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i ECOTOURISM CERTIFICATION ACCREDITATION OF LODGES AND RESORTS AROUND ECOTOURISM DESTINATIONS
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Transcript of ECOTOURISM certification - GoI - MPOnline Links/EcoTourism/Rules/ECOTOU… · 1 Executive Summary...

  • i

    ECOTOURISM CERTIFICATION

    ACCREDITATION OF LODGES AND RESORTS AROUND

    ECOTOURISM DESTINATIONS

  • ii

    Contents

    Executive Summary ...................................................................................................... 1

    Acknowledgement...........................................................................................................

    List of Acronyms........................................................................................................... 2

    List of Tables ............................................................................................................. 3

    List of Figures ............................................................................................................... 4

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 5

    1.1 Host Organization .............................................................................................. 5

    1.1.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 5

    1.1.2 Vision........................................................................................................... 5

    1.1.3 Mission ........................................................................................................ 5

    1.1.4 Objectives.................................................................................................... 5

    1.1.5 Project Background at Host Organization.................................................... 6

    1.1.6 Project/Problems Definition ......................................................................... 6

    1.1.7 Objective of the Project to the Organization ................................................ 6

    CHAPTER 2: ECOTOURISM ......................................................................................... 7

    2.1 Ecotourism ......................................................................................................... 7

    2.1.1 Activities Focused in Ecotourism ................................................................. 7

    2.1.2 Ecotourism Destination Features................................................................. 8

    2.1.3 Problems in Ecotourism Industry ................................................................. 8

    CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW............................................................................ 9

    3.1 Present System.................................................................................................. 9

    3.1.1 Systems for Tourism.................................................................................... 9

    3.1.2 Systems for Ecotourism............................................................................. 11

    3.2 Difference between existing accreditation system and Eco-rating System 11

    CHAPTER 4: ECO-RATING PROPOSAL ................................................................... 13

    4.1 Eco-rating Proposal for Government................................................................ 13

    4.1.1 Need and Scope of the Project.................................................................. 13

    4.1.2 Ecological benefits of the project ............................................................... 13

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    4.1.3 Economical benefits of the project............................................................. 14

    4.2 Eco-rating Proposal for Hospitality Industry ..................................................... 15

    4.2.1 Principles and Structures........................................................................... 15

    CHAPTER 5: PROJECT METHODOLOGY ................................................................. 16

    5.1 Multi-consultation approach in developing standards and norms..................... 16

    5.2 Phase one Identification of best eco-friendly practices in Lodges and resorts Industry ...................................................................................................................... 16

    5.3 Phase two Suggestions and Addition............................................................ 19

    5.4 Phase Three Evolvement of Specification, Standards and Norms................ 23

    5.4.1 Principles ................................................................................................... 23

    5.4.2 Criteria and Indicators ............................................................................... 24

    5.4.3 Benchmarking and Threshold Value.......................................................... 29

    5.4.4 Standards and Norms................................................................................ 29

    5.4: Phase Four Development of Eco-rating System ........................................... 30

    5.4.1 A weighed scoring system......................................................................... 31

    5.4.2 Eco-Rating Ranges ................................................................................... 34

    CHAPTER 6: PILOT TESTING.............................................................................. 36

    6.1 Objectives of Pilot Testing ............................................................................ 36

    6.1 Pilot testing team and methodology adopted ................................................ 36

    6.2 Observations and Findings ........................................................................... 36

    6.3 Results.......................................................................................................... 37

    Chapter 7: Summary and Conclusions ..................................................................... 38

    Bibliography ................................................................................................................ 40

    APPENDICES............................................................................................................... 41

    Appendix 1: GLOSSARY ........................................................................................... 41

    Appendix 2: Eco-rating System.................................................................................. 44

    Appendix 3: Questionnaire for Weighted Score ......................................................... 55

    Appendix 4: Questionnaire for Collection of Best Eco Friendly Practices in Lodges and resorts Industry .......................................................................................................... 57

  • 1

    Executive Summary

    With the rapid increase in ecotourism industry, it is being observed that ecotourism is leaving negative impacts on natural resources and the ecosystem of the ecotourism destination. Also due to the increase in environmental awareness ecotourist are paying greater attention towards protecting the environment and safeguarding human beings health. All countries and regions have enacted corresponding laws and statutes and established various policies and measures. Many organizations set environmental business norms to promote environmental protection. Thus, all organizations take into consideration how their operations, products and services affect the environment.

    The ecotourism destination development depends on the situation of the local environment. As a mainstay of the ecotourism industry, the lodges and resorts industry is trying to protect the environment and make reasonable use of resources. This is directly correlated to the development of the ecotourism industry and also affects sustainable development in society. Therefore, this project has been developed with aim of developing norms for accreditation of lodges and resorts for ecotourism and also to provide opportunities to lodges and resorts to improve their operational activities.

    The Eco-rating for lodges and resorts that are at ecotourism destinations is a new notion, which requires lodges and resorts to include objectives of ecotourism as part of lodges and resorts management in general. Taking the objectives of ecotourism as the principles, it is necessary for lodges and resorts operators to adjust their mindsets, development strategies, management modes and service, to provide eco friendly services to the guests with the involvement if local communities, while conserving environment and generating conservation & nature education.

    The Eco-rating System is a kind of guidelines or system for lodges and resorts operators to achieve their environmental goals and objectives. In order to guide present practice, an eco friendly lodges and resorts is define by the criteria like lodges and resorts with the concept of sustainable development, which insist and encourage green consumerism, protect the environment and make reasonable use of resources. Its aim is to strengthen protection of the environment and the sustainable use of resources. But when a lodges and resorts is located at ecotourism destination, the concept behind an eco-friendly lodges and resorts should differ, because both the characteristic of the guests and objectives of tourism become different in ecotourism.

    The Eco-rating System has been developed by taking ecotourism objectives, principles and vision. The system not only checks the environmental performance but also other principles of ecotourism and sustainable management practices of the lodges and resorts.

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    List of Acronyms

    ACF - Assistant Conservator of Forest

    CCF - Chief Conservator of Forest

    CF - Conservator of Forest

    DFO - Divisional Field Officer

    HVAC - Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning

    IFS - Indian Forest Services

    IIFM - Indian Institute of Forest Management

    MPEDB - Madhya Pradesh Ecotourism Development Board

    SDO - Sub Divisional Officer

    TIES - The International Ecotourism Society

    JFM - Joint Forest Management

  • 3

    List of Tables

    Table 1: List of the referred accreditation systems......................................................... 12 Table 2: List of the referred accreditation systems......................................................... 19 Table 3: List of the referred case studies in hospitality industries: ................................. 19 Table 4: The eco ratings................................................................................................. 35 Table 5: Objectives Achieve........................................................................................... 37

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    List of Figures

    Figure 1: Eco-rating System & Four Principles.............................................................. 24

    Figure 2: Community Participation Criteria and Indicators ......................................... 26

    Figure 3: Environment Conservation Criteria and Indicators....25

    Figure 4: Conservation/Nature Education Criteria and Indicators...26

    Figure 5: Ecological Orientation Criteria and Indicators....26

    Figure 6: Eco-rating System Framework....28

    Figure 7: Weights for Criteria of Community Participation ..30

    Figure 8: Weights for Criteria of Environment Conservation ..30

    Figure 9: Weights for Criteria of Conservation/Nature Education ..31

    Figure 10: Weights for Criteria of Ecological Orientation .31

    Figure 11: Weights of Principles ..32

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    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

    1.1 OrganizationMadhya Pradesh Ecotourism Development Board Urja Bhawan, Link Road No.2 Shivaji Nagar, Bhopal, M.P. Phone: 0755-2768798, Fax- 2768805 Email- [email protected]

    1.1.1 IntroductionMadhya Pradesh Ecotourism Development Board is an autonomous organization of Madhya Pradesh Forest Department. It was constituted with a view to conserve natural resources through ecotourism and with a mission to achieve sustainable forest management through ecotourism on 12.07.2005. The board has been registered under Society Registration Act, 1973. The current president of MPEDB is the Hon'ble Forest Minister of MP state Shri Sartaj Singh. The MPEDB consists of a General Body and Executive Committee.

    1.1.2 VisionEcotourism becomes a means of nature resource conservation.

    1.1.3 MissionMainstreaming ecotourism in sustainable forest management

    1.1.4 Objectives to facilitate the policy environment to institutionalize ecotourism; to raise awareness on nature conservation; to spread messages on the best practices of ecotourism; to popularize the concept of ecotourism through print and electronic media; to identify the ecotourism destination in state; to develop infrastructure facilities for ecotourist; to build the capacity of local community members as key stakeholders in

    ecotourism; and To coordinate with other Government and Non-Government Stakeholders in

    ecotourism.

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    1.1.5 ProjectBackgroundatHostOrganizationThe Ecotourism industry keeps growing. It has become one of the fastest growing sectors of tourism industry, growing annually by 10-15% worldwide (Miller 2007). Worldwide ecotourist arrivals have increased in India especially in Madhya Pradesh due to its natural beauty, world heritage sites, historical & cultural heritage, national parks, nature reserves, fairs & festivals etc. However, this growth comes with more need of accommodation for ecotourist. To meet this need in sustainable manner MPEDB took an initiative of developing norms for accreditation of lodges and resorts for ecotourism so that it would be possible for a governmental agency to rate on a scale the lodges and resorts involved in the business of catering to the needs of tourists at ecotourism destinations according to their level of conformity to those standards.

    1.1.6 Project/ProblemsDefinitionThe project aims at developing norms for accreditation of lodges and resorts for ecotourism. The project will be guided by the following Objectives:

    Objectives:

    to compile a list of lodges and resorts industry's best eco-friendly practices; suggestions and additions to compiled list; evolve specifications, standards and norms; Develop a rating system.

    1.1.7 ObjectiveoftheProjecttotheOrganizationTo become authentic agency for granting Eco-rating to the lodges and resorts involved in the business of catering to the needs of ecotourist at ecotourism destinations.

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    CHAPTER 2: ECOTOURISM

    2.1 Ecotourism

    Defining "Ecotourism" has proven to be a difficult task given all the different players attempting to define it. People tend to define things in terms that are beneficial to themselves, hence the variety of definitions. There are however several workable definitions currently in wide use.

    The International Ecotourism Society defines Ecotourism as: "responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people". (The International Ecotourism Society)

    The Australian Commission on National Ecotourism Strategy defines Ecotourism as: "nature-based tourism that involves education and interpretation of the natural environment and is managed to be ecologically sustainable. (The International Ecotourism Society)

    The UN world tourism organization defines Ecotourism as: a form of tourism that is practiced in relatively undisturbed natural areas, for the main purposes of admiring them and learning more about habitat. (The International Ecotourism Society)

    Oxford Dictionary defines Ecotourism as: "tourism directed towards unspoiled natural environments and intended to support conservation efforts. (Oxford Dictionary)

    One more definition of ecotourism is the practice of low-impact, educational, ecologically and culturally sensitive travel that benefits local communities and host countries. (Honey, 1999)

    Based on the above definitions, Ecotourism can be defining as:

    A tourism that orient tourist towards ecology with the help of local communities, while conserving environment and generating environment education.

    2.1.1 ActivitiesFocusedinEcotourism Responsible Tourism; Nature Conservation; Conservation Awareness;

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    Responsible Garbage Disposal; Promoting Non-Conventional Energy; Adventure Tourism; Rural Tourism; Herbal Tourism; Involving Local Stakeholders.

    2.1.2 EcotourismDestinationFeatures plenty of natural beauty; optional resource use; clean and hygienic arrangement; recycling of organic waste; use of compost; no use of music or scent or noise; plastic free zone; litter free zone; Non conventional energy resources, etc.

    2.1.3 ProblemsinEcotourismIndustryEnvironmental key aspects still play a minor role in the selection of a destination and accommodations in ecotourism industry. Under the pressure of environmentalists and the growing concern among the public on environmental questions, this situation is bond to institutionalize some uniform evaluation system for the ecotourism sector activities.

    Examples of problems:

    Rapid increase in ecotourist arrival; Rapid increase in lodges and resorts industry at ecotourism destination; Adverse effects in local culture; Negative impacts on local communities; Rehabilitation of local communities; Gross violations of fundamental rights; Environmental hazards; Decrease in the ground water level; etc.

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    CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW

    3.1 PresentSystemGlobally and at country level many accreditation systems have been developed and are in functional for checking the environmental performance of the lodges and resorts industry. Following systems has been referred during the project:

    3.1.1 SystemsforTourismGreen Globe 21 The Green Globe 21 (GG21) scheme is an accreditation system aims at checking sustainability of lodges and resorts industry. It was launched in 1994 by the World Tourism and Travel Council (WTTC) and the International Lodges and resorts and Restaurant Association (IH&RA) as a result of the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio. The Green Globe 21 initiative is focused to improve the environmental performance of companies which belong to travel and tourism sector. It has following four operational standards:

    The GG21 Company Standard; The GG21 Community Standard; The GG21 International Ecotourism Standard; and The GG21 Design and Construction Standard (GG21, 2005).

    Criteria and Procedure of Green Globe 21 Green Globe 21 uses a series of earth check quantitative indicators to benchmark the key aspects of environmental and social performance of tourism industry. The results of indicators for a particular type, activity, market and location of an enterprise are compared with benchmarking. These benchmarking values are developed for each country based on the data published worldwide in industry surveys and audits, case studies etc.

    Green Globe Canada (GGC) Green Globes Canada (GGC) was developed in Canada with the support of federal and provincial ministries and public utilities, while GEM was developed in the UK by the RICS Foundation and Faber Maun sell. The GGC/GEM UK is a self-assessment tool based on BREEAM/Green Leaf. The system aims at helping building owners and managers to monitor and assess their buildings performance.

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    Criteria and Procedure of Green Globe Canada Green Globes Canada for Existing Buildings is available for two types of buildings: Offices and Multi-Unit Residential Buildings (MURBs). The latter has been used to evaluate the performance of lodges and resorts facilities. Building performance is compared to facilities with similar properties based on bench marking process. The assessment is performed on-line (www.greenglobes.com) for US $200 (CAN $250) per building assessment (Green Globes Canada, 2005). This fee includes data input, there are certain criteria which are judged and measure of that act as the indicator. These indicators include the key environment aspects for e.g. presence of policy, water management, solid waste production, resource conservation, energy consumption etc.

    Green lodges and resorts guidelines

    This is a system developed by the lodges and resorts association of Zhejiang province. They work to provide guidance for constructing lodges and resorts in environmental friendly nature. Their criteria are applicable to all the lodges and resortss in the world whose owner thinks beyond style, size and monetary benefits.

    The applicable criteria include the key aspects of environment water quality standard, discharge of affluent, air quality management, sanitary standard, energy consumption etc.

    The basic principle of the system is to reduce extravagant usage, to promote recycling of waste material and using substituted materials which is recyclable in nature.

    IHEI benchmark lodges and resorts

    It is a tool developed by International Lodges and resorts Environmental Initiative in collaboration with WWF-United Kingdom. It is an internet based environmental tool. It was launched in September 2001.

    Criteria and Procedure of IHEI benchmark lodges and resorts The scheme covers three sort of lodges and resorts (luxury full-service, mid-range full service, and small and budget) located in three climate zones (Temperate, Mediterranean and Tropical). The lodges and resorts with presumed characteristics are judged to obtain results. Lodges and resorts performance in terms of resource consumption is compared with that of similar lodges and resorts worldwide. The assessment is performed online (www.benchmarklodges and resorts.com). It is one at annual cost of US $210 (GBP120).

    The assessment includes numerous criteria like lodges and resorts area, no. of guest room, energy management, portable water consumption, waste minimization, green purchasing and water quality management. (Paulina Bohdanowicz, 2005)

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    3.1.2 SystemsforEcotourismAs mentioned previously there are many accreditation system developed for tourism industry but most of them have not been developed from the ecotourism perspective, which should fulfill ecotourism definitions. Hence the need of the hour remains for developing a system which is particularly applicable to ecotourism because tourism and ecotourism differs in their characteristics and operations. Some facts below according to the study conducted by TIES would ensure that ecotourism is thriving because of ever-growing concern of people towards environment.

    Beginning in 1990s, ecotourism has been growing 20% - 34% per year. In 2004, ecotourism/nature tourism was growing globally 3 times faster than the

    tourism industry as a whole. Nature tourism is growing at 10%-12% per annum in the international market. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and Conservation International

    have indicated that most of tourisms expansion is occurring in and around the worlds remaining natural areas.

    Sustainable tourism could grow to 25% of the worlds travel market within six years, taking the value of the sector to 250 billion (US $ 473.6 billion) a year.

    Analysts predict a growth in eco-resorts and lodges and resorts, and a boom in nature tourism a sector already growing at 20% a year and suggest early converts to sustainable tourism will make market gains.

    More than two-thirds of U.S. and Australian travelers, and 90% of British tourists, consider active protection of the environment and support of local communities to be part of a lodges and resorts responsibility.

    A survey of U.S., British, and Australian travelers revealed that 70% would pay up to $150 more for a two-week stay in a lodges and resorts with a responsible environmental attitude. (The International Ecotourism Society and Canopy Development, 2006)

    Based on the above facts, it is clear that there is a need for accreditation system for lodges and resorts that are at ecotourism destinations. But there is no accreditation system for lodges and resorts for ecotourism.

    3.2DifferencebetweenexistingaccreditationsystemandEcoratingSystem

    As mentioned above existing systems focus on the key issues of environment. For e.g. water conservation, energy conservation, air quality and carbon emission etc. But Eco-rating System focuses on four principles: Community participation, Environment conservation, Conservation/Nature Education and Ecological orientation. These

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    principles not only cover the key issues of environment but also cover objectives of ecotourism. This unique feature of Eco-rating System takes it to another stage of sustainable practices in tourism industry. Following table compare Eco-rating System with four other accreditation systems.

    Table 1: Comparative analysis of accreditation systems Green

    Globe 21 Green Globes Canada

    Green Lodges and resorts Guidelines

    IHEI benchmark lodges and resorts

    Eco-rating System

    Climatic zones Accounted for by temperature calculation

    Canada International Temperate, Mediterranean, tropical

    States by for India (yet to be develop)

    Type of lodges and resorts

    All All All All Only for Ecotourism destination

    Community participation

    To some extend

    Not considered

    Not considered

    Not considered

    Considered in detail

    Environment conservation

    Considered in detail

    Considered in detail

    Considered in detail

    Considered in detail

    Considered in detail

    Conservation /Nature Education

    To some extend

    Not considered

    Not considered

    Not considered

    Considered in detail

    Ecological Orientation

    Considered in detail

    Considered in detail

    Considered in detail

    Considered in detail

    Considered in detail

    Periodical reporting

    Annual Monthly for 12 months

    N/A Annual Yet to be decide

    Benchmarking Against country baseline and best practice

    Against other buildings in the database

    N/A Against other lodges and resorts in the database and literature data

    Against country baseline and best practice

    Cost Approximately to Rs. 1,000 (guidelines only)

    Approximately to Rs. 10,000

    N/A Approximately to Rs. 10,500

    Not Decided yet

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    CHAPTER 4: ECO-RATING PROPOSAL

    4.1 EcoratingProposalforGovernmentThe Eco-rating system is a set of principles, criteria & indicators, norms and standards developed by Madhya Pradesh Ecotourism Development Board to encourage excellence in lodges and resorts industry at ecotourism destination. The Eco-rating System will make it possible for government to rate, judge and grade lodges and resorts that are at ecotourism destination.

    4.1.1 NeedandScopeoftheProjectThe Ecotourism industry keeps growing. It has become one of the fastest growing sectors of tourism industry, growing annually by 10-15% worldwide (Miller 2007). For their accommodation need lodges and resorts industries become essential to be set up at ecotourism destinations. However, lodges and resorts industry often comes with unsustainable consumption practices endangering ecosystem and natural resources. Thus there is a need for Eco-rating System for lodges and resorts that are at ecotourism destination.

    The Eco-rating System is applicable to all hospitality units which are involved in the business of catering at ecotourism destinations.

    Examples of hospitality units: - lodges and resorts, lodge, resort, etc.

    The Eco-rating System aims at promoting minimum eco friendly practices of operations to be met by ecotourism hospitality operators, and will enable ecotourist to make better choice for accommodation. Acknowledging and supporting accredited hospitality tourism businesses has expected to help raise service standards, delivery and the development in quality of hospitality services. The same can be expected from Eco-rating for ecotourism businesses.

    4.1.2 EcologicalbenefitsoftheprojectAs mentions above lodges and resorts are essential for ecotourism, so is ecosystem conservation. It is often, that ecotourism destination with good climatic condition, water availability, rich waterfall, rich biodiversity and other ecotourism features attracts ecotourist and to wildlife. Hospitality operations disturb ecosystem like construction, especially trough the building of structures, impervious surface and roads, destroys and fragments habitat and disrupts ecological processes. Invasive species thrive and pollution increases in these disturbed environments, causing numerous problems for native species and their habitat.

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    A lodges and resorts can be eco-friendly, only when it is constructed and operated with least impact on ecosystem. The Eco-rating System makes it possible to judge a lodges and resorts according to its impact on ecosystem. The system will promote and motivate lodges and resorts operators to improve their ecological impacts and to conserve ecosystem.

    4.1.3 EconomicalbenefitsoftheprojectAs per the discussion with environment auditors and seen in the pilot testing, (almost) no lodges and resorts would make high investments just for environmental reasons, as long as potential increases of revenues are not calculable. Lodges and resorts owners are entrepreneurs and usually the protection of environment is not their concern. So the government can either make Eco-rating as mandatory or voluntary for lodges and resorts. But it is essential to practice marketing for Eco-rating. This marketing will give reasons to lodges and resorts owners to go for Eco-Rating.

    The fees for Eco-Rating grading seem rather unavoidable in accreditation procedure to finance assessment itself on one hand and the marketing of Eco-Rating on the other.

    There are different ways to establish the required amount of money depending on the point of view of players. But from the point of MPEDB which has developed Eco-rating System, the fees should cover:

    The fees of accreditation team. The budget for in charge organization (M.P. Ecotourism Development Board, M.P.

    Govt.) for grading. The costs related to marketing the Eco-rating System itself in order to reach a

    significant dissemination of it.

    These expenses are rather easily identified, although the second and third items depend highly on the number of applicants to the label awarding.

    From the lodges and resorts point of view, the maximum acceptable fee is also easy to evaluate. It should be inferior to the additional benefit resulting from the augmentation in frequentation due to the Eco-rating. For e.g. if admitting a 5 or 10% raise in tourist arrival and a 25 to 50 % margin, this conducts to a fee in a range 0.25% to 0.10% of turnover. It would also justify that there is some ratio between the present turnover and the future fee.

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    4.2 EcoratingProposalforHospitalityIndustryThe Eco-rating System will provide Eco-rating to the lodges and resorts that are involved in the business of catering at ecotourism destination. The Eco-rating for ecotourism is first in the world of its kind. It will provide the assurance to guest as well as lodges and resorts operators that lodging facilities and activities are meeting best eco friendly practices. The Eco-rating System has been developed to meet the lodging industrys desire to provide quality guest service, while minimizing their impact on environment, local community etc.

    4.2.1 PrinciplesandStructuresThe main purpose of Eco-rating is to help ecologically oriented customers to find a lodges and resorts which offers eco friendly services to ecotourist with the help of local community participation and conserve environment, while generating conservation/nature education to society. Another related purpose is to create an incentive for lodges and resorts industry which is at ecotourism destination to improve their operational activities.

    Consequently the structure and design of the system has been developed by taking following criteria in consideration:

    Induction of substantial improvement of Ecological Orientation of the lodges and resorts industry;

    Induction of substantial improvement of Community Participation in lodges and resorts industrys activities;

    Induction of substantial improvement of Environmental performance of the lodges and resorts industries;

    Induction of substantial improvement of Conservation/Nature Education through lodges and resorts industry;

    Transparency and comprehensibility in the system; Easy to check; Provide strong initiative to all primary and secondary stakeholders.

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    CHAPTER5:PROJECTMETHODOLOGY

    5.1 MulticonsultationapproachindevelopingstandardsandnormsIdentification of various players and stake holders and their consultation was the basis for developing the standard and norms for assessing the eco friendly practices in lodges and resorts industry, which are business venture of the ecotourism industry in India and elsewhere in the world. This involves various stages/ phases, which were systematically followed. Following the approach of the study in developing Eco-ratings system for assessing to rate the best eco-friendly practices of the lodges and resorts for ecotourism purpose.

    5.2 PhaseoneIdentificationofbestecofriendlypracticesinLodgesandresortsIndustry

    The first phase has an objective of identifying and compiling a list of best eco-friendly practices in lodges and resorts industry. A list was built up with the aim of making the list as large as possible because it seemed preferable to remove later which were either being repeated or did not fit suitable to the objective than missing any. The list was compiled from the following sources

    Visit to lodges and resorts; Interviews with lodges and resorts operators; Discussion and interaction with lodges and resorts operators;

    Either a questionnaire has been sent via e-mail or visited personally to the lodges and resorts representative in Madhya Pradesh, India from 12 April 2010 to 25 April 2010, while collection of answer and extraction of the results were completed from 26 April 2010 to 30 April 2010. The lodges and resorts representatives were reminded to fill and send back the questionnaire in time. Out of 110 questionnaires sent out including personal interviews, only 23 questionnaires were received with positive results. Based on these 23 positive results it became possible to identify best eco-friendly practices in lodges and resorts industry. The copy of questionnaire is attached. (Appendix 2)

    A list of environmental domains, topics and eco-friendly practices was prepared for discussion with lodges and resorts operators. The main aim of discussion was to extract and gain more insight understanding about eco-friendly practices and lodges and resorts activities.

    During the process of collecting eco friendly practices in lodges and resorts industry from lodges and resorts representative, literature were also referred to collect already

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    identified eco-friendly practices. The details of literature work have already been discussed in literature review chapter.

    Following is the resulted compile list after the refinement of eco-friendly practices in lodges and resorts industry:

    WATER

    Installation of flow restrictors, low-flow showerheads and aerators in guestrooms; Regular checking of water distribution channels for leaks; Regular adequate water supply in water tanks to prevent the forming of bacteria; Covered water tanks, swimming pool to protect them from dust, pest and other

    sources of contaminations; Installation of water conservation signage; Changing towels, sheets and other clothes on demand; Grey water recycling and reutilization; environmentally sound water purification; Encourage and motivate staff for water conservation.

    ENERGY

    Installation of energy-efficient lamps; Use of photovoltaic lighting for the outdoor terrace; Use energy-saving lighting techniques; Use of energy efficiency tools; Execution of energy auditing; shut down power in sections of the lodges and resorts boundary that are not in

    use; Encourage and motivate staff for energy conservation.

    WASTE

    Use of reusable or recyclable products; Minimum use of paper; Reuse papers which have already been printed on one side; Use of reusable cloth laundry bags; Recycling of grey water and use of gray water for non-drinking purposes; Purchase Organic soap and amenities in bulk; Use naturally scented, non-toxic, phosphate-free, biodegradable cleaning

    products for housekeeping; Encourage and motivate staff for waste conservation.

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    Air

    Use electric cars and other non-carbon emitting vehicles for short and frequent distance;

    Regular checking for air pollution of other carbon emitting vehicles; Installation of ventilation system with a limiting system for chimney in the kitchen; Non- smoking area sign; Separate smoking zone; Regular servicing and cleaning of the air filters in the rooms and common areas; Encourage and motivate staff to minimize air pollution.

    PURCHASING

    Preference to locally manufactured products and materials; Preference to local supplier; Purchasing in reusable and returnable packaging; Preference to Ecolabel products Bulk purchasing.

    TRAINING AND MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES

    Environmental training programs for employees; Regular newsletters and site inspections to ensure staffs efficiency and

    environment performance;

    INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

    Minimum communication gap for internal environmental issues; Environmental activities information program for guests; Leaflets or other brochures to inform guests on environmental subjects and

    domains Involvement of staff in events like World Environment Day, World Anti-Smoking

    Day etc. through activities such as clean up drive, no plastic bag and pollution under control campaigns.

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LOCAL COMMUNITY

    Training and educational programs for local communities; Employment generation for local communities; Promotion to local culture and crafts wherever possible; Culture exchange; Host cultural program in festival/promotion.

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    5.3 PhasetwoSuggestionsandAddition

    The phase two has an objective of suggesting and adding eco-friendly practices to the compiled list with the aim of maximizing the list of suggestion and additions, because it seemed preferable to remove later than missing any suggestion and addition. For this purpose various books, case studies, existing accreditation systems for tourism were referred. Based on these sources suggestion and addition process has been executed.

    Table 2: List of the referred accreditation systems Name Of the Project Country DEHOGA scheme Germany Lodges and resorts Label Austria Tourist accommodation eco label Luxembourg Green Keys Denmark Nordic Eco labeling Scandinavian countries Catalan Emblem Catalunya Eco label for the Tourist Industry Austria Green Deal Guatemala Green Flags for Greener Lodges and resortss EU Countries Green Globe 21 International Green Key Scandanavia Green Suitcase Europe Green Leaf Eco Rating Program Canada Lodges and resorts Environment Building Assessment Scheme

    Hong Kong

    ISO International Table 3: List of the referred case studies in hospitality industries: Case Study State, Country The Orchid Lodges and resorts Mumbai, India Lodges and resorts Madhuban Dehra Dun, India Lodges and resorts Mocking Bird Hill Port Antonio, Jamaica Saunders Lodges and resorts Group, The Lennox and Copely Square Lodges and resorts Boston USA

    Lodges and resorts Kurrajong Australia The Severin Sea Lodge Mombasa, Kenya Golden Tulip Goes Greener: Environment Management at Golden Tulip Lodges and resorts International

    Bass Lodges and resorts & Resorts (BHR) International EMS Taj Group India

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    Following is a list of suggestions and additions to the list of best eco friendly practices after the refinement:

    WATER

    Rain water harvesting system; Installation of pressure flushes in toilets and urinals; Encourage and motivate guests for water conservation.

    ENERGY

    Energy management system for heating / air conditioning; Peak load management system; Automatic temperature regulation; Use gas or induction ranges instead of electric ranges; Promotion of less energy consuming dishes; Thermal insulation in rooms; Encourage and motivate guests for energy conservation.

    WASTE

    Separate collection and disposal of waste produced; Promotion and use of reusable/washable dishes; Develop and implement a waste management system; Separate buckets for the recyclable waste collection; Use a compression machine to the reduce the volume of waste; Use of recyclable garbage bags; Return packaging material to the suppliers for reuse; Donation of food waste; Reuse newspaper waste for other; Donate old equipments to college and schools for education purpose; Encourage and motivate guests for waste reduction.

    AIR

    Installation of covered sanitary bins; installation of signage at parking area to encouraging guests not to idle their

    vehicles; Indoor plantation; Outdoor plantation;

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    Avoid room freshener and other air purification product to provide natural indoor environment to guest;

    Encourage and motivate guests to minimize air pollution.

    PURCHASING

    Consider ecological aspect in its purchasing policy; No pesticides or insecticides purchasing policy; Written statement for environmental friendly purchasing policy; Encourage and motivate suppliers to offer their own innovative suggestions for

    reducing packaging waste.

    TRAINING AND MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES

    External training programs for employees; Staffs participation in external training courses on environment management; Implementation of results of external trainings; Quality of staff.

    INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

    Information signs for guest; A gold book or opinion questionnaire for guests; interpretation center; A website of lodges and resorts preferably with opaque background and must

    provide environmental information to guests and visitors; On line/e-booking facility for reservation; Eco-magazine and/or Eco-news paper at lobby; Educate ecotourist/guest about ecotourism spots and destination; Educate local people, guest and staff about the importance of wild life

    conservation; Educate local people, guest and staff about the importance of environment

    conservation; Educational programs for local communities; Aware/inform guests about harmful species or places in the area.

    CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LOCAL COMMUNITY

    Promote and contribute in local festivals; Promote and contribute in local market; Involve local people in decision making process;

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    Share profit with local communities; Promotion to Local food and beverage.

    ECOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    Organize eco tour; Security to guest from wildlife; Security to wildlife from guest.

    HOSPITALITY SERVICES

    100% organic cotton sheets, towels and mattresses for guest; Reusable bags for laundry; Accept credit cards for payments; Wake up call service on request; Use only naturally-scented or scent free, non-toxic, phosphate-free, and

    biodegradable products for laundry.

    SEWAGE

    Either connectivity with public sewage line or onsite sewage treatment plant; Recycle or reuse sewage water.

    INFRASTRUCTURE

    Water glasses for windows in guest rooms; All floors and walls have non-porous surface; White and/or reflective roof; Reuse existing building material for the construction of the building; Maximum height of 25 feet; No fencing for lodges and resorts boundary; No swimming pool; Use of earthy colors for painting walls; Use locally manufactured carpets and other decoration products for lodges and

    resorts decoration; Local labor for construction work; Use local technology for construction activities; Maximum distance from ecotourism destination or parks gate; Minimum distance from village; Minimum distance from local market;

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    Maximum distance from rail tracks; Maximum distance from highways; Maximum distance from forest corridors; Located in forest fringe area; Surrounding wild life view; Link to main road.

    5.4 PhaseThreeEvolvementofSpecification,StandardsandNorms

    Based on the environmental, economical and social dimension of the sustainable management and best eco friendly practices for natural resources management, the basic principles involved in the eco-tourism were identified. Based on them the principles, criteria & indicators, standards and norms to measure the trend of the ecological conditions and sustainable management of the same have been developed. Standard value or Norms are also fixed based on the experiences gained from the previous phases of the study.

    5.4.1 PrinciplesPrinciples are defined as a fundamental truth or law as the basis of reasoning or action. They are seen as primary framework for lodges and resorts operations in eco friendly way. They provide justification for the Criteria, Indicators and Verifiers. Example:

    Community participation in lodges and resorts activities; Environment conservation initiatives.

    Developed definition of the Ecotourism for the project-

    A tourism that orient tourist towards ecology with the help of local communities, while conserving environment and generating environment education.

    The Eco-rating System has four principles and these principles have been derived from developed definition of ecotourism mentioned above. The four principles are given below and shown in the following figure.

    Four principles:

    Community Participation, Environment Conservation, Conservation/Nature Education, and Ecological Orientation.

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    Figure 1: Eco-rating System & four principles

    5.4.2 CriteriaandIndicators

    Criteria and indicators are tools which can be used to conceptualize, evaluate eco-friendliness of a lodges and resorts. Criteria define and characterize the essential elements, as well as a set of conditions or processes, by which the eco-friendliness of a lodges and resorts can be assessed. Indicators define and characterize criteria, as well as a set of tool to monitor criteria.

    Criterion:

    Defined as a standard that a thing is judged by or an identifiable element of eco friendliness against which a lodges and resorts can be assessed.

    Criteria set out the key elements or dimensions that define and clarify each principle or a second order principle, one that adds meaning and operationality to a principle without itself being a direct yardstick of performance.

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    Criteria are the intermediate points to which the information provided by indicators can be integrated and where an interpretable assessment crystallizes.

    Examples:

    Various benefits to local community Promotion of Local Culture Environmental policy and training policy Information and Communication

    Indicator:

    Indicators should convey meaningful message i.e. information Indicators present an aggregate of one or more data elements with certain

    established relationships When periodically measured indicators gives trend/ progress

    Examples:

    Information and communication methods Noise pollution measurement practices Energy conservation techniques

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    Figure 2: Community Participation Criteria and Indicators

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    Figure 3: Environmental Conservation Criteria and Indicators

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    Figure 4: Conservation/Nature Education Criteria and Indicators

    Figure 5: Ecological Orientation Criteria and Indicators

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    5.4.3 BenchmarkingandThresholdValue

    Benchmarking is the process of comparing one's lodges and resorts processes and performance metrics to industry bests and/or best practices from other industries.

    Threshold value is minimum/maximum point that must/must not be exceeded.

    To find benchmarking and threshold values for key environment aspects, consumption per guest can be taken as unit. For e. g. benchmarking or threshold value for energy can be calculated by:

    Here, B = Benchmarking or threshold value k = 0.25 (here it is being assumed that guests to restaurant consume 4 times less energy than that of by in house guests.)

    The value of k has to be calculated based on the lodges and resorts energy consumption data,

    The same formula can be used for other key environment aspects like water, waste, etc. However following problems arise:

    Data to define adequate threshold values are hardly available; Lodges and resorts are different by location, comfort level, size of restaurant and

    many other factors, so the definition of uniform threshold value or benchmarking is debatable; and

    Environment issues are so complex that benchmarking or threshold value for criteria & indicators is questionable.

    It is found that above mentioned problems can be solved but this process will take time of one or two months. Hence the benchmarking and threshold values have been developed on the basis of experience gained through previous study and with the consultation of experts.

    5.4.4 StandardsandNorms

    Standards and norms have been developed on the basis of benchmark or threshold values, and with multi consultation.

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    5.4: PhaseFourDevelopmentofEcoratingSystem

    The Eco-rating System aims at assessing the degree of environment friendliness of a lodges and resorts. The system is a set of questionnaire based on the principles, criteria & indicator, standards and norms. It has been developed by taking following objectives and goals into consideration.

    Specific: The system should be straightforward, simple, and objective, and should emphasize on ecotourism objectives;

    Measurable: The system should be use measurable criteria and indicators to demonstrate the extent of eco friendly practices incorporated into the lodges and resorts activities;

    Applicability: The system should be used on all of the types of hospitality industrys units that are at ecotourism destinations (e.g., hotels, lodges and resorts etc);

    Relevance: The system should provide a whole lodges and resorts evaluation rather than an evaluation of an individual activity or design feature;

    Timely: The system should be completed within assigned time.

    Figure 6: Eco-rating System Framework

    Principle

    Criterion

    Indicator

    Questionnaire

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    5.4.1 Aweighedscoringsystem

    The Eco-rating System is composite of four principles and seventeen criteria. The eco friendly performance of lodges and resorts is not reducible to a single factor such as water conservation practices and also each principle and criteria has their individual importance in environment and ecosystem. Thus it is essential to have weighed scoring system for granting Eco-rating to the lodges and resorts.

    Weighed scoring survey As mentioned in above paragraph weighed scoring system was found as the solution for scoring system. For the same a survey has been conducted with the aim of finding individual weights for each principle and criterion of Eco-rating System.

    Method A questionnaire was developed based on the principles and criteria and either online link for questionnaire or personal visit to targeted sample population was done for survey. The copy of same questionnaire is attached. (Appendix 2)

    Targeted Sample Population Sample population is defined as per primary and secondary stakeholders of the project.

    Forest Department: A set of questionnaire was send to 50 forest officers such as CCF, CF, ACF, DFO, SDO, and Range Officers.

    Environment Institutes: A set of questionnaire was send to 25 faculty and research associate of Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal.

    Hospitality Industry: A set of questionnaire was send to 75 lodges and resorts, which are involved in catering business at ecotourism destinations.

    Environmentally aware general public: A set of questionnaire was send to 250 environmentally aware general public, which include students and alumni of Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal.

    Constraints Lack of accessibility to forest department and hospitality industry. Respondent were given only three days time to reply.

    Results& Findings Out of 250 questionnaires 40 positive replies were received. Based on these 40 positive replies it became possible to obtain individual weightage for each principle and criterion.

    The questionnaire was developed in such a way that it results in providing preferred rankings of respondents about principles and criteria. The individual scores of all the 40 respondents for each and every criterion were summed and an aggregated score was obtained. The maximum aggregate score that can be obtained is 40 multiplied by number of criteria under the respective principle. For example in case of Principle one

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    which is Community Participation there are five criteria and hence the maximum aggregate score would be 40 5 = 200

    Rating of one indicates that the criterion holds maximum significance where as higher rating indicates a lower significance of that criterion.

    The aggregate score is subtracted from the maximum aggregate score that can be obtained for that particular criterion and a residual score is obtained. This residual score is divided by the sum of all the residual scores under the same principle and then multiplied by 100 to get a percentage weightage. The calculation and details are given in the attached CD.

    Higher the percentage weightage, higher is the importance of the criterion.

    The following charts represent weightage for principle and criterion.

    Figure 7: Weighted for Criteria of Community Participation

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    Figure 8: Weighted for Criteria of Environment Conservation

    Figure 9: Weighted for Criteria of Conservation/Nature Education

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    Figure 10: Weighted for Criteria of Ecological Orientation

    5.4.2 EcoratingRanges

    The Eco-rating will be granted to the lodges and resorts according to its weighed score. The Eco-rating Ranges have been developed after the results of pilot testing which is explained in the next chapter and with the consultation of experts. Each criterion in the principle has its weightage and average & maximum weighted score is calculated on the

    Figure11:WeightedforPrinciples

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    basis of given weightage. In this way average and maximum weighted score is calculated for each principle. With the help of it total score is calculated. Now these scores are put with the weightage given to the principles. This lead to the calculation of maximum possible weighted score and average weighted score. The results give a range which tells about maximum score that can be obtained by a lodges and resorts.

    Eco-rating Ranges could be obtained on the basis of pilot testing. But the enough number of pilot testing could not be exercised due to lack of time. Hence the Eco-rating Ranges have been developed with interval of 3.60. The calculation and details are given in the attached CD.

    Table 4: The eco-ratings

    Eco-rating Score Range

    0-3.60

    3.61-7.2

    7.21-10.8

    10.81-14.4

    14.41-18.19

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    CHAPTER 6: PILOT TESTING

    After the development of Eco-rating System, the developed system was sent to group of individuals including IFS officers, faculty of IIFM, Bhopal, lodges and resorts operators and environmentally aware general public with the request of providing their views, comments and ideas. So that appropriate action can be taken towards improvement. On deliberation with different stake holders it was felt that it will be appropriate to exercise pilot testing of the system in a few lodges and resorts which are at ecotourism destinations.

    Objectives of Pilot Testing To check feasibility of the project; To find scope of improvements; To find Eco-rating Ranges; and To check whether SMART goals are achieved.

    6.1 PilottestingteamandmethodologyadoptedA team was form for pilot testing and was given a responsibility of executing pilot testing of lodges and resorts at Satpura Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh. The team comprised of two persons. They adopted a uniform approach in pilot testing exercise carried at Satpura tiger reserve area. Visits to the lodges and resorts, collection of primary and secondary data, discussion with the lodges and resorts operator and others and physical review of the lodges and resorts.

    6.2 ObservationsandFindings

    Local communities local people are those, who have their permanent resident within the radius of 5 kilometers (as JFM guidelines) from the lodges and resorts. But at the pilot testing it is found that there are hardly any villages that come in this range.

    Lack of availability of supply from local community It is found that lodges and resorts operators are willing to purchase from local communities but their need is much more than the supply from local community.

    Lack of human resource It is found that lodges and resorts operators are willing to hire local employee but there is a lack of local human resource and quality of employees.

    Lack of surface and rain water source It is found that most of the ecotourism destination are closed during raining season. Lodges and resorts operators also

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    closed down their lodges and resorts in the same period due to the same reason. It disables them to collect rain water or to use surface water during the operational period and they have to meet their water supply need from ground water.

    Lack of energy It is found that lodges and resorts at ecotourism destination do not have proper supply of electricity, which forces them to use electric batteries or carbon emitting devices to meet their energy requirement.

    No sewage line connectivity It is found that most of the lodges and resorts at ecotourism destination have no connectivity with public sewage line. It is necessary for the well being of ecosystem and local community that wastewater should be directed to sewage treatment plants for treatment before discharge. But due to lack of connectivity with either public sewage line or sewage treatment plants a large volume of wastewater are discharged without treatment at ecotourism destination.

    6.3 ResultsTwo lodges were selected for pilot testing. The lodge owners asked not to disclose their name in report so they are referred as lodge A and Lodge B.

    Table 5: Objectives Achieve

    Objectives Result Feasibility of the project Yes Scope of improvements Yes Eco-rating Ranges No Specific Yes Measurable Yes Applicability Yes Relevance Yes Timely Yes

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    Chapter 7: Summary and Conclusions

    Based on the literature review and experience gained through study following recommendation for the further development of the Eco-rating System for ecotourism sector is given.

    Take optimum advantage of the experience from existing systems the project has been developed by taking the experience from the existing systems.

    Work in close co-operation with experts, forest & ecotourism department and lodges and resorts operators

    Focus in one direction at one time Develop a definition of the sector a definition has been developed for

    ecotourism and based on the definition this system has been developed; Define the services provided by the sector and system; Divide project into phases the project has been developed in four phases; Give more attention to the field learning and testing due to lack of time adequate

    field learning and testing of the project has not been done; Provide flexibility to the standards; Develop quantitative standards as much as possible; Define a proper difference between existing accreditation systems and Eco-rating

    System Site specific standards and norms site specification standards and norms have

    been developed as much as possible.

    Following are the recommendations that need to be exercise before this project can become functional.

    Formation of multi dimensional team; Further appropriate improvements in the system;

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    A feasibility study regarding the project; Economical analysis of the project; Development of site specific standards and norms; Implementation of the system at country level instead of only in Madhya Pradesh;

    It has been observed that lodges and resorts operators go for accreditation to increase their market value and enhance their guest arrival. To meet their need the system should be first receive its recognition from tourist. To achieve this requirement the Eco-rating System is suggested to be implemented by the Ecotourism Development Board, Govt. of India with the involvement of Ministry of Tourism and Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India and state Ecotourism Development Boards can be assigned as accreditation executing bodies.

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    Bibliography

    (n.d.). Retrieved April 5 , 2010, from The International Ecotourism Society: http://www.ecotourism.org

    (n.d.). Retrieved June 14, 2010, from Oxford Dictionary: www.oed.com

    Honey. (1999).

    Paulina Bohdanowicz, B. S. (2005). SUSTAINABLE LODGES AND RESORTSS - ENVIRONMENT REPORTING ACCORDING TO GREEN GLOBE 21, GREEN GLOBES CANADA / GEM UK, IHEI BENCHMARKLODGES AND RESORTS AND HILTON ENVIRONMENT REPORTING. Tokyo.

    The International Ecotourism Society and Canopy Development. (2006). TIES Global Ecotourism Fact Sheet.

    Eco Housing Assessment Criteria: International Institute for Energy Conservation

    Environment Canada. 2000. Ecological, Assessment of the Boreal Shield Ecozone.p.xi

    Environment Canada.1996. Importance of Nature to Canadians: Economic significance of nature related activities.

    Ecotourism Society of Saskatchewan, 2000.

    Environment Management Systems, Taj group

    Green Flag for Green Hotels, Europe

    Sustainable Lodges and resorts environmental reporting according to green globe 21, green globes canada / gem uk, ihei benchmarklodges and resorts and hilton environmental reporting

    Fowler, K. M., and Raunch, E.M. July 2006. Sustainable building rating system summary.

    Meade, Bill and Pringle, Joe. Environmental Management System for Caribbean lodges and resorts and resorts

    November 2002, Green Building Rating System for new construction & major renovation (LEED-NC), version 2.1

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    APPENDICES

    Appendix1:GLOSSARY

    Action Plan: A detailed plan identifying corrective actions, means, responsibilities, resources, and the time frame necessary for their implementation.

    Checklist: A list of actions that can be used to assess indicators.

    Cleaner Production: Cleaner production is the adoption by an enterprise of production practices and technologies that respect the environment and that consume fewer resources so that they generate less waste.

    Continuous Improvement: The process of progressively enhancing the environmental management system to achieve improvements in the overall environmental performance in line with the lodges and resorts environmental policy.

    Eco-efficiency: A concept that consists in offering competitive goods and services that meet human needs and guarantee quality of life, while at the same time progressively reducing the whole-life ecological impacts and resource demands of the products, until a level at least compatible with the earths estimated capacity is reached.

    Environment: It is the natural surroundings of the enterprise, including air, water, soil, natural resources, flora, fauna and human beings, as well as their interactions.

    Environmental Aspect: That element of the activities, products or services of an enterprise which may interact with the environment.

    Environmental Impact: Any modification of the environment whether negative or positive, total or partial.

    Environmental Management System (EMS): Structure, organization and management methods implemented to meet the enterprises environmental policy. The goal is continuous improvement.

    Environmental Policy: An enterprises commitments, orientations, and general objectives with respect to the environment as decided by

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    management. Observing existing laws and regulations is an integral part of this policy, and so is the environmental improvement strategy.

    Green Stuff: It is a list of eco friendly products for lodges and resorts. Greenstuffs identifies green products and services on your behalf, and will help you to "go green" and be awarded green star accreditation for your lodgings. Through Greenstuffs you can become carbon neutral and offer your guests carbon offsets. No need to reinvent the wheel.

    Hazardous Waste: Any waste containing significant quantities of substances which are especially dangerous to the life or health of living organisms (including humans) when discharged into the environment. Dangerous properties include toxicity, arcinogenicity, or mutagenicity as well as chemical reactivity and other biologically harmful properties.

    Mass Tourism: A mode of tourism that appeared in the 1960s, resulting from the general provision of paid vacations in many industrialized countries, which allowed most people to travel and support the tourism industry.

    Non-hazardous Waste: Any waste having a nature and composition that are similar to those of household wastes, and comprise items whose longest dimension does not exceed 60 cm. Furthermore, the handling and storage of such wastes present no particular risks. Such wastes many be generated by industry, commerce, workshops or agricultural activities.

    Procedure: Written organizational rule describing responsibilities and sequence of tasks or activities necessary for the realization of a product or a service.

    Recycling: It is an act of processing used or abandoned materials to reuse either in their original form by creating new products.

    Sustainable Development: Development that meets present needs without endangering the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development is contrasted with other modes of development that lead to social and ecological damage, at both the local and global levels.

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    Sustainable Tourism: Management of all resources associated with tourism activities in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs are met in a way that respects the cultural and environmental integrity, biological diversity, and lifestyle of the receiving area.

    Local Community: Resides within 5 Km radius from the lodges and resorts, if there is no human settlement within 5 Km then the nearest accessible village

    Community Development: Social, cultural as well as economic progress of community

    Operational Activities: All the activities required to be carried out in lodges and resorts industry e.g. Hospitality, Catering etc

    Lodges and resorts Boundary: Build up and non-build up area owned by the lodges and resorts

    Rainwater Harvesting System: Collection of rainwater, its filtering, use

    Waste Management: Waste collection, segregation, recycling, reuse, and disposal

    Recyclable Waste: Waste that can be processed and recycle.

    Waste Segregate Mechanism: Mechanism followed to separate different types of waste so as to increase efficiency of waste disposal

    HVAC: (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning System) Management of various heating and cooling operations to maintain ambiance

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    Appendix2:EcoratingSystem

    Principle 1. Community Participation Q. no. Question

    Yes/no

    Norm/ Standards Score

    Criterion 1.1: Local Suppliers W.2 Indicator 1.1.1: Purchasing from local communities 1. How many and how much of the following products you purchase from

    local suppliers? And what is your score according to the table? products / % < 60% 60 to 75% 75 to 90% > 90% Dairy products 0 1 2 3 vegetables 0 1 2 3 Non-vegetables 0 1 2 3 Fresh beverage 0 1 2 3 Infrastructure material 0 1 2 3 Wine & beer 0 1 2 3 Furniture & Fittings 0 1 2 3

    Checking principle: one site inspection through food & beverage department

    Minimum purchasing of 60%

    0-21

    Criterion 1.2: Various benefits to local community W.28 Indicator 1.2.1: Economic Benefits to local people 2. Do you promote and contribute in local festivals?

    *Checking principles: on site inspection of festival records through food & beverage department

    1

    3. Do you promote and contribute in local market? *Checking principles: on site inspection of purchasing pattern through food & beverage department

    1

    4. Do you involve local people in decision making process? *Checking principles: management practices

    1

    5. What practices do you do for community development? a. Charity/involvement in hospitals b. Charity/involvement in schools c. Charity/involvement in markets d. Charity/involvement in temples e. Charity for other local community activities

    *Checking principles: development practices for local community

    0-5

    Indicator 1.2.2: Employment to Local People 6. What is the ratio of local employees to total employees?

    Ratio 0:10 5:10 6:10 7:10 8:10 9:10 10:10 Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

    *Checking principles: through A/C & HR department

    Minimum mandatory ratio = 5:10

    0-6

    7. How many local people you have trained in last 12 months? Trainings 0 1-2 3-4 4-5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    *Checking Principle: through A/C & HR department

    0-10

    8. What is the salary ratio of local employees to total salary paid? Ratio 0:10 5:10 6:10 7:10 8:10 9:10 10:10 Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

    *Checking principles: through A/C department

    Minimum mandatory ratio = 5:10

    0-6

    9. How many local story narrators you have haired? Narrators 0 1-2 3-4 4-5 5 Score 0 1 2 3 4

    *Checking principles: through A/C department

    0-4

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    10. Do you share your profit with local communities? *Checking principles: Corporate social responsibility practices

    1

    Criterion 1.3: Food & Beverage W.14 Indicator 1.3.1: Promotion to Local food and beverage 11. How many local dishes do you have in your menu card?

    Local Dishes 0 Up to 3 Up to 5 Up to 7 8 Score 0 1 2 3 4

    *Checking principles: on site physical inspection

    0-4

    12. How many seasonal local dishes do you have in your menu card? Seasonal local Dishes 0 Up to 3 Up to 5 Up to 7 8 Score 0 1 2 3 4

    *Checking principles: on site physical inspection

    0-4

    Indicator 1.3.2: Promotion of less energy consuming dishes 13. How many less energy consuming dishes do you have in your menu card?

    less energy consuming Dishes 0 Up to 3 Up to 5 Up to 7 8 Score 0 1 2 3 4

    *Checking principles: on site physical inspection

    0-4

    Criterion 1.4: Promotion of Local Culture W.26 Indicator 1.4.1: Cultural Activities 14. Do you entertain your guest and local people for culture exchange?

    *Checking principles: local activity, event practices 1

    15. Do you host cultural program in festival/promotion? If yes, then how many you have hosted in the last 12 months?

    Program 0 1-2 3-4 4-5 5 Score 0 1 2 3 4

    0-4

    16. Do you use local technology in operational activities? *Checking principles: food and beverage and housekeeping department

    1

    Criterion 1.5: Hospitality services W.12 Indicator 1.5.1: Facilities to Guests 17. Do you provide on line/e-booking facility for reservation? 1 18. Do you organize eco tour, if yes then how many eco tour program you

    organized in the last year? 1

    19. Do you use 100% organic cotton sheets, towels and mattresses for guest?

    1

    20. Do you provide encased mattresses and pillows to guest? 1 21. Do you have covered sanitary bins in guest rooms? 1 22. What is the frequency of collecting garbage from covered sanitary bins? 1 23. Do you use reusable bags for laundry? 1 24. Do you use recyclable garbage bags? 1

    25. Do you accept credit cards for payments? 1 26. Do you provide wake up call service on request? 1

    27. Do you always provide lid, bio-degradable toilet paper and water in western toilets?

    1

    28. Do you provide facility of doctor on call? 1

    Total Score in Community participation= Max 86

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    Principle 2. Environment Conservation Q. no. Question

    Yes/no

    Norm/ Standards Score

    Criterion 2.1: Water W.23 Indicator 2.2.1: Water quality &Maintenance 29. How do you get your water supply?

    Supply Score From utility companies who purify water before distribution 1 From surface waters (rivers, streams, etc.) 1 From ground waters (well, bore etc.) 0

    *Checking principles: on site inspection through maintenance department

    minimum use of ground water

    0-2

    30. Do you have environmentally sound water purification in your lodges and resorts boundary? *Checking principles: on site inspection through maintenance department

    No chemical in use

    1

    31. Do you clean your water storage tank and remove exterior and interior scales build up? *checking principle: on site inspection through maintenance department

    At least in every six months

    1

    32. Are the water storage tanks covered and protected from dust, pest, and other sources of contamination? *checking principle: on site checking and through maintenance department

    1

    33. Do you have a regular adequate turnover in water storage tanks to prevent the forming of bacteria? *checking principle: on site checking and through maintenance department

    1

    Indicator 2.1.2: Water conservation 34. How often is the water distribution system checked for leaks, pressure

    control malfunctions and other inefficiencies? Frequency Score Daily by the sweepers 1 Weakly by lobby managers 1 Monthly by maintains managers 1

    *Checking principles: on site through maintenance department

    1-3

    35. Do you regularly check your tanks for leaks? *checking principle: on site checking and through maintenance department

    1

    36. Have you install pressure flush valves on toilets and urinals? * checking principle: housekeeping department

    1

    37. Have you installed low flow shower heads and tap restrictors on hand basins?

    Area covered Score < 50% 0 50 % 1 80 % 2

    *Checking principles: inspection of guest bathrooms; consulting the manufacturers technical specifications. housekeeping department

    Minimum benchmark of 50%

    0-3

    38. Do you have water conservation sign in toilets, bathrooms and in guest rooms? *Checking principles: on site inspection of signage and through Housekeeping department

    1

    39. Do you use grey water for watering plants? *Checking principles: on site checking and through maintenance department

    1

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    40. Do you encourage your employees to save water during daily work routines? *checking principle: through personal department, training department

    1

    Indicator 2.1.3: Rain Water 41. Do you have a rainwater harvesting system?

    *Checking principles: on site inspection of the rainwater harvesting system 1

    42. Do you reuse your collected rain water for irrigation and other non-drinking use? * Checking principles: on site checking and through maintenance department

    1

    Indicator 2.1.4: Swimming pool 43. Do you have swimming pool?

    Ans Score Yes 0 No 2

    0 or 2

    44. Do you have water saving system in swimming pool? *Checking principles: on site checking and through maintenance department

    1

    45. Do you use non-pesticides products to purify swimming pool water? *Checking principles: on site checking and through maintenance department

    1

    Criterion 2.2: Waste W.2 Indicator 2.2.1: Waste Management 46. How many of following waste categories, you collect and dispose

    separately? Waste Categories Score Paper/Cardboard 1 Glass 1 food residuals and other organic substances 1 Plastic 1 Metal 1 None 0

    *checking principle: written concept and on-site inspection

    0-5

    47. How many of following hazardous waste categories, you collect and dispose separately?

    Hazardous Waste Categories Score toxic cleaning agent 1 Batteries 1 Fluorescent tubes 1 motor and machine oil 1 paints and organic diluters 1 pesticides/ fungicides 1 None 0

    *checking principles: on site inspection and evidence with bills

    0-6

    48. Are there separate buckets in following areas for the recyclable waste collection?

    a. kitchen b. guest rooms c. restaurant d. offices and in reception area

    * checking principles: on-site physical inspection of buckets labeling, color etc.

    0-4

    49. Have you develop waste segregate mechanism? *Checking principles: On-Site inspection of system and review of documentation

    1

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    50. Have you developed and implemented a waste management system for your lodges and resorts? *checking principles: on-site inspection and verification of written concept *note: Waste management include products purchasing, waste collection, waste storing, waste transporting and final disposal

    1

    51. Do you use only naturally-scented or scent free, non-toxic, phosphate-free, and biodegradable products for laundry?

    1

    Indicator 2.2.2: Waste Reduction 52. Do you reduce packaging waste by buying in bulk or returnable

    containers? Items Score Food & Beverage 1 Liquor 1 Disposable 1 Toiletries 1 None 0

    *checking principles: evidence by bills

    0-4

    53. Do you return packaging material to the suppliers for reuse? Quantity Score < 30 % 0 30 % 1 60 % 2 85% 3

    *checking principles: estimation, list of suppliers from F&B department and evidence by bills

    0-3

    54. Do you utilize and promote reusable/washable dishes? * checking principles: on-site inspection and evidence with bills and By raw material record book

    1

    55. Do you use a compression machine for the reduction of the volume of waste? *checking principles: On-site physical inspection of machine

    1

    Indicator 2.2.3: Waste Reuse 56. Do you donate your food waste?

    *Checking principles:

    1

    57. Do you reuse papers which have already been printed on one side, using photocopy paper via actions like dual - face photocopy production, etc.?

    1

    58. Do you reuse newspaper waste for other purpose? 1 Indicator 2.2.4: Waste Recycling 59. Do you donate or recycle your linens like towels, bed sheets etc? 1 60. Have you developed waste recycling mechanism?

    *Checking principles: physical review of mechanism and documentation 1

    Criterion 2.3: Energy W.15 Indicator 2.3.1: HVAC Control 61. Where do you preponderantly use energy-saving lighting techniques?

    a. Corridor and stairs b. Entrance and lobby c. Guest rooms d. Outside area e. Restaurant/s f. Toilets

    0-7

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    g. Other area.(.please mention the other areas and they should be almost equal to above areas)

    *Checking principles: on site checking and through maintenance and housekeeping department

    62. Are the guests rooms connected to central heating, cooling and warm water supply? *Checking principles: Inspection of guest rooms, piping and heating space through maintenance department

    1

    Indicator 2.3.2: Energy conservation techniques 63. Do you shut down power in sections of the lodges and resorts boundary

    that are not in use? *checking principle: on site inspection of building management system (BEMS)

    1

    64. Do you use any of the following energy conservation technique in guest rooms?

    a. time-based control b. room key-card c. occupancy-linked control d. central switches e. window contact switches

    *Checking principles: Inspection of guest rooms and referring controllers / switches

    1

    65. Do you use gas or induction ranges instead of electric ranges? * Checking principles: Inspection of kitchens, laundries and referring piping networks

    1

    Indicator 2.3.3: Energy auditing 66. Have any energy experts carried out an energy audit for your lodges and

    resorts within the last three years? *checking principle: on site inspection by bill or by contract details of energy auditing

    1

    67.. If you have gone through energy audit then have you realized and realize energy saving measures in accordance with recommendations from the energy audit? *Checking principle: on site inspection and by evaluating changes in recording resister

    1

    Indicator 2.3.4: Renewable energy option 68. What is the ratio of renewable energy consumption to total energy

    consumption? Ratio 1:10 2:10 3:10 4:10 5:10 6:10 7:10 8:10 9:10 10:10 Score 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    *Checking principles: On site inspection of renewable energy system installations; checking of planning data and total energy consumption figures

    0-10

    69. Do you recover heat for other purpose? *Checking principles: Inspection of heat recovery systems

    1

    Indicator 2.3.5: Energy efficiency 70. Do you use energy efficient heating / cooling technologies?

    Energy source Score co-generation unit 1 low emission burner / condensing boiler 1 low temperature boiler 1 heat pump 1 None 0

    *Checking principles: On site inspection of heating/cooling installations

    0-4

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    71. Do you apply automatic temperature regulation in all rooms (e. g. via thermostats / temperature sensors)? *Checking principles: On site inspection of heating/cooling installations

    1

    72. Do you have thermal insulated in rooms? 1 73. Do you have installed translucent lampshades in the lodges and resorts?

    *Checking principles: physical review 1

    Criterion 2.4: Sewage W.15 Indicator 2.4.1: Sewage System 74. Do you have either connectivity with public sewage line or onsite sewage

    treatment plant? *Checking principles: Physical review and through bills

    1

    Indicator 2.4.2: Recycling and reuse of sewage water 75. Do you recycle or reuse sewage water?

    * Checking principles: on site inspection of the sewage treatment system 1

    Criterion 2.5: Noise W.15 Indicator 2.5.1 Condition of indoor and outdoor climate or environment 76. What is the condition of indoor and outdoor climate/environment?

    Condition Peaceful Noisy Indoor 2 0 Outdoor 2 0

    *Checking principle: on site by inspecting lodges and resorts and by asking guest or staff etc

    0-4

    Indicator 2.5.2: Develop mechanism to maintain indoor and outdoor environment 77. If the indoor/outdoor climate condition is noisy, then have you

    developed any mechanism to maintain peaceful indoor climate/environment?

    a. For Indoor climate b. For outdoor climate

    *Checking principle: on site by inspecting and by some questionnaire

    0-2

    Indicator 2.5.3: Noise pollution measurement practices 78. If noise reduction measures for indoor climate/environment have been

    performed yet, is there any metering report after the implementation of reduction measures?

    a. For Indoor climate b. For outdoor climate

    *Checking principles: metering report

    0-2

    Criterion 2.6: Air W.12 Indicator 2.6.1: Transportation 79. Do you use electric cars and other non-carbon emitting vehicles for

    short and frequent distance? *Checking principles: one site inspection through food & beverage and store department

    1

    80. What is the ratio of your non-carbon emitting vehicles to carbon emitting vehicles?

    Local Dishes 0 Up to 3 Up to 5 Up to 7 8 Score 0 1 2 3 4

    *Checking principles: one site inspection through store department

    0-4

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    81. What is the frequency of checking for air pollution of other carbon emitting vehicles?

    Frequency quarterly half yearly yearly > a year Score 3 2 1 0

    *Checking principles: vehicles on site inspection, air pollution checking reports

    0-3

    82. Do you have signage at parking area to encouraging guests not to idle their vehicles? *Checking principles: Physical review

    1

    Indicator 2.6.2: Ventilation system 83. Have you installed ventilation system with a limiting system for chimney

    in the kitchen? *Checking principles: on site inspection of kitchen.

    1

    84. Do you have adequate ventilation system in the building? *Checking principles: on site physical review

    1

    Indicator 2.6.3: Tobacco smoking 85. Do you have non- smoking area sign in the lodges and resorts?

    *Checking principles: on site physical inspection of non smoking signage 1

    86. Do you have a separate smoking area for smoking? *Checking principles: on site physical inspection of separate smoking area.

    1

    Indicator 2.6.4: Plantation 87. Do you have indoor plants in your lodges and resorts to improve indoor

    air quality, if yes then they are in which area/s? a. Corridor and stairs b. Entrance and lobby c. Guest rooms d. Outside area e. Restaurant/s f. Toilets g. Other area.(.please mention the other areas and they should be

    almost equal to above areas) *Checking principles: on site physical inspections

    0-7

    88. Have you done outdoor plantation? *Checking principles: on site physical inspection

    1

    Indicator 2.6.5: Indoor Air Quality 89. Do you avoid room freshener and other air purification product to

    provide natural indoor environment to guest? * Checking principal: on site inspection housekeeping practices and by equipments to major indoor environment

    1

    90. What is the frequency of servicing and cleaning of the air filters in the rooms and common areas (dust, microbes)?

    Frequency Score quarterly 3

    half yearly 2 yearly 1

    > a year 0 *Checking principles: on site inspections of various filters, bill of cost for service through maintenance department

    0-3

    Total Score in Environment Conservation =

    Max 119

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    Principle 3. Conservation/Nature Education Q. no. Question

    Yes/no

    Norm/ Standards Score

    Criterion 3.1: Information and Communication W.47 Indicator 3.1.1: Information and communication methods 91. Which or how many of the following information & communication ways

    for good environment practices you have or provide to your guests?

    a. Leaflets or other brochures to inform guests on environmental subjects and domains (importance of saving water, energy, resources, noise ) and lodges and resorts actions.

    b. Leaflets or other brochures to inform guests on special environmental conditions where the lodges and resorts is located.

    c. Information signs for guest implication when needed (e.g. in the bathroom for changing towels at demand or in the room for waste separation).

    d. A gold book or opinion questionnaire for guests. e. Briefing at guests arrival about importance environment

    *Checking principles: availability of leaflets or information campaign.

    0-5

    92. Do you have a green website for your lodges and resorts