free-

    standing monolithic columns erected on sacred sites. The most famous of these is at Sarnath.

    Principal components of Buddhist architecture in India-

    1) Stambahs (or latas)

    2) Stupas

    3) Rails

    4) Chaityas

    5) Viharas

    From the first century CE onwards Viharas developed into educational institutions, due to the

    increasing demands for teaching in Buddhism. As permanent monasteries became established,

    the name “Vihara” was kept. Some Viharas became incredibly important institutions, some of

    them evolving into major Buddhist Universities with thousands of students, such as Nalanda.

    Nalanda was the first university in the world which taught a number of subjects and disciplines

    to its thousands of students. The university was centuries ahead of its time in this respect. It

    took centuries for the countries to develop similar institutions.

    Examples of Viharas (Buddhist Architecture) in India-Biharail (earliest Vihara); Ellora caves;

    Nalanda; Kalera caves; Mahabodhi Temple; Ajanta caves etc. A chaitya can be defined as a

    Buddhist shrine or prayer hall with a stupa at one end.

    The more spectacular and more numerous chaitya, however, were cut into living rock as caves.

    An ancient practice, rock-cut architecture has had a long tradition of Buddhism. Ancient

    Buddhist chaitya can be found in remote parts of Maharashtra, especially the Ashokan caves.

    The stupas are funerary mounds which were built at locations which house relics of the

    Buddha/ the places where he meditated. The stupas started out to be simple funerary mounds,

    but as Buddhism became more popular, the stupas were financed by wealthy merchants and

    the ruling class alike. The stupas grew in size and developed an architectural style peculiar to

    them. The stambhas/latas were rather than being a building type themselves were placed in

    and around existing or new structures.

  • Thus, it is safe to say that Buddhist architecture was way ahead of its time in regards to their

    design and structural know-how. The Buddhist architecture in India was just a starting point

    which amalgamated with a number of other architectural styles to create the Indo-Saracenic

    style of architecture in India. Even in modern day India we see a number of buildings having a

    high resemblance or at least borrowing a little bit from the ancient styles of Buddhist

    architecture in India. It was a brilliant example of civil engineering combined with aesthetic and

    cultural values. Thus it is safe to say that Buddhist architecture in India is not only a cultural

    repository but also an infrastructural delight.

    Q3. “Marx was a materialist. That is, he considered in the development of nature and society,

    matter is primary, thought, consciousness etc. are secondary and derivative.”-Elaborate. (15)


    Karl Marx (1818–1883) is best known not as a philosopher but as a revolutionary, whose works

    inspired the foundation of many communist regimes in the twentieth century. It is hard to think

    of many who have had as much influence in the creation of the modern world. Trained as a

    philosopher, Marx turned away from philosophy in his mid-twenties, towards economics and

    politics. However, in addition to his overtly philosophical early work, his later writings have

    many points of contact with contemporary philosophical debates, especially in the philosophy

    of history and the social sciences, and in moral and political philosophy. Historical materialism

    — Marx’s theory of history — is centered around the idea that forms of society rise and fall as

    they further and then impede the development of human productive power.

    Dialectical materialism is the world outlook of the Marxist-Leninist ideologies. It is called

    dialectical materialism because its approach to the phenomena of nature, its method of

    studying and apprehending them, is dialectical, while its interpretation of the phenomena of

    nature, its conception of these phenomena, its theory, is materialistic.

    Marx sees the historical process as proceeding through a necessary series of modes of

    production, characterized by class struggle, culminating in communism. Marx’s economic

    analysis of capitalism is based on his version of the labour theory of value, and includes the

    analysis of capitalist profit as the extraction of surplus value from the exploited proletariat. The

    analysis of history and economics come together in Marx’s prediction of the inevitable

    economic breakdown of capitalism, to be replaced by communism. However Marx refused to

    speculate in detail about the nature of communism, arguing that it would arise through

    historical processes, and was not the realisation of a pre-determined moral ideal.

    For Marx matter was primary and he considered that ethics, morality and all other loftier ideals

    flow once material desires are met. Material consciousness of Marx was unparalleled he

    considered religion as the opium of the masses. i.e. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed

  • creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of

    the people. The foundation of irreligious criticism is: Man makes religion, religion does not

    make man. Religion is, indeed, the self-consciousness