DœNYA TARIMININ BA‍LICA SORUNLARI

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DÜNYA TARIMININ BAŞLICA SORUNLARI. Dünya tarımındaki başlıca sorunlar. Nüfus artışı ve kişi başına tüketim miktarındaki artış. Tarımsal üretimin dengesiz dağılımı. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of DœNYA TARIMININ BA‍LICA SORUNLARI

  • DNYA TARIMININ BALICA SORUNLARI

  • Dnya tarmndaki balca sorunlarNfus art ve kii bana tketim miktarndaki art.Tarmsal retimin dengesiz dalm.Az gelimi lkelerde kullanlan tarmsal yntemlere ve tarmsal girdilerin salanamamasna bal olarak ortaya kan verim dkl.Az gelimi lkelerdeki nfusun alm gcnn dk olmas.Arazi mlkiyetinden kaynaklanan sorunlar.Tarm alanlarndaki daralma.Tarmda kimyasal maddeler ve fosil yakt kullanmna bal olarak ortaya kan sorunlar.

  • Nfus artndan kaynaklanan sorunlarDnya nfusundaki art.nsanlarn giderek daha fazla tketimde bulunmas.Dnyadaki byk nfus ktlelerinin hl temel gda ve ihtiya maddelerinden yoksun oluu.Bilimsel ve teknolojik gelimelerin tarma uygulanmasyla tarmsal retimin artmasna karn, bu retim artndan dnya nfusunun eit ekilde faydalanamamas.Gelimekte olan lkelerdeki nfusun nemli bir blmnn alm gcnn dk olmasndan dolay gda yetersizlii sorununun yaanmas.Gelimekte olan lkelerde nfus art hznn gda retimindeki arttan fazla olmas.

  • Dnya nfus artDnya nfusu: 6.748.000.000 (Aralk 2008)D n y a n f u s uNfus (milyar)

  • Nfus (milyar)Toplam nfusGelimekte olan lkelerGelimi lkeler

  • Malthusa gre nfus-gda retimi ilikisiMalthusun (1766-1834) nfus art ve gda retimindeki art ile ilgili gr (1798)Bu teorinin ortaya atld dnemde dnya nfusu 1 milyar, dzeyinde gnmzde 6.7 milyar am durumda. Malthusun teorisinin gereklemesini engelleyen faktrlerYeni arazilerin tarma almasTeknolojik gelimelerle birim alandan elde edilen rn miktarndaki art (Gbreleme, tarmsal ilalarn kullanm, sulama)Tama ve depolama olanaklarndaki gelimelerYeil DevrimBtn bu gelimelere karn yetersiz beslenme ve alk sorununun yaanmas

  • Alk ve yetersiz beslenmeDnyada her 4 kiiden 1i yetersiz veya kt beslenmeye maruz kalmaktadr (yaklak 1,6 milyar insan). Yetersiz beslenme (yetersiz gda) ve kt beslenme (dk gda kalitesi) sorununun boyutlar.Bu sorunlar zellikle gelimekte olan lkelerde kendini gsterir. Nedenleri? Afrika yetersiz ve kt beslenmenin en yaygn olduu ktadrAfrikada kt ve yetersiz beslenmede rol oynayan etkenler:Doal evre koullarnn tarm snrlamasBeeri unsurlarn (etnik savalar, i atmalar, smrgecilik vb.) etkisiYlda 11 milyon ocuk yetersiz beslenmeden dolay lmekte (her ocuk iin ylda 10 dolar bu sorunu zebilir)Gelimi lkelerde nfusun %15i ar beslenmeden muzdarip.

  • Yetersiz beslenme sorunuToplam nfusa oran (%)

  • Yetersiz beslenme sorunuToplam nfusa oran (%)

  • Yetersiz beslenme sorunuToplam nfusa oran (%)

  • Yetersiz beslenme sorunuToplam nfusa oran (%)zbekistanTacikistanBangladeKamboyaK.KoreHaitiNikaraguaKongoSierra LeonLiberyaEritreadOrta Af.CumEtiyopyaYemenAngolaZambiyaTanzanyaZimbabveMalaviMozambikMadagaskar

  • Gda sknts eken baz Afrika lkelerindeki nemli sorunlar

  • Tarmsal retimin eitsiz dallkelerin kalknma dzeyi ile tarm arasnda sk bir iliki bulunur.Kalknm lkelerde gerek kii bana retim gerekse birim alandan elde edilen retim miktar daha fazladr (Buday verimi Hollandada 744 kg/da, Cezayirde 124 kg/da).Kalknm lkelerde daha fazla tarmsal girdi (sulama, gbreleme, makineleme, kredi kullanm vb.) kullanlr ve elde edilen rnler genelde ticarete yneliktir.Gnmzde gelimi lkeler ayn zamanda en nemli tarmsal rn ihracat yapan lkeler durumundadr.Tarm lkesi-sanayi lkesi ayrmndaki yanllk.

  • Tarm rnleri ihracatnn lkelere gre dal (2005)

    LKEMilyar dolarDnyadaki pay (%)ABD57.708.33210,2Fransa41.479.2627,4Hollanda38.591.5416,8Almanya37.966.9156,7Brezilya26.852.3834,8spanya21.909.5083,9talya21.847.4503,9Belika21.629.7263,8Kanada20.711.3183,7Avustralya18.897.2843,4Dier256.308.60645,5TOPLAM563.902.325100

  • Tarm rnleri ihracatnn lkelere gre dal (2005)

    Grafik1

    57708332.3296931

    41479261.9505493

    38591540.7715008

    37966915.2347101

    26852383.0389423

    21909507.8256707

    21847450.0503492

    21629725.9822045

    20711317.8061798

    18897283.8849501

    256308606

    Milyar dolar

    totalgricEXP

    1990199520002005Milyar dolar

    1USA34,332,36451,220,71246,979,30057,708,332ABD57,708,332

    2France21,486,13729,438,87528,452,81641,479,262Fransa41,479,262

    3Netherlands15,359,27125,303,41523,443,03238,591,541Hollanda38,591,541

    4Germany3,469,42021,007,46621,193,32937,966,915Almanya37,966,915

    5Brazil6,323,66010,160,02810,250,37126,852,383Brezilya26,852,383

    6Spain5,894,42510,813,40312,421,13321,909,508spanya21,909,508

    7Italy6,928,90512,544,79413,198,07221,847,450talya21,847,450

    8Belgium832,125277,49813,436,41921,629,726Belika21,629,726

    9Canada8,266,42111,617,70914,888,75320,711,318Kanada20,711,318

    10Australia9,607,62811,098,06114,022,41918,897,284Avustralya18,897,284

    11China9,713,07013,090,48211,735,10917,200,628Dier256,308,606

    12UK9,426,16812,738,94412,946,15416,637,715

    13Argentina5,373,4638,595,0618,052,90013,963,068

    14Denmark6,339,7147,905,0607,926,66411,614,947

    15Thailand4,965,0238,233,3226,951,01011,178,777

    16Indonesia2,320,3265,039,4134,511,04210,315,934

    17Mexico3,473,7735,212,1177,227,47510,222,569

    18New Zealand4,269,1255,411,6345,584,8799,704,015

    19Malaysia4,038,1107,695,6465,119,3129,701,795

    20Ireland4,192,6286,904,2245,875,7679,159,384

    21Poland1,799,4242,166,2932,256,8828,403,850

    22India2,794,7924,189,8214,127,1796,989,156

    23Austria1,028,8151,788,7102,854,6476,750,533

    24Turkey2,425,5534,076,0082,878,2626,473,804

    25Ukraine01,802,0321,439,2744,171,297

    26Chile1,038,1981,813,3792,391,7544,113,098

    27South Africa2,184,0002,654,9722,345,7374,025,127

    28Russian Fed01,698,9441,161,0613,549,972

    29Greece1,896,1442,977,9682,272,3693,424,201

    30Colombia1,548,2993,005,0352,305,0673,278,794

    31Cte dIvoire1,820,6712,568,7732,094,6363,243,908

    32Hungary2,117,4432,510,4841,944,9893,232,867

    33Switzerland1,521,7182,305,1431,786,5243,184,385

    34Viet Nam635,0661,643,3981,760,4722,918,022

    35Czech Rep01,063,6831,154,6552,830,408

    36Sweden875,0921,279,5401,508,3892,785,995

    37Philippines1,091,6751,703,7331,443,2182,449,712

    38Portugal732,0071,133,6561,230,2382,382,940

    39Singapore1,501,0112,775,2331,773,6692,295,393

    40Ecuador798,8431,500,6361,424,8532,038,930

    41Guatemala817,7691,483,7631,620,4642,028,345

    42Costa Rica974,7851,451,1281,609,3952,028,182

    43Bulgaria15,950,92413,982,782396,3961,887,109

    44Untd Arab Em803,4961,167,4231,420,4921,857,503

    45Uruguay968,8171,136,255999,2361,698,985

    46Korea Rep871,0411,165,5161,094,7531,688,616

    47Iran697,7581,082,984791,7281,610,596

    48Japan874,2031,314,4571,225,6641,547,689

    49Pakistan1,057,1891,078,531965,8081,514,245

    50Egypt423,633564,895578,4491,371,317

    51Belarus0603,588543,6241,306,621

    52Ghana524,698600,278531,6251,246,985

    53Peru219,142451,276578,9261,245,199

    54Morocco585,141660,204619,2101,230,496

    55Sri Lanka682,121632,524837,4481,185,692

    56Kenya643,6401,037,494945,1761,152,481

    57Slovakia0517,942386,8651,136,300

    58Israel933,100804,402722,8481,107,946

    59Paraguay825,650625,223505,0761,061,106

    60Finland538,020843,737659,7891,054,153

    61Syria426,806746,545578,4761,002,380

    62Uzbekistan01,240,366936,459925,003

    63Lithuania0422,846325,684922,920

    64Honduras862,230836,195590,973900,661

    65Tunisia250,344459,412458,495849,467

    66Croatia0421,268312,111770,677

    67Serbia-Monte0144,762265,230768,297

    68Romania161,854447,209303,454713,782

    69Luxembourg59,01436,853335,949676,264

    70Cameroon453,069590,271390,085653,202

    71Saudi Arabia505,073670,309461,951652,375

    72Ethiopia0123,934327,725632,832

    73Zimbabwe654,740731,287809,379620,694

    74Nigeria364,991473,525181,133615,539

    75Kazakhstan01,013,170644,490608,280

    76Nicaragua223,969285,202400,238592,705

    77Moldova Rep0532,541308,374588,502

    78El Salvador339,816505,451567,312586,326

    79Dominican Rp414,518455,349429,313578,922

    80Jordan271,928387,256192,858566,512

    81Tanzania452,220565,299340,521488,592

    82Myanmar128,141409,440220,493488,583

    83Papua N Guin163,235489,030322,688464,672

    84Slovenia0306,831331,479461,896

    85Malawi341,456305,392371,744443,553

    86Bolivia127,511200,094235,776416,529

    87Cuba920,4181,734,859669,085410,253

    88Mauritius360,502386,334234,780397,140

    89Burkina Faso249,040212,788166,172384,998

    90Sudan454,078400,835327,661378,719

    91Swaziland547,226444,634260,275377,220

    92Latvia0131,97098,264376,474

    93Panama182,976537,919315,469367,515

    94Norway230,255296,327242,885363,208

    95Uganda228,683380,458196,510360,395

    96Oman62,365124,465168,318357,639

    97Jamaica261,462339,859293,513334,343

    98Macedonia0339,423192,932325,788

    99Mali207,859255,786209,400306,673

    100Azerbaijan0169,251125,883303,930

    101Estonia0166,248161,813301,219

    102Zambia109,886106,007108,630297,746

    103Venezuela212,333310,133260,860293,939

    104Namibia348,203324,215143,379285,861

    105Trinidad Tob112,802179,147202,921272,684

    106Benin203,496261,279176,680263,219

    107Georgia0142,023127,898255,162

    108Cyprus246,548344,910263,089252,520

    109Guyana201,508216,615188,404252,421

    110Fiji Islands178,025247,558155,555226,584

    111Lebanon96,419135,961118,099214,760

    112Mozambique150,074136,350108,430189,106

    113Bangladesh162,447151,249121,947187,628

    114Togo101,873113,59393,892180,565

    115Liberia75,184108,28968,030177,131

    116Somalia202,209179,222175,274153,277

    117Belize96,626107,301119,382148,453

    118Madagascar154,563217,344142,599146,033

    119Senegal180,356134,387112,737143,282

    120Yemen48,15158,53562,811141,892

    121Bosnia Herzg043,72154,423139,663

    122Tajikistan0157,168