Economics in the hellenistic world

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Western Civilization University High School 2011-2012. Economics in the hellenistic world. Commerce. Wealth created new cities, harbors, roads More geographical knowledge of East Greeks spread Hellenic law and business practices - standardization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Economics in the hellenistic world

  • Western CivilizationUniversity High School 2011-2012

  • CommerceWealth created new cities, harbors, roadsMore geographical knowledge of EastGreeks spread Hellenic law and business practices - standardizationDevelopment of long overland trade routesCaravans with camels Luxury goods from East, manufactured goods from WestIdeas and knowledgeSlave tradeThe Silk Road

  • Industry & AgricultureLittle development manpower over machineryMore elaborate pottery made locallyAgriculture still mainstay of economy & production

  • Western CivilizationUniversity High School2011-2012

  • Spread of Greek ReligionFamiliar Greek religious cults spread throughout Near East & EgyptMeans of spreading Greek cultureFocus on rituals, festivalsDid not satisfy spiritual yearningsTyche Fate, doom, chanceSome turned to philosophy, superstition, magic

  • Mystery ReligionsRitual & practice secret to initiates Incorporated aspects of Greek & Eastern religionsAppealed to those looking for immortalityMain concept: initiates become united with male god Raised from the deadSacrifice and resurrection of god saved devotee from eternal death

  • Cult of SerapisSerapis combination of Osiris and ZeusCreated by King PtolemyJudge of souls rewarded people with immortality

  • Cult of IsisWider appeal than SerapisMost important goddess of Hellenistic worldMarriage, conception, childbirth

  • Western CivilizationUniversity High School2011-12

  • Ancient Greek Philosophersseekers of wisdom who tried to study the world in a systematic waybelieved people could understand the world through reason & logicvs. religious myths, authority of others

  • Ancient Greek Philosophersearliest philosophical questions: What is the world made of? What holds the world up?

  • The Pythagoreansschool of thinkers founded by Pythagoras (570 497 BCE)tried to unite philosophy & mathematicsbelieved that universe has order to it, which can be expressed through math

  • Ancient Greek Philosophersone of the earliest groups = sophists (men of wisdom)Sophists main concerns = political & social successmany were teachers for children of the wealthy

  • Socrates470 399 BCEborn & lived in Athensbelieved what we need to know is how to conduct ourselvesImportant Questions:What is good?What is right?What is just?

  • Socratesapply terms like just to people, laws, situations, etc. justice emerges as common trendcan discover justice through rigorous discussion, careful questioning & examination of beliefs

  • Socratesdeveloped the Socratic Method: a question & answer technique of studying issuesdesigned to make people examine their beliefsBOTTOM LINE: No one knowingly does wrong. If we know the answer to What is Justice?, we will be obliged to act in just ways.tried to involve & teach others

  • Plato424 348 BCEa student of Socratesfirst written philosophy: The Dialoguesearly dialogues: records of Socrates teachingslater dialogues included Platos own ideas

  • Platoone of his most famous dialogues: The Republicoutlined his ideal societybelieved no one would have wealth/luxury, everyone do what they are best suited to doincluded the Theory of Forms

  • Platos Theory of Formsall things in the world are versions of their original Forms (archetypes)the Forms are ideal; highest & most fundamental version of realitystudying the Forms is the only path to true knowledgee.g. human body = glimpse of true human Form (soul)basis of the Allegory of the Cave

  • Platos Allegory of the Caveprisoners chained to chairs; shadows projected on wallreality for prisoners = shadowsPlato: philosophers job = free the prisoners to see the Formsrehearsing to be dead

  • Aristotle384 322 BCEa student of Platos Academy in Athenslater established his own school (the Lyceum: the worlds first scientific institute)

  • Aristotleconsidered one of the great thinkers of modern worldwrote about: physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, zoology, economics, optics, and moreDante: the teacher of those who know

  • Aristotle: The Nature of Beingall things have 2 aspects:1. Matter: constituent materials; the stuff out of which things are made2. Form: the way that matter is organizedthings are different from each other because they have different Formsno turtle stuff instead, matter (stuff) arranged into turtle FormHuman beings = body (matter) + soul (form)

  • Aristotle: The Nature of Beingbelieved that reason was the highest goodpraised the virtues of self-reliance and self-controlallowed insight into true human nature (form! soul!)

  • Hellenistic PhilosophyPhilosophy attractive to more peopleLess elitistAbsence of politics/religion believe in philosophyNew schools of philosophical thoughtAgreed on necessity of making people self-sufficient

  • EpicureanismPractical philosophy of serenityEpicurus (340-270 BCE)Based on scientific theoriesNaturalistic view of universe gods had no real effect on human lifePrinciple good is pleasure absence of painIgnore politicsPeople could attain peace & serenity by ignoring outside world focus on their own feelings & reactions

  • StoicismZeno from Cyprus (335-262 BCE)Nature an expression of divine willPeople happy when they live in accordance with natureUnity of man & the universeMost popular Hellenistic philosophyPeople should participate in politicsKey Question: Achievements dont matter, did you live a virtuous life?

  • StoicismEvolved the concept of world orderPeople should do their duty to the state in which they find themselvesNatural Law a natural order of life, right and wrong, governed everyoneValuable concept for the Romans!

  • Western CivilizationUniversity High School2011-12

  • Hellenistic Science: AstronomyAristarchus310 230 BCEeducated in the Lyceum (Aristotles school)

  • Aristarchuspromoted heliocentric theory: Earth and planets revolve around the sunwent against Aristotles geocentric theory (everything revolves around Earth)no telescopes!heliocentric theory pushed aside until Copernicus (16th century CE)

  • Hellenistic Science: AstronomyEratosthenesused math to calculate circumference of the Earthhis guess = 24,675 milesactually = 24,860 milesalso studied geography using mathargued that you could reach India from Spain by sailing south (around Africa) or west

  • Hellenistic Science: GeometryEuclidmathematician from Alexandriawrote The Elements of Geometry

  • Archimedes287 212 BCEfrom Syracuseinterested in math and mechanicsvery accurate approximation of piprinciple of a leverwater displacement

  • Archimedes Screw

  • Archimedes Weapons of War (real??)The Claw of Archimedesweapon that supposedly protected Syracusemetal grappling hook on long arm over waterlift ship out of water, drop it back down

  • Archimedes Death Rayseries of mirrors set up to reflect sunlight to a single pointset ships on fire?

  • The Results of All This Sciencemajor effect on military, warfaretheories of mechanics siege machines in warcatapults (rocks, burning bundles)siege towersPhilip II of Macedonia, Alexander the Great

  • The Results of All This ScienceWar was no longer between soldiers on battlefieldNow, between populationscivilian casualties (murder, rape, slavery)Sense of unease among Greek people cities falling to new machines/weapons