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Transcript of Early China
The Qin & Han Dynasties
Early ChinaChapter 7 Sections 1-3
1Section 1: Chinas 1st CivilizationsAs with other civilizations we have discussed, Chinas geography and climate determined where Chinas civilization began. The mountains, deserts, rivers & the Pacific Ocean encased China, keeping invaders out, and the Chinese people in.Huang He(HWAHNG HUH) River or Yellow River flows from Mongolia to the Yellow Sea/Pacific Ocean.
Chang Jiang(CHAHNG JYAHNG) flows for 3400 miles east across central China to the East China Sea/Pacific Ocean.Flooding brought the silt to fertilize the land for farming, but also killed many people and destroyed homes as they built on the rivers edge.
Even though China has rich soil along its river banks, only 1/10 of its land can be farmed.
Rulers known as the Shang became powerful rulers b/c they controlled land & had strong armies. The Shang ruled over the Huang He valley area.
People were divided into groups:1st-king and his family2nd- royal officials and warlords who governed the kingdoms territories. Warlords would organize their own armies. The king would assign larger armies to protect the borders. These 2 classes made up the aristocrats. What is an aristocrat?Land owning noble who made their wealth off their landFew people were traders & artisans, most were farmers who worked the land for the aristocrats.Grains grown were: rice, millet, and wheat.Raised cattle, sheep and chickens
milletSpirits and Ancestors/AnimismWorshiped gods and spirits. Spirits are believed to live in the mountains, rivers, seas, and trees. Had to keep the gods and spirits happy by making offerings of food or other goods.Also believed their ancestors influenced their lives. Offerings were made in hopes that deceased family members would help them in times of need or bring them good luck. Shang kings thought they recd power & wisdom from the gods, spirits & ancestors. They were expected to contact the spirits before making important decisions. Sound familiar?Used oracle bones to ask questions, placed hot bronze tips on the bones, how the bones cracked from the heat is how they would interpret the yes or no answer.
Shang ArtistsThe Shang are best known for their works in bronze.
Zhou Dynasty1045 B.C., an aristocrat named, Wu Wang led a rebellion against the Shang and begins the Zhou(Joe) dynasty. A gap had been created between rich and poor. Shang kings lived in luxury and treated the people cruelly. As a result, they lost support of the people in their kingdom.According to Zhou rulers, a heavenly law gave the kings their power to rule. This mandate or formal order was called the mandate of heaven. The king would rule in the proper way, called Dao, (dow) by keeping the gods happy. If a natural disaster occurred, then the people felt he had not done his job and lost his mandate. People had the right to overthrow him and replace the king. In 403 B.C. 200 years of warring between the Zhou territories result in the Qin(Chin) dynasty taking control by using a cavalry using spears & crossbows. Known as the Period of Warring States.
Quick WriteHow are the oracle bones used by the Chinese compare to the Oracle at Apollos Temple in Delphi? Section 2: Life in Ancient ChinaThe family was the basic building block of Chinese society. Families were large to help with the farming.Filial piety was practiced. Children were expected to respect their parents & older relatives.Head of the family was the oldest male.Confucius: taught people should put family & community needs above their own. He believed all people need a sense of duty. Parents owe their children love, children owe their parents honor, husbands owe their wives support, and wives owe their husband obedience. Daoism (Old Master)-based on the teachings of Laozi (Lowd-zoo). Taught people should give up worldly desires, should turn to nature an the Dao, the force that guides all things.
Legalism=School of LawScholar named Hanfeizi (Han fay dzoo) taught humans are naturally evil & need harsh laws & stiff punishment to force them to do their duty. Must have a strong leader to keep order in society. His ideas and laws were used to control Chinese farmersEmperor Qin Shihuangdi
Based his ideas on Legalism. Anyone who opposed him was either punished or killed.Filled all government postsOrdered farmers to build the first Great Wall to keep out invading nomadsBuilt the a city-sized mausoleum guarded by a life-sized Terracotta Army (He had the fanatical fear of death and an obsessive quest for the secret of immortality. This craze for life and the fear of death ultimately gave us the legacy of the terracotta warriors.)
Soldiers were life sized and individually molded
Chinese SocietySection 3: The Qin and Han DynastiesHan Wudi-civil service tests for government employees. Favored the rich b/c they were the only ones who could afford to send their sons to prepare for the difficult exams.
Silk Road4,000 mile trade route from eastern China to southwest Asia.What goods were transported by way of the Silk Road to western people?
silkGeneral Zhang Qian (JAHNG CHYEHN) traveled west to explore the geography and political landscape for 13 years. Brings back stories about the Roman Empire. How do you think the Romans appeared to a person from China?
How weird, they cut their hair!
Qians stories increased interest in the west as well as trade. Merchants used camels to carry goods across deserts and mountains to central Asia. From there Arabs carried goods to the Mediterranean Sea. The trip was expensive b/c it was dangerous and difficult. Merchants had to pay taxes to kingdoms and robbers were a problem. For this reason, only high priced items such as silk, spices, porcelain and tea were carried.Chinese InventionsAcupuncture a form of medicine using needlesWaterwheels to grind more grainIron drill bits to mine more saltIron workers steelPaperrudder
Concept Map for the Silk Road